The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration.
The MAPK signaling pathway is essential in regulating many cellular processes including inflammation, cell stress response, cell differentiation, cell division, cell proliferation, metabolism, motility and apoptosis. The role of the MAPK pathway in cancer, immune disorders and neurodegenerative diseases has been well recognized.
Mammals express at least four distinctly regulated groups of MAPKs, extracellular signal-related kinases (ERK)-1/2, Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNK1/2/3), p38 proteins (p38alpha/beta/gamma/delta) and ERK5 that are activated by specific MAPKKs: MEK1/2 for ERK1/2, MKK3/6 for the p38, MKK4/7 (JNKK1/2) for the JNKs, and MEK5 for ERK5.
But each MAPKK can be activated by more than one MAPKKK, increasing the complexity and diversity of MAPK signaling. Presumably each MAPKKK confers responsiveness to distinct stimuli. As shown in the following picture, Classical mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway activation begins at the cell membrane where small GTPases and various protein kinases phosphorylate MAPKKKs. Subsequently, MAPKKKs directly phosphorylate and activate MAPKKs. Once phosphorylated, activated MAPKs phosphorylate numerous cytoplasmic substrates and ultimately modulate transcription factors that drive context-specific gene expression.
Although MAPK signaling cascades are depicted as simple linear, unidirectional groups of protein kinases, the pathway is highly complex, actually. A large degree of cross-talk within the MAPK cascades and other signaling networks exists. For example, interactions between mediators of the MAPK, PI3K networks, NFκB pathway and JAK-STAT pathway are well documented. Here is the MAPK signaling pathway. You can click the image to enlarge it.
|AKT1||AKT1 Antibody||AKT1 Protein||AKT1 cDNA||AKT1 ELISA Kit|
|AKT2||AKT2 Antibody||AKT2 Protein||AKT2 cDNA||AKT2 ELISA Kit|
|AKT3||AKT3 Antibody||AKT3 Protein||AKT3 cDNA||AKT3 ELISA Kit|
|ANGPT1||ANGPT1 Antibody||ANGPT1 Protein||ANGPT1 cDNA||ANGPT1 ELISA Kit|
|ANGPT2||ANGPT2 Antibody||ANGPT2 Protein||ANGPT2 cDNA||ANGPT2 ELISA Kit|
|ANGPT4||ANGPT4 Antibody||ANGPT4 Protein||ANGPT4 cDNA||ANGPT4 ELISA Kit|
|ARAF||ARAF Antibody||ARAF Protein||ARAF cDNA||ARAF ELISA Kit|
|AREG||AREG Antibody||AREG Protein||AREG cDNA||AREG ELISA Kit|
|ARRB1||ARRB1 Antibody||ARRB1 Protein||ARRB1 cDNA||ARRB1 ELISA Kit|
|ARRB2||ARRB2 Antibody||ARRB2 Protein||ARRB2 cDNA||ARRB2 ELISA Kit|
|ATF2||ATF2 Antibody||ATF2 Protein||ATF2 cDNA||ATF2 ELISA Kit|
|ATF4||ATF4 Antibody||ATF4 Protein||ATF4 cDNA||ATF4 ELISA Kit|
|BDNF||BDNF Antibody||BDNF Protein||BDNF cDNA||BDNF ELISA Kit|
|BRAF||BRAF Antibody||BRAF Protein||BRAF cDNA||BRAF ELISA Kit|
|CACNA1A||CACNA1A Antibody||CACNA1A Protein||CACNA1A cDNA||CACNA1A ELISA Kit|
|CACNA1B||CACNA1B Antibody||CACNA1B Protein||CACNA1B cDNA||CACNA1B ELISA Kit|
|CACNA1C||CACNA1C Antibody||CACNA1C Protein||CACNA1C cDNA||CACNA1C ELISA Kit|
|CACNA1D||CACNA1D Antibody||CACNA1D Protein||CACNA1D cDNA||CACNA1D ELISA Kit|
|CACNA1E||CACNA1E Antibody||CACNA1E Protein||CACNA1E cDNA||CACNA1E ELISA Kit|
|CACNA1F||CACNA1F Antibody||CACNA1F Protein||CACNA1F cDNA||CACNA1F ELISA Kit|
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