AKT2 Antibody

Datasheet
Code CSB-PA001555KA01HU
Product Type Rabbit Anti Human PolyClonal Antibody
Size US$398
Uniprot No. P31751
Image
  • Western blot analysis of 293 cell lysate ,using AKT2 antibody.
Immunogen Recombinant protein of Human Akt2
Raised in Rabbit
Species Reactivity Human,Mouse,Rat
Tested Applications ELISA,WB,IHC;WB:1:500-1:2000,IHC:1:50-1:200
Relevance Akt, also referred to as PKB or Rac, plays a critical role in controlling survival and apoptosis. This protein kinase is activated by insulin and various growth and survival factors to function in a wortmannin-sensitive pathway involving PI3 kinase. Akt is activated by phospholipid binding and activation loop phosphorylation at Thr308 by PDK1and by phosphorylation within the carboxy terminus at Ser473. The previously elusive PDK2 responsible for phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 has been identified as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in a rapamycin-insensitive complex with rictor and Sin1. Akt promotes cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis through phosphorylation and inactivation of several targets, including Bad, forkhead transcription factors, c-Raf, and caspase-9. PTEN phosphatase is a major negative regulator of the PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway. LY294002 is a specific PI3 kinase inhibitor. Another essential Akt function is the regulation of glycogen synthesis through phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3α and β. Akt may also play a role in insulin stimulation of glucose transport. In addition to its role in survival and glycogen synthesis, Akt is involved in cell cycle regulation by preventing GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of cyclin D1 and by negatively regulating the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p27 Kip and p21 Waf1/CIP1. Akt also plays a critical role in cell growth by directly phosphorylating mTOR in a rapamycin-sensitive complex containing raptor. More importantly, Akt phosphorylates and inactivates tuberin (TSC2), an inhibitor of mTOR within the mTOR-raptor complex.
Storage Buffer Store at -20°C or -80°C. Avoid freeze / thaw cycles. Buffer: PBS with 0.02% sodium azide, 50% glycerol, pH7.3.
Purification Method Affinity purification
Isotype IgG
Alias AKT2;PKBB;PKBBETA;PRKBB;RAC-BETA
Immunogen Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Protocols ELISA Protocol
Western Blotting(WB) Protocol
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) Protocol
Research Area Apoptosis
Intended Use For research use only. Not for human, diagnostic or therapeutic use.
Target Names AKT2
Storage Upon receipt, store at -20°C or -80°C. Avoid repeated freeze.
Target Details This gene is a putative oncogene encoding a protein belonging to a subfamily of serine/threonine kinases containing SH2-like (Src homology 2-like) domains. The gene was shown to be amplified and overexpressed in 2 of 8 ovarian carcinoma cell lines and 2 of 15 primary ovarian tumors. Overexpression contributes to the malignant phenotype of a subset of human ductal pancreatic cancers. The encoded protein is a general protein kinase capable of phophorylating several known proteins.
HGNC 392
RGD 2082
MGI 104874
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Function AKT2 is one of 3 closely related serine/threonine-protein kinases (AKT1, AKT2 and AKT3) called the AKT kinase, and which regulate many processes including metabolism, proliferation, cell survival, growth and angiogenesis. This is mediated through serine and/or threonine phosphorylation of a range of downstream substrates. Over 100 substrate candidates have been reported so far, but for most of them, no isoform specificity has been reported. AKT is responsible of the regulation of glucose uptake by mediating insulin-induced translocation of the SLC2A4/GLUT4 glucose transporter to the cell surface. Phosphorylation of PTPN1 at 'Ser-50' negatively modulates its phosphatase activity preventing dephosphorylation of the insulin receptor and the attenuation of insulin signaling. Phosphorylation of TBC1D4 triggers the binding of this effector to inhibitory 14-3-3 proteins, which is required for insulin-stimulated glucose transport. AKT regulates also the storage of glucose in the form of glycogen by phosphorylating GSK3A at 'Ser-21' and GSK3B at 'Ser-9', resulting in inhibition of its kinase activity. Phosphorylation of GSK3 isoforms by AKT is also thought to be one mechanism by which cell proliferation is driven. AKT regulates also cell survival via the phosphorylation of MAP3K5 (apoptosis signal-related kinase). Phosphorylation of 'Ser-83' decreases MAP3K5 kinase activity stimulated by oxidative stress and thereby prevents apoptosis. AKT mediates insulin-stimulated protein synthesis by phosphorylating TSC2 at 'Ser-939' and 'Thr-1462', thereby activating mTORC1 signaling and leading to both phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and in activation of RPS6KB1. AKT is involved in the phosphorylation of members of the FOXO factors (Forkhead family of transcription factors), leading to binding of 14-3-3 proteins and cytoplasmic localization. In particular, FOXO1 is phosphorylated at 'Thr-24', 'Ser-256' and 'Ser-319'. FOXO3 and FOXO4 are phosphorylated on equivalent sites. AKT has an important role in the regulation of NF-kappa-B-dependent gene transcription and positively regulates the activity of CREB1 (cyclic AMP (cAMP)-response element binding protein). The phosphorylation of CREB1 induces the binding of accessory proteins that are necessary for the transcription of pro-survival genes such as BCL2 and MCL1. AKT phosphorylates 'Ser-454' on ATP citrate lyase (ACLY), thereby potentially regulating ACLY activity and fatty acid synthesis. Activates the 3B isoform of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE3B) via phosphorylation of 'Ser-273', resulting in reduced cyclic AMP levels and inhibition of lipolysis. Phosphorylates PIKFYVE on 'Ser-318', which results in increased PI(3)P-5 activity. The Rho GTPase-activating protein DLC1 is another substrate and its phosphorylation is implicated in the regulation cell proliferation and cell growth. AKT plays a role as key modulator of the AKT-mTOR signaling pathway controlling the tempo of the process of newborn neurons integration during adult neurogenesis, including correct neuron positioning, dendritic development and synapse formation. Signals downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI(3)K) to mediate the effects of various growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). AKT mediates the antiapoptotic effects of IGF-I. Essential for the SPATA13-mediated regulation of cell migration and adhesion assembly and disassembly. May be involved in the regulation of the placental development.; FUNCTION
Involvement in disease Diabetes mellitus, non-insulin-dependent (NIDDM); Hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia with hemihypertrophy (HIHGHH)
Subcellular Location Cytoplasm, Nucleus, Cell membrane, Peripheral membrane protein, Early endosome
Protein Families Protein kinase superfamily, AGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family, RAC subfamily
Tissue Specificity Expressed in all cell types so far analyzed.
Database Links

HGNC: 392

OMIM: 125853

KEGG: hsa:208

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000375892

UniGene: Hs.631535

Pathway cAMP signaling pathway
Chemokine signaling pathway
ErbB signaling pathway
Estrogen signaling pathway
HIF-1 signaling pathway
Jak-STAT signaling pathway
MAPK signaling pathway
mTOR signaling pathway
PI3K-Akt signaling pathway
VEGF signaling pathway
Focal adhesion
Lipids and Inflammation in Atherogenesis
TNF signaling pathway
Apoptosis
Autophagy
Cellular senescence
Ras signaling pathway
Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells
B cell receptor signaling pathway
Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway
Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis
Osteoclast differentiation
T cell receptor signaling pathway
Toll-like receptor signaling pathway
Adipocytokine signaling pathway
AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications
AMPK signaling
Apelin signaling pathway
cGMP-PKG signaling pathway
FoxO signaling pathway
Glucagon signaling pathway
Insulin signaling pathway
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Phospholipase D signaling pathway
Rap1 signaling pathway
Neurotrophin signaling pathway

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