An antibody refers to any protein molecule produced by the immune system in response to the presence of an antigen. It encompasses the entire class of immunoglobulin proteins produced by B cells, which includes various antibody isotypes (e.g., IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, IgD).
These antibodies are characterized by their Y-shaped structure, antigen-binding specificity, and roles in immune defense. The primary function of antibodies is to recognize and neutralize antigens to protect the body from infections, toxins, and other harmful agents.
The antibodies displayed on the CUSABIO website are antibodies designed for research use as reagents. These antibodies are specifically generated and purified to be used as tools in various research applications. They are produced to provide reliable and reproducible results for scientific investigations, serving as critical components in experimental design. They aid researchers in unraveling the complexities of biological processes and advancing scientific knowledge.
Preparation of Antibody Reagents
Different types of antibodies have distinct preparation processes. CUSABIO mainly produces three types of antibody reagents. Here they are.
Monoclonal antibodies are produced using hybridoma technology. This involves immunizing a host animal with an immunogen, isolating activated B cells, fusing them with myeloma cells to create hybridomas, screening and selecting hybridomas that produce desired antibodies, cloning and expanding the selected hybridomas and purifying and testing the monoclonal antibodies. These antibodies recognize a single epitope on an antigen.
Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with an immunogen. The animals' whole blood is collected, and the serum containing the antibodies is separated and purified. This process is quicker and less expensive compared to monoclonal antibody production. Polyclonal antibodies recognize multiple epitopes on an antigen.
Recombinant antibodies are produced using recombinant DNA technology. Genetic recombination is used to combine genetic material from different sources, creating DNA sequences that are not naturally found in the genome. This allows the production of antibodies with specific properties. The production process for recombinant antibodies is similar to that of recombinant proteins.
CUSABIO has five protein expression systems and three antibody discovery and production platforms, which include monoclonal antibodies, polyclonal antibodies, and recombinant antibodies. Each step, from antigen design to antibody production and application validation, is handled by CUSABIO's professional technical team to ensure the provision of high-quality antibody products.
Applications of Antibody Reagents
Antibodies reagents have a wide range of applications in scientific research, clinical diagnosis and treatment, biotechnology, and biopharmaceuticals.
In scientific research, antibody reagents serve as essential tools for investigating protein function, interactions, and signaling pathways. Using specific antibodies, researchers can detect and quantify the expression levels of target molecules and study their localization and function in cells and tissues.
CUSABIO's antibody products have been validated for various experimental techniques, including ELISA, WB, IHC/ICC, IF, IP/Co-IP, ChIP, and FC. These testing methods combine the specificity and sensitivity of antibodies, providing powerful tools for scientific research.
In clinical diagnosis and treatment, antibody reagents are widely used for early disease detection, pathological analysis, and treatment monitoring. Antibody-based detection techniques, such as ELISA and immunohistochemistry, are employed to detect specific disease markers or pathogens, aiding in accurate diagnosis. Additionally, antibody therapeutics, such as monoclonal antibodies, have become crucial for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases.
In biotechnology and biopharmaceuticals, antibody reagents are utilized for the production of recombinant proteins, biologics, and vaccines. By leveraging the high specificity and affinity of antibodies, specific proteins can be selected and purified for drug production and quality control. Moreover, antibodies are employed as part of targeted drug delivery systems to enhance the selectivity and efficacy of medications. CUSABIO provides Lead selection of antibody drug discovery services to support drug development.