Calcium-binding protein in amniotic fluid 1
Short name= CAAF1
Short name= CAGC
Short name= CO-AG
Extracellular newly i
Store at -20°C, for extended storage, conserve at -20°C or -80°C.
Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
This protein is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein is proposed to be involved in specific calcium-dependent signal transduction pathways and its regulatory effect on cytoskeletal components may modulate various neutrophil activities.
S100A12 is a calcium-, zinc- and copper-binding protein which plays a prominent role in the regulation of inflammatory processes and immune response. Its proinflammatory activity involves recruitment of leukocytes, promotion of cytokine and chemokine production, and regulation of leukocyte adhesion and migration. Acts as an alarmin or a danger associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule and stimulates innate immune cells via binding to receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (AGER). Binding to AGER activates the MAP-kinase and NF-kappa-B signaling pathways leading to production of proinflammatory cytokines and up-regulation of cell adhesion molecules ICAM1 and VCAM1. Acts as a monocyte and mast cell chemoattractant. Can stimulate mast cell degranulation and activation which generates chemokines, histamine and cytokines inducing further leukocyte recruitment to the sites of inflammation. Can inhibit the activity of matrix metalloproteinases; MMP2, MMP3 and MMP9 by chelating Zn(2+) from their active sites (By similarity).
Secreted, Cytoplasm, Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, Cell membrane, Peripheral membrane protein
Up-regulated in stimulated inflammatory effector cells.