The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway integrates both intracellular and extracellular signals and plays an important role in multiple cellular functions, such as cell metabolism, growth, proliferation and survival.
mTOR signaling controls several fundamental biological processes including translation and turnover of proteins, lipid and glucose metabolism, cellular growth, proliferation, survival, autophagy, cytoskeleton organization, etc. Aberrant mTOR signaling has been linked to the pathophysiology of diseases like cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes.
Rapamycin (mTOR) is a highly conserved atypical serine/threonine protein kinase. mTORC links with proteins to form two multi-protein complexes serves as a core component of two distinct protein complexes, the mTOR complex (mTORC) 1 and mTORC2. The two distinct protein complex regulate different celluar processes.
As a core component of both complexes, mTOR functions as a serine/threonine protein kinase that regulates cell growth, cell proliferation, cell motility, cell survival, protein synthesis, autophagy, and transcription.
The two complexes contain two same parts, mLST8/GβL and DEPTOR. Besides the two parts, mTORC1 also contains Raptor and PRAS40 proteins, wherein Raptor interacts with the target of rapamycin signaling (TOS) motifs of mTOR substrates in a rapamycin-sensitive manner to activate this complex.
Contrastingly, mTORC2 also contains Rictor, mSIN1, and Protor1/2, and the functional activity of mTORC2 is dependent on Rictor and mSIN1. mTOR signaling can be activated by upstream signals including growth factors (e.g., Insulin, IGF1), cellular stress, metabolism/energy state (e.g., O2 and ATP/ADP), amino acid nutrients (e.g., Leucine and Arginine), and neurotransmitters (e.g., Neuropeptides and Glutamate).
The mTOR pathway is one of the most studied signaling pathways and is involved in trauma and various diseases in the CNS. mTOR signaling is affected in a number of neurodegenerative conditions, including Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, cerebral stroke and Huntington's disease, and inhibition of mTOR activity can reduce the neurodegeneration associated with these conditions.
Here is the figure of mTOR signaling pathway. You can click the image to enlarge it.
|AKT1||AKT1 Antibody||AKT1 Protein||AKT1 cDNA||AKT1 ELISA Kit|
|AKT1S1||AKT1S1 Antibody||AKT1S1 Protein||AKT1S1 cDNA||AKT1S1 ELISA Kit|
|AKT2||AKT2 Antibody||AKT2 Protein||AKT2 cDNA||AKT2 ELISA Kit|
|AKT3||AKT3 Antibody||AKT3 Protein||AKT3 cDNA||AKT3 ELISA Kit|
|ATP6V1A||ATP6V1A Antibody||ATP6V1A Protein||ATP6V1A cDNA||ATP6V1A ELISA Kit|
|ATP6V1B1||ATP6V1B1 Antibody||ATP6V1B1 Protein||ATP6V1B1 cDNA||ATP6V1B1 ELISA Kit|
|ATP6V1B2||ATP6V1B2 Antibody||ATP6V1B2 Protein||ATP6V1B2 cDNA||ATP6V1B2 ELISA Kit|
|ATP6V1C1||ATP6V1C1 Antibody||ATP6V1C1 Protein||ATP6V1C1 cDNA||ATP6V1C1 ELISA Kit|
|ATP6V1C2||ATP6V1C2 Antibody||ATP6V1C2 Protein||ATP6V1C2 cDNA||ATP6V1C2 ELISA Kit|
|ATP6V1D||ATP6V1D Antibody||ATP6V1D Protein||ATP6V1D cDNA||ATP6V1D ELISA Kit|
|ATP6V1E1||ATP6V1E1 Antibody||ATP6V1E1 Protein||ATP6V1E1 cDNA||ATP6V1E1 ELISA Kit|
|ATP6V1E2||ATP6V1E2 Antibody||ATP6V1E2 Protein||ATP6V1E2 cDNA||ATP6V1E2 ELISA Kit|
|ATP6V1F||ATP6V1F Antibody||ATP6V1F Protein||ATP6V1F cDNA||ATP6V1F ELISA Kit|
|ATP6V1G1||ATP6V1G1 Antibody||ATP6V1G1 Protein||ATP6V1G1 cDNA||ATP6V1G1 ELISA Kit|
|ATP6V1G2||ATP6V1G2 Antibody||ATP6V1G2 Protein||ATP6V1G2 cDNA||ATP6V1G2 ELISA Kit|
|ATP6V1G3||ATP6V1G3 Antibody||ATP6V1G3 Protein||ATP6V1G3 cDNA||ATP6V1G3 ELISA Kit|
|ATP6V1H||ATP6V1H Antibody||ATP6V1H Protein||ATP6V1H cDNA||ATP6V1H ELISA Kit|
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|CAB39||CAB39 Antibody||CAB39 Protein||CAB39 cDNA||CAB39 ELISA Kit|
|CAB39L||CAB39L Antibody||CAB39L Protein||CAB39L cDNA||CAB39L ELISA Kit|
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