Antisense RNA regulates myelination after nerve injury
Antisense RNA regulates myelination after nerve injuryInvestigators report an antisense RNA that regulates the expression of the transcription factor Egr2 that provides control over the formation of myelin. Mouse experiments reveal that during nerve injury, the antisense RN...
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Why does Zika infection during pregnancy harm the fetus?
Why does Zika infection during pregnancy harm the fetus?In a paper published in Nature Microbiology, scientists report that the Zika virus induces immunosuppression during pregnancy. The finding would help understand the pathogenesis of Zika infection, particularly in pregnan...
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VAC14 gene regulates susceptibility to Salmonella infection
VAC14 gene regulates susceptibility to Salmonella infectionAccording to a multinational study reported in the journal PNAS, a gene called VAC14 regulates the susceptibility to Salmonella infection and the risk of typhoid fever. The study also shows that genetic variations in VAC...
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Abnormal PTCD1 expression leads to obesity in mice
Abnormal PTCD1 expression leads to obesity in miceScientists from the University of Western Australia (UWA) have identified a new genetic cause of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Described in the August issue of Science Advances, their findings show abnormal expr...
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New imaging technique facilitates HIV research
New imaging technique facilitates HIV researchA study from Northwestern University has now provided novel insights into the biology of HIV infection. Published online before print 7 August 2017 in the journal PNAS, the study has shown that early uncoating is necessa...
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Gene linked to immune response to viral infections
Gene linked to immune response to viral infectionsSome organisms can control persistent viral infections, whereas others cannot. What makes the difference remains enigmatic. Now a new study identifies a gene that could at least partly explain the phenomenon. ...
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Women who use contraceptive pills are at lower risk of having rheumatoid arthritis
Women who use contraceptive pills are at lower risk of having rheumatoid arthritisNew research has identified a link between the use of contraceptive pills and a reduced risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). But the research has not confirmed such an association between breastfeeding and a red...
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Why do CDK4/6 inhibitors shrink tumors of some breast cancer patients?
Why do CDK4/6 inhibitors shrink tumors of some breast cancer patients?A team of investigators headed by Sandra McAllister from Harvard Medical School and Jean Zhao from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute has demonstrated in mice that a class of anticancer agents, CDK4/6 inhibitors, not only supp...
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New clues to the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
New clues to the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosisA new study brings us one step closer to understanding the mechanism underlying amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a progressive neurodegenerative disease with no effective treatment. The study, published ...
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ARG2 could be targeted to treat obesity-associated pancreatic cancer
ARG2 could be targeted to treat obesity-associated pancreatic cancerAccording to a study published in Nature Communications this week, an enzyme called arginase 2 (ARG2) may be a novel target for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. There is a connection between obesity, whos...
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Studies explain why some prostate cancers are resistant to BET inhibitors
Studies explain why some prostate cancers are resistant to BET inhibitorsScientists have found an explanation for why some prostate cancers develop resistance to a class of anti-cancer drugs, Bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) inhibitors. The new findings come from two multinational stud...
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A fragment of klotho protein boosts cognition in mice
A fragment of klotho protein boosts cognition in miceDescribed in the August issue of the journal Cell Reports, a study has demonstrated that treatment with a fragment of a hormone enhances the brain function in young, aging, and impaired mice. Klotho is a mul...
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New study identifies AIM1 as a suppressor of prostate cancer metastasis
New study identifies AIM1 as a suppressor of prostate cancer metastasisDepletion of AIM1 contributes to the migration and spread of prostate cancer, according to a study published online in the journal Nature Communications. AIM1, short for absent in melanoma 1, is a gene that ...
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SLC13A5 affects liver cancer proliferation by facilitating energy homeostasis
SLC13A5 affects liver cancer proliferation by facilitating energy homeostasisInvestigators from the University of Maryland have identified a gene that helps fuel the growth of liver cancer cells by facilitating energy homeostasis. The study, "Silencing of solute carrier family 13 member 5 disr...
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Study extends understanding of role of PTPN2 in autoimmune diseases
Study extends understanding of role of PTPN2 in autoimmune diseasesA new study from Monash University has shed light on mechanisms underlying autoimmune diseases. The finding would facilitate the development of new therapeutic agents for the treatment of diverse autoimmune diseases in t...
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New compound found to inhibit ER positive breast cancer
New compound found to inhibit ER positive breast cancerApproximately eighty percent of all breast cancers are estrogen receptor positive (ER+), meaning that the cancer relays on the hormone estrogen to grow. People with ER+ breast cancer are often treated with drugs that red...
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Modified natural compound inhibits blood vessel formation in neuroblastoma
Modified natural compound inhibits blood vessel formation in neuroblastomaDescribed in Scientific Reports, a study demonstrates that Dextran-Catechin, a modified natural compound, is able to suppress the formation of blood vessels in tumors by disrupting copper homeostasis. Catech...
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New research reveals harmful effects of some man-made chemicals
New research reveals harmful effects of some man-made chemicalsMan-made chemicals have been widely used in food production and preservation. For examples, food preservatives can inhibit microbe growth, avoid food decaying, and prolong food storage time; flavoring can make food tasti...
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MELK implicated in HIV-1 infection
MELK implicated in HIV-1 infectionToday, HIV is a significant health threat to people of all ages on all continents around the world. The virus can be classified into two types, HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is more common, accounting for about 95% of all infec...
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Why infections like flu exacerbate symptoms of neurological diseases
Why infections like flu exacerbate symptoms of neurological diseasesIn most cases, the symptoms of the flu only last a relatively short period of time. However, for people with neurological diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS), the flu can significantly exacerbate symptoms of their dise...
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New study may lead to novel HDAC2 inhibitors for treatment of Alzheimer's disease
New study may lead to novel HDAC2 inhibitors for treatment of Alzheimer's diseaseScientists have successfully reversed memory loss in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by selectively inhibiting the enzyme HDAC2. The study, titled "The Transcription Factor Sp3 Cooperates with HDAC...
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Breast cancer study reveals new mutation that induces resistance to neratinib
Breast cancer study reveals new mutation that induces resistance to neratinibA new study appearing in the journal Cancer Discovery may explain why some breast cancer patients do not respond to the HER2 inhibitor neratinib. The researchers started the study when they noticed that a 54-year-old ...
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Quantitative proteomics may facilitate diagnosis of mitochondrial diseases
Quantitative proteomics may facilitate diagnosis of mitochondrial diseasesA multinational team of researchers has found a novel way to facilitate diagnosis of mitochondrial diseases. Published in The American Journal of Human Genetics on 3 August 2017, the study is co-led by Nicol...
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Study provides a possible genetic explanation for radiation-induced meningiomas
Study provides a possible genetic explanation for radiation-induced meningiomasA latest study sheds some light on why a lot of long-term survivors of childhood cancers eventually develop meningiomas after radiotherapy, a condition known as radiation-induced meningiomas (RIMs). Cranial ...
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Methotrexate may be effective in treating polycythemia vera
Methotrexate may be effective in treating polycythemia vera Polycythemia vera (PV), also known as erythremia or Vaquez disease, is a rare, slow-growing blood cancer characterized by abnormally high numbers of red blood cells. The excessive cells thicken the blood and slow its flo...
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Inhibition of CCK neurons shows antidepressant effects
Inhibition of CCK neurons shows antidepressant effectsDepression, also known as major depressive disorder (MDD) or clinical depression, is a common mood disorder that affects about 7% of the world population, placing a heavy burden on human health. The disorder is multifact...
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UBTF variant implicated in childhood neurodegeneration
UBTF variant implicated in childhood neurodegenerationA recent study extends our understanding of the mechanism of an uncommon but serious neurological disease in childhood. The disease involves developmental problems and neurodegeneration. Children with the disease usually...
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MCL-1 inhibitor may improve treatment of aggressive breast cancer
MCL-1 inhibitor may improve treatment of aggressive breast cancerCombining an MCL-1 inhibitor with conventional chemotherapy drugs may more effectively treat some aggressive forms of breast cancer, according to a study published in the journal Science Translational Medicine on 2 Aug 2...
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Study shows how a small molecule inhibits cancer stem cells
Study shows how a small molecule inhibits cancer stem cellsScientists have revealed how a small molecule, developed in clinical trials for advanced cancer, prevents cancer stem cells from renewing and therefore leads to cell death. Described in the journal PLoS ONE on August 2, ...
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TRPA1 implicated in neuropathy induced by organophosphates
TRPA1 implicated in neuropathy induced by organophosphatesOrganophosphates (OPs) are a class of chemical substances with wide applications. They are active components of many insecticides, herbicides, medications and nerve agents. Besides, they are also used in industry. Remark...
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Bacterium tied to development of colorectal cancer
Bacterium tied to development of colorectal cancerColorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most serious life-threatening cancers to both men and women. Patients with stage IV CRC have a 5-year relative survival rate of only 11%. It has been known for a while that there is ...
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BACE inhibition improves cognitive functions in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease
BACE inhibition improves cognitive functions in mouse models of Alzheimer's diseaseAmyloid-beta (Aβ) is a protein fragment strongly implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is thought that Aβ accumulation observed in the brain of people with AD destroys brain cells, leading to problems with memory,...
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Stanford study opens a way for diagnosis and treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome
Stanford study opens a way for diagnosis and treatment of chronic fatigue syndromeMyalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), also referred to as chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), is a serious, long-term illness characterized by extreme fatigue of unknown cause that does not improve with rest. Now, scientists have ...
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New types of neurons controlling feeding
New types of neurons controlling feedingScientists studying the molecular mechanisms regulating food intake and body weight have recently identified two types of neurons in the brain that control feeding in mice. Moreover, they have identified potential target...
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Target cells of estrogen in the bone identified
Target cells of estrogen in the bone identifiedEstrogen, a type of hormone, is most known for its role in promoting the development of female secondary sexual characteristics like breasts. Apart from this, estrogen performs many other functions in both men and women....
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Study demonstrates a role of p53 in dyskeratosis congenita
Study demonstrates a role of p53 in dyskeratosis congenitaDescribed in Stem Cell Reports yesterday, a study from Washington University in St. Louis offers new clues to the pathogenesis of dyskeratosis congenita (DKC), an uncommon but sometimes life-threatening bone marrow failu...
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Gut bacterium contributes to chemoresistance
Gut bacterium contributes to chemoresistanceA study, co-led by Dr. Weiping Zou at the University of Michigan School of Medicine in the USA and Dr. Jing-Yuan Fang at Shanghai Jiao Tong University in China, has identified a bacterium in the gut that contributes to t...
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New genes implicated in medulloblastoma
New genes implicated in medulloblastomaMedulloblastoma (WHO grade IV) is a highly malignant form of brain tumor that predominantly occurs in children. Despite significant advances in treatment, about one-third of all patients will succumb to their disease. Ev...
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Combination of retinoids and anti-estrogen therapy may inhibit breast cancer resistance
Combination of retinoids and anti-estrogen therapy may inhibit breast cancer resistanceScientists from the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus have found a possible explanation for why retinoic acid and other retinoids failed to combat breast cancer in clinical trials. In addition, they have sug...
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Potential target for treating cancer cachexia
Potential target for treating cancer cachexiaIn a paper published in Scientific Reports on 17 May 2017, researchers headed by Geir Bjørkøy at Norwegian University of Science and Technology report that IL-6 signaling may be targeted to prevent cachexia, a serious ...
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Ezh2 involved in immunotherapy resistance
Ezh2 involved in immunotherapy resistanceDrug resistance is a big challenge in immunotherapy. Now researchers at the University of Zurich have identified a key factor that controls resistance to tumor immunotherapy. Published in Cell Reports on 25 July 2017, th...
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Maryland researchers find a molecular mechanism of hearing loss
Maryland researchers find a molecular mechanism of hearing lossA study, outlined in the journal Nature Communications, provides clues to molecular mechanisms of human hearing. Co-led by Zubair Ahmed from the University of Maryland and Gregory Frolenkov from the University of Kentuck...
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Researchers identify a new way to treat ARID1A-mutated ovarian cancer
Researchers identify a new way to treat ARID1A-mutated ovarian cancerScientists studying ovarian cancer have identified a novel way to combat this life-threatening disease. The study, led by Dr. Rugang Zhang at The Wistar Institute and published Monday in the journal Nature Cell Biology, ...
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COX-2 inhibitors may help improve the treatment of cancer
COX-2 inhibitors may help improve the treatment of cancerCancer can evade immune attacks through different ways. COX-2, an enzyme responsible for inflammation and pain, is overexpressed in most solid tumors. Growing evidence indicates that COX-2 expression contributes to immun...
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Study provides insights into ARID1B-related neuropsychiatric disorders
Study provides insights into ARID1B-related neuropsychiatric disordersThe gene ARID1B provides instructions for making a protein called AT-rich interactive domain-containing protein 1B, which is a part of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. Growing evidence suggests that mutations in...
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CD44s depletion improves the therapeutic effects of EGFR inhibitors against GBM
CD44s depletion improves the therapeutic effects of EGFR inhibitors against GBMGlioblastoma multiforme (GBM), or simply known as glioblastoma, is the deadest form of brain cancer. Around half of GBM tumors over express the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and this EGFR amplification has bee...
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Researchers identify the vulnerability of tumors lacking NF1
Researchers identify the vulnerability of tumors lacking NF1The NF1 gene encodes a protein called neurofibromin 1, which is expressed in many types of cells like nerve cells and acts as a tumor suppressor protein. Mutation or loss of NF1 has been observed in neurofibromatosis typ...
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Researchers find an inhibitor that suppresses stemness of glioblastoma cells
Researchers find an inhibitor that suppresses stemness of glioblastoma cellsThe protein PTPRZ can be a drug target for glioblastoma, and pharmacological inhibition of PTPRZ suppresses the stemness and tumorigenicity of glioblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo. These are the findings of a new stud...
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A study by Tsinghua University may reduce the side effects of radiotherapy
A study by Tsinghua University may reduce the side effects of radiotherapyRadiotherapy, one of the many therapies available to combat cancer, is highly effective in terms of high tumor control and functional preservation of diseased organs. Half of all cancer patients receive radiotherapy at s...
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Novel way to develop therapeutics for schizophrenia
Novel way to develop therapeutics for schizophreniaA study, outlined in the journal Molecular Psychiatry, has identified a potential way to develop therapeutics for schizophrenia and related disorders. The study was led by Prof. George Baillie at the University of Glasgo...
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