Human Apolipoprotein D(APOD) ELISA kit

Instructions
Code CSB-EL001935HU
Size 96T,5×96T,10×96T
Trial Size 24T ELISA kits trial application
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Product Details

Target Name apolipoprotein D
Alternative Names APO D ELISA Kit; Apo-D ELISA Kit; ApoD ELISA Kit; APOD protein ELISA Kit; APOD_HUMAN ELISA Kit; Apolipoprotein D ELISA Kit; ApolipoproteinD ELISA Kit
Abbreviation APOD
Uniprot No. P05090
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Sample Types serum, plasma, tissue homogenates
Detection Range 6.25 ng/mL-400 ng/mL
Sensitivity 1.56 ng/mL
Assay Time 1-5h
Sample Volume 50-100ul
Detection Wavelength 450 nm
Research Area Signal Transduction
Assay Principle quantitative
Measurement Sandwich
Precision
Intra-assay Precision (Precision within an assay): CV%<8%
Three samples of known concentration were tested twenty times on one plate to assess.
Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays): CV%<10%
Three samples of known concentration were tested in twenty assays to assess.
Linearity
To assess the linearity of the assay, samples were spiked with high concentrations of human APOD in various matrices and diluted with the Sample Diluent to produce samples with values within the dynamic range of the assay.
SampleSerum(n=4)
1:1000Average %104
Range %100-108
1:2000Average %98
Range %94-102
1:4000Average %84
Range %80-88
1:8000Average %85
Range %81-90
Recovery
The recovery of human APOD spiked to levels throughout the range of the assay in various matrices was evaluated. Samples were diluted prior to assay as directed in the Sample Preparation section.
Sample TypeAverage % RecoveryRange
Serum (n=5) 9288-96
EDTA plasma (n=4)9790-100
Typical Data
These standard curves are provided for demonstration only. A standard curve should be generated for each set of samples assayed.
ng/mlOD1OD2AverageCorrected
4002.502 2.568 2.535 2.422
2002.228 2.268 2.248 2.135
1001.647 1.668 1.658 1.545
501.035 1.060 1.048 0.935
250.589 0.571 0.580 0.467
12.50.344 0.322 0.333 0.220
6.250.211 0.213 0.212 0.099
00.111 0.115 0.113
Troubleshooting
and FAQs
ELISA kit FAQs
Storage Store at 2-8°C. Please refer to protocol.
Lead Time 5-7 working days

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Target Data

Function APOD occurs in the macromolecular complex with lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase. It is probably involved in the transport and binding of bilin. Appears to be able to transport a variety of ligands in a number of different contexts.
Gene References into Functions
  1. Study shows that in myelin maturation ApoD ultimately controls the removal of the sialic-rich hydrophilic glycocalyx, by maintaining functional integrity of lysosomes. A detailed analysis of the mechanism reveals that the proper localization of Neu1 and plasma membrane Neu3, as well as of the membrane-bound Fyn kinase, depend on ApoD. PMID: 29222871
  2. These results provide additional mechanistic information on the apoD-mediated neuroprotection in neurodegenerative conditions. PMID: 27271124
  3. This study demonstrated that Apo D is mainly located in glial cells while Apo J expression preferentially occurs in neurons in brain with patient with Alzheimer's Disease. PMID: 27197790
  4. ApoD expression is likely not a predictor of recurrence in tamoxifen-treated patients. IMPACT: This study eliminates the previously suggested marker ApoD as a predictor of recurrence among tamoxifen-treated women PMID: 28301514
  5. The high rate of APOD expression in HGPIN and cancer, as well as the absence of its expression in the vast majority of morphologically normal glands allows the use of this protein as an additional marker in the differential diagnosis of prostatic neoplasms. PMID: 27804940
  6. Our results provide a viable solution to the production of recombinant ApoD protein in lieu of previous obstacles in generating soluble and functional ApoD protein PMID: 26826316
  7. apoD protein levels are variable across different brain regions. PMID: 26829325
  8. The data suggest that the presence of Apo D in the nucleus, which some authors related with a specific transport, is a consequence of structural and functional alterations during oxidative stress PMID: 25953740
  9. hepatic steatosis observed in apoD Tg mice is a consequence of increased PPARgamma transcriptional activity by AA leading to increased fatty acid uptake by the liver PMID: 26083030
  10. The SNP rs7659 within the APOD gene might be related to risk and severity of ischemic stroke in patients. PMID: 25261976
  11. apoD mediates binding of high density lipoprotein to low density lipoprotein and to growing T24 carcinomas, thereby highlighting the importance of apoD in lipid metabolism. PMID: 25513803
  12. The internalization of apoD is mediated by basigin. PMID: 25918162
  13. ApoE is located in the nucleus and on the ApoD promoter in human hepatic and glioblastoma cells lines. PMID: 23715769
  14. Rs7659, 3' UTR polymorphism of the APOD gene was associated with early onset Alzheimer disease in APOEepsilon4 (-) subgroup. Our results suggest that the variation of the APOD gene modifies the risk for Alzheimer disease. PMID: 23690001
  15. ApoD mRNA expression is seen in whole endometrium, stromal and epithelial cells in the secretory phase, as well as after hormonal stimulation in vitro. PMID: 23895740
  16. We propose that strong brainstem expression of Apo D throughout adult life contributes to resistance against neurodegenerative disease and age-related degeneration, possibly by preventing oxidative stress and ensuing lipid peroxidation. PMID: 24167586
  17. ApoD is marker of initial stages of colorectal cancer progression. PMID: 23296401
  18. Data suggest that ApoD binds various lyophilic ligands: retinoic acid, retinol, fatty acids, sphingomyelin, and anandamide. ApoD successfully delivers retinoic acid to immature neuronal cell line resulting in neurogenesis (i.e., neurite formation). PMID: 23777559
  19. Molecular dynamics analysis of apolipoprotein-D-lipid hydroperoxide interactions show the mechanism for selective oxidation of Met-93 PMID: 22479522
  20. Our findings show that Apo D expression is influenced by age, Braak stage, and sex. PMID: 21429623
  21. Endothelial cells downregulate apolipoprotein D expression in mural cells through paracrine secretion and Notch3 signaling. PMID: 21705670
  22. increased JNK1 activation in the apocrine cells from axillary osmidrosis contributes to the increased ApoD expression PMID: 21526344
  23. A strong relationship with gestational diabetes and APOD in the placenta that may reflect its suggested function in defense mechanisms against oxidative stress. PMID: 19944460
  24. The decrease in plasma ApoD concentration during pregnancy is an adaptive response aimed at maintaining fetal lipid homeostasis. PMID: 19723339
  25. Altered levels of apoD may help to understand the nature and possible mechanism of phospholipid membrane pathology in schizophrenia. PMID: 12363390
  26. Data suggest that the risk of Alzheimer disease among African-Americans may be modified by genetic variation in APOD. PMID: 12497622
  27. APOD is a senescence-associated gene in normal human oral keratinocytes. PMID: 12837283
  28. Apolipoprotein D levels are elevated in prefrontal cortex of subjects with Alzheimer's disease, suggesting that it may be related to the cognitive decline observed in AD patients. PMID: 12873803
  29. ApoD selectively modulates the proliferative response of vascular smooth muscle cells to growth factors by a mechanism related to nuclear translocation of ERK1/2. PMID: 14551159
  30. In a study comparing brains from Alzheimer's patients and controls, it was found that hippocampal apolipoprotein D level depends on Braak stage and APOE genotype. PMID: 14596852
  31. ApoD can be expressed or taken up by SMCs and can regulate their motility in response to growth factors. PMID: 15192024
  32. The -352G allele was associated with a significant 3-fold increase in the risk of early-onset Alzheimer's disease (OR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.1-6.5). The -352G containing haplotypes were more common for early-onset Alzheimer's disease cases. PMID: 15316799
  33. Elevated apoD in AD brain may influence Abeta aggregation, or facilitate phagocytosis and transport of Abeta fibrils from plaques to cerebral vasculature. PMID: 15916898
  34. study of the presence of apo D in the substantia nigra of control and Parkinson disease (PD) subjects; dopaminergic neurons were not immunoreactive for apo D but surrounding glial cells showed immunostaining for apo D and signal increases in PD cases PMID: 16437381
  35. Apo D differentiates superficial acral fibromyxoma from dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. PMID: 17885669
  36. ApoD positive tumors had both a significantly shorter relapse-free survival (all locations) and a decreased breast cancer-specific survival. PMID: 18330697
  37. These observations, together with its transcriptional up-regulation in the brain upon oxidative insult, identify ApoD as an acute response protein with a protective and therefore beneficial function mediated by the control of peroxidated lipids. PMID: 18419796
  38. ApoD and its orthologs play an evolutionarily conserved role in response to stress, possibly managing or preventing lipid peroxidation. PMID: 18458334
  39. Logistic analysis revealed that both APOD rs5952 C and rs1568566 T alleles increase the risk of sporadic Alzheimer's disease. The rs5952T-rs1568566C haplotype showed lower risk. PMID: 18671953
  40. Role for apoD in regulation of inflammation. It may protect from HCoV-OC43-induced encephalitis, most likely through phospholipase A2 signaling pathways. PMID: 18842892
  41. study demonstrated that Apo D was highly expressed in the mRNA and protein levels in human failing hearts compared with non-failing hearts PMID: 18979643
  42. Variations in the levels and/or sites of apoD expression influence the lipid and glucose metabolism, consolidating apoD as a target for insulin-resistance-related disorders. PMID: 19176353
  43. Apolipoprotein D (APOD) and two further transcripts were significantly upregulated by dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in scrotum fibroblasts PMID: 19330472
  44. apoD expression is increased throughout life in the human prefrontal cortex PMID: 19519777

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Subcellular Location Secreted
Protein Families Calycin superfamily, Lipocalin family
Tissue Specificity Expressed in liver, intestine, pancreas, kidney, placenta, adrenal, spleen, fetal brain tissue and tears.
Database Links

HGNC: 612

OMIM: 107740

KEGG: hsa:347

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000345179

UniGene: Hs.522555

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