Rat Apelin (APLN) ELISA Kit

Instructions
Code CSB-E13435r
Size 96T,5×96T,10×96T
See More Details 24T ELISA kits trial application
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Product Details

Target Name apelin
Alternative Names Apln ELISA kit; ApelApelin ELISA kit; APJ endogenous ligand) [Cleaved into: Apelin-36; Apelin-31; Apelin-28; Apelin-13] ELISA kit
Abbreviation APLN
Uniprot No. Q9R0R3
Species Rattus norvegicus (Rat)
Sample Types serum, plasma, tissue homogenates
Detection Range 0.312 ng/mL-20 ng/mL
Sensitivity 0.078 ng/mL
Assay Time 1-5h
Sample Volume 50-100ul
Detection Wavelength 450 nm
Research Area Neuroscience
Assay Principle quantitative
Measurement Sandwich
Precision
Intra-assay Precision (Precision within an assay): CV%<8%      
Three samples of known concentration were tested twenty times on one plate to assess.  
Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays): CV%<10%      
Three samples of known concentration were tested in twenty assays to assess.    
             
Linearity
To assess the linearity of the assay, samples were spiked with high concentrations of rat APLN in various matrices and diluted with the Sample Diluent to produce samples with values within the dynamic range of the assay.
  Sample Serum(n=4)  
1:1 Average % 97  
Range % 92-103  
1:2 Average % 90  
Range % 85-94  
1:4 Average % 92  
Range % 88-99  
1:8 Average % 95  
Range % 90-100  
Recovery
The recovery of rat APLN spiked to levels throughout the range of the assay in various matrices was evaluated. Samples were diluted prior to assay as directed in the Sample Preparation section.
Sample Type Average % Recovery Range  
Serum (n=5) 89 85-95  
EDTA plasma (n=4) 95 90-100  
             
             
Typical Data
These standard curves are provided for demonstration only. A standard curve should be generated for each set of samples assayed.
ng/ml OD1 OD2 Average Corrected  
20 2.412 2.371 2.392 2.298  
10 2.134 2.026 2.080 1.986  
5 1.465 1.424 1.445 1.351  
2.5 0.750 0.776 0.763 0.669  
1.25 0.392 0.417 0.405 0.311  
0.625 0.209 0.199 0.204 0.110  
0.312 0.162 0.158 0.160 0.066  
0 0.093 0.095 0.094    
Troubleshooting
and FAQs
ELISA kit FAQs
Storage Store at 2-8°C. Please refer to protocol.
Lead Time 3-5 working days

Target Data

Function Endogenous ligand for APJ. Apelin-36 dissociates more hardly than (pyroglu)apelin-13 from APJ. The oral intake in the colostrum and the milk could have a role in the modulation of the immune responses in neonates. May also have a role in the central control of body fluid homeostasis by influencing AVP release and drinking behavior.
Gene References into Functions
  1. Appropriate concentration of apelin may reduce retinal microglial cells in a rat model of oxygen-induced retinopathy of prematurity. PMID: 29091306
  2. Study shows that apelin-13 significantly attenuates cognitive impairments in 6-OHDA-treated animals. The data support the pro-cognitive property of apelin-13 in 6-OHDA-induced cognitive deficit and provided a new pharmacological aspect of the neuropeptide apelin. PMID: 29329678
  3. apelin effects on dynamic mechanical characteristics of single ventricular cardiomyocytes PMID: 28935153
  4. The present study describes the role of spinal apelin in the processing of neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction of the sciatic nerve, and elucidates receptor and intracellular mechanisms underlying apelin-mediated pain modulation. PMID: 28627589
  5. Apelin is an important regulator of aortic remodeling and adventitial fibrosis and a promising target for vasoprotective therapies. PMID: 27773659
  6. Apelin in 40 and 60mug/kg doses increased cardiac contractility, and reduced mean arterial pressure. PMID: 28987634
  7. In type 2 diabetic rats, exercise improved body composition, skeletal muscle capillarization and increased plasma apelin levels. PMID: 28164323
  8. High fat diet causes significant increases in the expression of apelin and apelin receptor mRNA in the left ventricle. PMID: 27378063
  9. Electroacupuncture stimulation could alleviate inflammatory pain, at least in part, by restoring apelin and APJ mRNA and protein expression levels, which are downregulated in the complete Freund's adjuvant pain model. PMID: 27632349
  10. Apelin-36-[L28C(30kDa-PEG)] provides a starting point for the development of diabetes therapeutics that are devoid of the blood pressure effects associated with canonical APJ activation PMID: 27994053
  11. Apelin stimulates basal plasma cholecystokinin release and some pancreatic and gastric enzymes activity in adult rats. PMID: 27512001
  12. The present study suggests a theoretical basis for the effects of apelin13 and provides insight into the potential clinical application of apelin-13. PMID: 27109054
  13. It seems that apelin alone may improve cardiac function in hypothyroid rats via genomic pathways. PMID: 27663841
  14. apelin-13 promotes H9c2 rat cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via PI3K-Akt-ERK1/2-p70S6K and PI3K-induced autophagy PMID: 26607438
  15. PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a signaling may be involved in apelin induced vascular smooth muscle cell migration. PMID: 26494002
  16. Apelin controls fetal and neonatal glucose homeostasis and is altered by fetal growth restriction induced by maternal undernutrition. PMID: 26631739
  17. Central endogenous apelin mediates stress-induced changes in gastric and colonic motor functions through APJ receptor PMID: 26680735
  18. Apelin-13 did increase ERK phosphorylation through the PI3K/Akt and PKC signaling pathways, resulting in changes in Egr-1 expression. PMID: 26546817
  19. Reduction of serum apelin plays a role in the pathophysiology and cardiac failure of Goldblatt hypertension. PMID: 25708823
  20. Apela binds directly to APJ and acts through the Gi pathway. Apela is expressed exclusively in adult kidney and regulates fluid homeostasis PMID: 25995451
  21. Apelin enhances not only the differentiation and metabolic activity of brown adipocytes but also the browning of white adipocytes. PMID: 25931124
  22. A high fat diet and chronic stress resulted in significant suppression of the central pressor action of apelin. PMID: 25311903
  23. Apelin-13 and APJ in the paraventricular nucleus contribute to hypertension via sympathetic activation and arginine vasopressin release in the paraventricular nucleus PMID: 24995933
  24. study indicates that the beta-arrestin-dependent ERK1/2 activation and not the Gi-dependent signaling may participate in K17F-induced BP decrease PMID: 25012663
  25. Apelin exerts its effect via its G-protein-coupled receptor (APLNR) and is solely expressed by pulmonary vascular endothelial cells. PMID: 24363088
  26. It has been implicated in obesity-related hypertension. PMID: 24770651
  27. Apelin-13 inhibits BK(Ca) channel via a PI3-kinase-dependent signaling pathway in cerebral artery VSM cells, which may contribute to its regulatory action in the control of vascular tone. PMID: 24386141
  28. The early effect of biliopancreatic diversion on resuming insulin resistance in rats may be associated with rapid modification of neurohormonal mechanisms involving PYY, apelin and visfatin, rather than with caloric restriction as proposed recently. PMID: 24304571
  29. Apelin protects sarcoplasmic reticulum function and cardiac performance during I/R by attenuating oxidation of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase and RyR. PMID: 23771946
  30. The mRNA level of apelin and apelin receptor were determined in the heart and aorta tissue by real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. It was found that apelin reduces blood pressure in DOCA-salt rats. PMID: 23387534
  31. results strongly suggest that apelin is associated with the development of diabetic retinopathy and contributes to changes in the retinas of diabetic rats PMID: 23874984
  32. Apelin acts in the subfornical organ to influence neuronal excitability and cardiovascular function. PMID: 23629509
  33. Apelin-13 induced the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells as well as the upregulation of osteopontin via the upregulation of Egr-1. PMID: 23973488
  34. Data show that the expression of apelin mRNA and protein in ischemic and non-ischemic kidneys was increased significantly; the expression of APJ mRNA and protein in ischemic kidneys had no significance, while that in non-ischemic kidneys was decreased. PMID: 23668014
  35. Physical exercise decreased apelin expression and elevated APJ expression in pulmonary tissues of rats with hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. PMID: 22493882
  36. The glomerular expression of apelin increased significantly in adriamycin (ADR)-induced nephrotic rats and was correlated with urine protein. PMID: 22081427
  37. apelin-12 stimulates gastric acid secretion through an increase in histamine release and synthesis from gastric mucosa, suggesting that apelin might play a role in the secretion of gastric acid or serve as a regulating factor of the secretion of gastric acid PMID: 22209991
  38. At term, plasma levels of apelin were not modulated by maternal hypertension but APJ expression was increased in placenta and lung but reduced in heart. PMID: 22446510
  39. Under hypoxic stress, apelin mRNA expression increased and APJ mRNA also up-regulated, whereas they both down-regulated during glucose deprivation. PMID: 22240274
  40. Apelin was also expressed in the neurons of experimental and control rats; it gradually increased in the experimental rat post-seizure and reached a stable high level in chronic epileptic phase. PMID: 21864607
  41. these findings highlight the inhibitory role of apelin as an autocrine/paracrine peptide acting on oxytocin neurons during breastfeeding. PMID: 21733827
  42. Maternal circulating apelin drops considerably between mid- and late- pregnancy owing to faster clearance. PMID: 20580085
  43. While apelin/APJ myocardial expression decreases, apelin plasma levels increase in left ventricular hypertrophy PMID: 20055692
  44. Apelin protects against ischemic cardiomyocyte apoptosis via activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID: 20079140
  45. data support a role for the apelin-APJ system in the regulation of smooth muscle, epithelial and goblet cell function in the GI tract PMID: 19660504
  46. data suggest a role for apelin in the regulation of vasopressin-containing neurons PMID: 12787050
  47. Apelin was shown to stimulate gastric cell proliferation and also stimulated CCK secretion from a murine enteroendocrine cell line (STC-1); apelin-stimulated CCK secretion is mediated through MAPK but not by intracellular Ca(2+) signaling. PMID: 14670994
  48. dehydration-induced release of AVP from magnocellular hypothalamic neurons may be responsible for the observed increase in immunoreactive apelin levels within the same neurons PMID: 15166125
  49. apelin acts as a potent diuretic neuropeptide counteracting AVP actions through inhibition of AVP neuron activity and AVP release. PMID: 15231996
  50. Injections of apelin-13 and apelin-12 (15 microg/kg) into spontaneously hypertensive rats lowered systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Apelin-13(F13A) revealed a loss of function. PMID: 15486224
  51. apelin plays a role in both central and peripheral cardiovascular regulation in conscious rats, but this is not mediated by the AT1R PMID: 15582714
  52. ISO-induced myocardial injury resulted in hypoexpression of apelin and its receptor APJ, and the administration of exogenous apelin ameliorated heart failure and myocardial injury PMID: 16278022
  53. these data outline the potential role of apelin as an autocrine/paracrine-acting peptide on ACTH release PMID: 16896162
  54. These results indicate that the cardiac apelin system is markedly down-regulated in experimental HF and may be regulated by the angiotensin II-angiotensin type 1 receptor system directly. PMID: 16919293
  55. The transcriptional regulation of human and rat apelin is reported. PMID: 17060400
  56. Total myocardial apelin and APJ receptor levels increase in compensation for ischemic cardiomyopathy. PMID: 17119870
  57. Increased apelin expression induced by hypoxia or DFO was accompanied by the processing of the cellular storage form proapelin into smaller apelin peptides and increased secretion of these biologically active forms of apelin PMID: 17341685
  58. Our results demonstrate for the first time that apelin has direct effects on the propagation of action potential and contractility in cardiomyocytes. PMID: 17466269
  59. A possible role for apelin in the excessive weight gain induced by high-fat feeding and increased adiposity, insulin-resistance, liver oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID: 17594060
  60. Thus, apelin/APJ signaling likely represents an endogenous hippocampal neuronal survival response, and therefore apelin should be further investigated as a potential neuroprotectant against hippocampal injury. PMID: 17767704
  61. Elevation in apelin expression during hypoxia and inflammation in the GI tract functions in part to stimulate epithelial cell proliferation. PMID: 18367654
  62. Apelin has an effect on glomerular hemodynamic function in the rat kidney. PMID: 18509323
  63. Apelin levels were higher in rats with cirrhosis than in controls. PMID: 18816630
  64. apelin/APJ system contributes to portosystemic collateralization and splanchnic neovascularization in portal hypertensive rats. PMID: 19070926
  65. apelin-angiotensin receptor like-1 system may play an important role in the pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension PMID: 19346461
  66. Apelin gene transfer into the rostral ventrolateral medulla induces chronic blood pressure elevation in normotensive rats. PMID: 19443838

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Subcellular Location Secreted
Protein Families Apelin family
Tissue Specificity Expressed in the lung, testis, ovary, uterus and mammary gland (PubMed:11336787). Expressed in neurons in the thalamic paraventricular and hypothalamic supraoptic nuclei (PubMed:11359874). The lung, testis and uterus mainly contain a large form that looks
Database Links

KEGG: rno:58812

STRING: 10116.ENSRNOP00000005331

UniGene: Rn.22847

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