Understanding Hormones: Key to Preventing and Treating Various Diseases

What are hormones?

Hormones are a class of biologically active molecules secreted by endocrine glands or other cells. They can regulate physiological processes by circulating to various parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. There are many types of hormones, including thyroid hormones, insulin, estrogen and progesterone, testosterone, adrenaline and noradrenaline, and growth hormone, which play different roles in the human body, such as regulating metabolism, growth and development, reproduction, immunity, and stress [1].

Common hormones in the human body

Common hormones in the human body include thyroid hormones, insulin, estrogen and progesterone, testosterone, adrenaline and noradrenaline, growth hormone, and others.

Pituitary gland
Adrenal gland
Pineal gland
Thyroid gland

Fig. List of Hormones Secreted by Human Organs

Thyroid hormones, including thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are secreted by the thyroid gland. They act like an accelerator in the body and regulate the basal metabolic rate, affecting many physiological processes such as heart rate, body temperature, digestion, and respiration, as well as playing an important role in the development and function of tissues such as the brain, bones, and muscles. Abnormal levels of thyroid hormones, whether too high or too low, can lead to various diseases and discomforts [2].

CUSABIO can provide ELISA kits for detecting thyroid hormones (T4 and T3) in mice, cattle, chickens, fish, and other species. The product list is as follows:

Target Product Name Code
T3 Bovine Tri-iodothyronine,T3 ELISA Kit CSB-E13049B
Chicken Tri-iodothyronine,T3 ELISA Kit CSB-E13270C
Fish Tri-iodothyronine,T3 ELISA Kit CSB-E08488f
Mouse Tri-iodothyronine,T3 ELISA Kit CSB-E05086m
Mouse Free Tri-iodothyronine,Free-T3 ELISA Kit CSB-E05077m
T4 Bovine thyroxine,T4 ELISA Kit CSB-E13050B
Canine thyroxine,T4 ELISA Kit CSB-E07288c
Chicken thyroxine (T4) ELISA Kit CSB-E15787C
Fish Thyroxine,T4 ELISA Kit CSB-E08489f
Horse thyroxine (T4) ELISA kit CSB-EQ027512HO
Monkey thyroxine (T4) ELISA kit CSB-EQ027512MK
Mouse thyroxine,T4 ELISA Kit CSB-E05083m
Rat thyroxine,T4 ELISA Kit CSB-E05082r
Fish free thyroxine (FT4) ELISA kit CSB-EQF027512FI
Mouse Free Thyroxine,FT4 ELISA Kit CSB-E05080m
Rat Free Thyroxine,FT4 ELISA Kit CSB-E05079r

Insulin is a hormone secreted by pancreatic beta cells that promotes the absorption and utilization of glucose and maintains blood sugar balance [3]. After we eat, carbohydrates in food are digested and converted into glucose, which enters the bloodstream. An increase in blood glucose levels stimulates the pancreas to secrete insulin, which promotes the uptake and utilization of glucose by cells in the body and promotes the synthesis and storage of glycogen in the liver, muscles, and fat tissue. Through these mechanisms, insulin can lower blood sugar levels and maintain blood sugar within a normal range. Insulin plays an important role in glucose metabolism and energy metabolism, and is closely related to lipid metabolism, protein metabolism, and growth and development. CUSABIO offers various ELISA kits for insulin and related markers.

Target Product Name Code
INS Fish Insulin,INS ELISA Kit CSB-E12123Fh
Guinea pig insulin (INS) ELISA kit CSB-EL011742GU
Human Insulin,INS ELISA Kit CSB-E05069h
Human Proinsulin,PI ELISA Kit CSB-E08345h
Monkey Insulin,INS ELISA Kit CSB-E10047Mo
Mouse Insulin,INS ELISA Kit CSB-E05071m
Rat Insulin,INS ELISA Kit CSB-E05070r
Sheep Insulin(INS) ELISA Kit CSB-E17044Sh

Estrogen and progesterone are hormones secreted by the ovaries and play important roles in female reproduction and physiological cycles [4].

● Estrogen plays a crucial role in the female reproductive system and throughout the body. In the female reproductive system, estrogen promotes the development and maturation of eggs, regulates the growth and differentiation of the uterine lining, and affects the physiological state of the vagina. Throughout the body, estrogen is involved in various physiological processes such as bone metabolism, fat metabolism, cardiovascular system, and nervous system.

● Progesterone is a hormone secreted by the ovaries in the later stages of the menstrual cycle, and its main function is to provide a suitable environment for the implanted fertilized egg. Progesterone can promote the differentiation and thickening of the uterine lining, and prevent uterine contractions, thereby maintaining the stability of pregnancy. In addition, progesterone is involved in many physiological processes such as the female reproductive system and immune system.

CUSABIO offers ELISA kits for human estrogen and multiple species of progesterone including cattle, cats, chickens, humans, and monkeys, as listed in the table below.

Target Product Name Code
E Human estrogen,E ELISA Kit CSB-E07286h
PROG Bovine progesterone,PROG ELISA Kit CSB-E08172b
Canine Progesterone,PROG ELISA kit CSB-E07285c
Chicken progesterone,PROG ELISA Kit CSB-E12012C
Horse Progesterone(PROG) ELISA kit CSB-E13183Hs
Human Progesterone,PROG ELISA kit CSB-E07283h
Monkey Progesterone(PROG) ELISA Kit CSB-E13352Mk
Mouse Progesterone,PROG ELISA Kit CSB-E05104m
Pig progesterone,PROG ELISA Kit CSB-E12869p
Rat Progesterone,PROG ELISA kit CSB-E07282r
Sheep Progesterone(PROG) ELISA Kit CSB-E13176Sh

Testosterone is a male hormone, belonging to the class of androgens and one of the main hormones secreted by the testicles [5]. It plays an important role in male sexual development, reproductive function, libido, muscle mass, bone density, and other aspects. Women also secrete small amounts of testosterone, which plays a certain role in maintaining their reproductive system health and libido.

CUSABIO offers testosterone ELISA kits for multiple species, including humans, mice, pigs, dogs, and cows, which are used to detect testosterone levels in serum, plasma, urine, and other samples.

Target Product Name Code
T Rat Testosterone,T ELISA Kit CSB-E05100r
Mouse Testosterone,T ELISA Kit CSB-E05101m
Fish Testosterone(T) ELISA Kit CSB-E17554Fh
Chicken Testosterone (T) ELISA Kit CSB-E12797C
Bovine Testosterone(T) ELISA Kit CSB-E13194B
Canine Testosterone (T) ELISA Kit CSB-E06893c
Pig Testosterone,T ELISA Kit CSB-E06796p
Rabbit Testosterone,T ELISA Kit CSB-E06927Rb
Human Testosterone,T ELISA Kit CSB-E05099h
Monkey Testosterone(T)ELISA Kit CSB-E16337Mk

Adrenaline and noradrenaline are two hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla. They are both catecholamines that play an important role in regulating the body's stress response and maintaining internal homeostasis [6]. Adrenaline promotes stress responses such as increased heart rate, respiration, and elevated blood sugar levels. On the other hand, noradrenaline plays a role in regulating blood pressure, blood sugar, blood lipids, and also has a sedative effect. C provides ELISA assay kits for these hormones as shown in the table below:

Target Product Name Code
T Human Noradrenaline,NA ELISA Kit CSB-E07021h
Mouse Noradrenaline,NA ELISA Kit CSB-E07870m
Rat Noradrenaline,NA ELISA Kit CSB-E07022r
EPI Human Epinephrine/Adrenaline,EPI ELISA Kit CSB-E08677h
Mouse Epinephrine/Adrenaline,EPI ELISA Kit CSB-E08679m
Rat Epinephrine/Adrenaline,EPI ELISA Kit CSB-E08678r

Human growth hormone (HGH) is a protein hormone secreted by the pituitary gland, which primarily promotes growth and maintains normal metabolism in the body [7]. It stimulates the liver to produce a growth factor called insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), which promotes bone and muscle growth, increases protein synthesis, and reduces fat storage. In addition, HGH also enhances immunity, improves sleep, and increases cardiorespiratory function. The secretion of HGH is mainly influenced by various factors such as nerves, metabolism, and nutrition. CUSABIO provides HGH ELISA test kits as shown in the table below:

Target Product Name Code
GH Bovine growth hormone,GH ELISA Kit CSB-E13443B
Chicken growth hormone,GH ELISA KIT CSB-E09866Ch
Dog growth hormone,GH ELISA Kit CSB-E14962c
Fish growth hormone,GH ELISA Kit CSB-E12121Fh
Horse growth hormone,GH ELISA Kit CSB-E11242Eq
Rat growth hormone,GH ELISA KIT CSB-E07342r

Hormone secretion and regulation

The mechanism of hormone secretion is mainly achieved through negative feedback. Negative feedback refers to the inhibition of hormone secretion when hormone concentrations rise, thus maintaining hormone concentrations within a certain range. For example, the secretion of thyroid hormones is regulated by the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. When the level of thyroid hormones in the blood increases, the hypothalamus and pituitary gland are inhibited, reducing the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones [8].

Hormone secretion is regulated by various factors, including the nervous system, environmental factors, physiological status, and other hormones. For example, the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis is regulated by stress and the stress response. When the body is under stress, the hypothalamus releases corticotropin-releasing hormone, which stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone, promoting the secretion of adrenal cortex hormones such as adrenaline and noradrenaline [9].

Hormone detection techniques

Hormone detection techniques mainly include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), radioimmunoassay, mass spectrometry, and biosensor technology. Among them, ELISA is a common detection method that is sensitive, accurate, and easy to operate, and is widely used in clinical and scientific research.

Related Products

Code Product Name Sensitivity Detection Range Abbreviation Species
CSB-E05087h Human 17-Hydroxyprogesterone,17-OHP ELISA Kit 17-OHP Homo sapiens (Human)
CSB-E04486h Human Activin A,ACV-A ELISA Kit 3.9 pg/mL 15.6 pg/mL-1000 pg/mL ACV-A Homo sapiens (Human)
CSB-E12756h Human anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) ELISA kit 15.6 pg/mL 62.5 pg/mL-4000 pg/mL AMH Homo sapiens (Human)
CSB-E09080h Human antidiuretic hormone/vasopressin/arginine vasopressin,ADH/VP/AVP ELISA Kit 0.312 pg/mL 1.25 pg/mL-80 pg/mL AVP Homo sapiens (Human)
CSB-E05111h Human Cortisol ELISA Kit 0.049 ng/mL 0.049 ng/mL-200 ng/mL COR Homo sapiens (Human)
CSB-E06872h Human corticotropin releasing hormone,CRH ELISA Kit 1 ng/mL 1 ng/mL-40 ng/mL CRH Homo sapiens (Human)
CSB-E07878h Human Dihydrotestosterone,DHT ELISA Kit 5 pg/mL 10 pg/mL-2000 pg/mL DHT Homo sapiens (Human)
CSB-E07286h Human estrogen,E ELISA Kit 25 pg/mL 25 pg/mL-1000 pg/mL E Homo sapiens (Human)
CSB-E05108h Human Estradiol,E2 ELISA Kit 40 pg/mL 40 pg/mL-1000 pg/mL E2 Homo sapiens (Human)
CSB-E08677h Human Epinephrine/Adrenaline,EPI ELISA Kit 1 pg/mL 2 pg/mL-400 pg/mL EPI Homo sapiens (Human)
CSB-E06867h Human follicle-stimulating hormone,FSH ELISA Kit FSH Homo sapiens (Human)
CSB-EL009408HU Human Growth hormone variant(GH2) ELISA kit 33 pg/mL 133 pg/mL-4000 pg/mL GH2 Homo sapiens (Human)
CSB-E15803h Human Hyperglycosylated Chorionic Gonadotropin(hCG) ELISA Kit 0.167 mIU/mL 0.67 mIU/mL-20 mIU/mL hCG Homo sapiens (Human)
CSB-E05060h Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin,HCG ELISA Kit 2 mIU/mL 8 mIU/mL-240 mIU/mL hCG Homo sapiens (Human)
CSB-E08237h Human Inhibin A,INH-A ELISA Kit 0.2 pg/mL 0.4 pg/mL-80 pg/mL INHA Homo sapiens (Human)
CSB-E08149h Human inhibin B,INH-B ELISA Kit 2 pg/mL 4 pg/mL-800 pg/mL INH-B Homo sapiens (Human)
CSB-E05069h Human Insulin,INS ELISA Kit INS Homo sapiens (Human)
CSB-E04649h Human Leptin,LEP ELISA kit 0.060 ng/mL 0.156 ng/mL-10 ng/mL LEP Homo sapiens (Human)
CSB-E12690h Human luteinizing hormone (LH) ELISA kit LH Homo sapiens (Human)
CSB-E08132h Human Melatonin,MT ELISA Kit 1.56 pg/mL 6.25 pg/mL-400 pg/mL MT Homo sapiens (Human)


[1] Tsigos C, Chrousos GP. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, neuroendocrine factors and stress. J Psychosom Res. 2002;53(4):865-871.

[2] Maccario M, Grottoli S, Procopio M, et al. The GH/IGF-I axis in the regulation of natural killer cell function and cytokine secretion: effects of aging and exercise. Mech Ageing Dev. 2002;123(8):1089-1101.

[3] Prossnitz ER, Arterburn JB, Sklar LA. GPR30: A G protein-coupled receptor for estrogen. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2007;265-266:138-142.

[4] Farid M, Farid T. Adrenaline. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021.

[5] Kars M, Yang L, Gregor MF, et al. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid may improve liver and muscle but not adipose tissue insulin sensitivity in obese men and women. Diabetes. 2010;59(8):1899-1905.

[6] De Rosa M, Zarrilli S, Paesano L, et al. Traffic pollutants affect fertility in men. Hum Reprod. 2003;18(5):1055-1061.

[7] Onsrud M. Hormones in Milk. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2005;4(3):40-51.

[8] Mullur R, Liu YY, Brent GA. Thyroid hormone regulation of metabolism. Physiol Rev. 2014;94(2):355-382.

[9] Charmandari E, Tsigos C, Chrousos G. Endocrinology of the stress response. Annu Rev Physiol. 2005;67:259-284.

[10] Raff H. Utility of salivary cortisol measurements in Cushing's syndrome and adrenal insufficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94(10):3647-3655.

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