Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3
Short name= MAD homolog 3
Short name= Mad3
Short name= Mothers against DPP homolog 3
SMAD family member 3
Short name= SMAD 3
Store at -20°C, for extended storage, conserve at -20°C or -80°C.
Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
This protein belongs to the SMAD, a family of proteins similar to the gene products of the Drosophila gene mothers against decapentaplegic (Mad) and the C. elegans gene Sma. SMAD proteins are signal transducers and transcriptional modulators that mediate multiple signaling pathways. This protein functions as a transcriptional modulator activated by transforming growth factor-beta and is thought to play a role in the regulation of carcinogenesis.
Receptor-regulated SMAD (R-SMAD) that is an intracellular signal transducer and transcriptional modulator activated by TGF-beta (transforming growth factor) and activin type 1 receptor kinases. Binds the TRE element in the promoter region of many genes that are regulated by TGF-beta and, on formation of the SMAD3/SMAD4 complex, activates transcription. Also can form a SMAD3/SMAD4/JUN/FOS complex at the AP-1/SMAD site to regulate TGF-beta-mediated transcription. Has an inhibitory effect on wound healing probably by modulating both growth and migration of primary keratinocytes and by altering the TGF-mediated chemotaxis of monocytes. This effect on wound healing appears to be hormone-sensitive. Regulator of chondrogenesis and osteogenesis and inhibits early healing of bone fractures. Positively regulates PDPK1 kinase activity by stimulating its dissociation from the 14-3-3 protein YWHAQ which acts as a negative regulator (By similarity).
Highly expressed in the brain and ovary. Detected in the pyramidal cells of the hippocampus, granule cells of the dentate gyrus, granular cells of the cerebral cortex and the granulosa cells of the ovary.