Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling pathway is a series of signal transduction processes mediated by transforming growth factor. TGF-β signaling pathway plays a key role in cell proliferation, interstitial production, differentiation, apoptosis, embryonic development, organ formation, immune function and inflammatory response.
Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily is composed of many genes which coding secretory protein, mainly includes TGF-βs, the growth and differentiation factor (GDF) subfamily, an extensive bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) subfamily, activin, inhibin, anti-muller hormone, follistatin (FS), mullerian inhibitor substance (MIS), etc, as well as several additional members such as myostatin (Mstn) cloned from mouse skeletal muscle. More details>>
As shown in the following figure, a wide spectrum of cellular functions such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation and migration are regulated by TGF-beta family members. TGF-beta family member binds to the Type II receptor and recruits Type I, whereby Type II receptor phosphorylates and activates Type I.
The Type I receptor, in turn, phosphorylates receptor-activated Smads (R-Smads: Smad1, Smad2, Smad3, Smad5, and Smad8). Once phosphorylated, R-Smads associate with the co-mediator Smad, Smad4, and the heteromeric complex then translocates into the nucleus. In the nucleus, Smad complexes activate specific genes through cooperative interactions with other DNA-binding and coactivator (or co-repressor) proteins.
TGF-β is a growth factor with multi-function on target cells. Almost every cell in the body produces TGF-β and has its receptor. It plays an important regulatory role in the differentiation of tissues and cells, and can stimulate or inhibit the proliferation of various cells.
In addition, it has a significant impact on the body's immune system. They play an important role in tumorigenesis and metastasis. More details>>
Here is the figure of TGF-beta signaling pathway. You can click the image to enlarge it.
|ACVR1||ACVR1 Antibody||ACVR1 Protein||ACVR1 cDNA||ACVR1 ELISA Kit|
|ACVR1B||ACVR1B Antibody||ACVR1B Protein||ACVR1B cDNA||ACVR1B ELISA Kit|
|ACVR1C||ACVR1C Antibody||ACVR1C Protein||ACVR1C cDNA||ACVR1C ELISA Kit|
|ACVR2A||ACVR2A Antibody||ACVR2A Protein||ACVR2A cDNA||ACVR2A ELISA Kit|
|ACVR2B||ACVR2B Antibody||ACVR2B Protein||ACVR2B cDNA||ACVR2B ELISA Kit|
|AMH||AMH Antibody||AMH Protein||AMH cDNA||AMH ELISA Kit|
|AMHR2||AMHR2 Antibody||AMHR2 Protein||AMHR2 cDNA||AMHR2 ELISA Kit|
|BAMBI||BAMBI Antibody||BAMBI Protein||BAMBI cDNA||BAMBI ELISA Kit|
|BMP2||BMP2 Antibody||BMP2 Protein||BMP2 cDNA||BMP2 ELISA Kit|
|BMP4||BMP4 Antibody||BMP4 Protein||BMP4 cDNA||BMP4 ELISA Kit|
|BMP5||BMP5 Antibody||BMP5 Protein||BMP5 cDNA||BMP5 ELISA Kit|
|BMP6||BMP6 Antibody||BMP6 Protein||BMP6 cDNA||BMP6 ELISA Kit|
|BMP7||BMP7 Antibody||BMP7 Protein||BMP7 cDNA||BMP7 ELISA Kit|
|BMP8A||BMP8A Antibody||BMP8A Protein||BMP8A cDNA||BMP8A ELISA Kit|
|BMP8B||BMP8B Antibody||BMP8B Protein||BMP8B cDNA||BMP8B ELISA Kit|
|BMPR1A||BMPR1A Antibody||BMPR1A Protein||BMPR1A cDNA||BMPR1A ELISA Kit|
|BMPR1B||BMPR1B Antibody||BMPR1B Protein||BMPR1B cDNA||BMPR1B ELISA Kit|
|BMPR2||BMPR2 Antibody||BMPR2 Protein||BMPR2 cDNA||BMPR2 ELISA Kit|
|CDKN2B||CDKN2B Antibody||CDKN2B Protein||CDKN2B cDNA||CDKN2B ELISA Kit|
|CHRD||CHRD Antibody||CHRD Protein||CHRD cDNA||CHRD ELISA Kit|
Join the 25,000 subscribers to get research hotpots, technical tips, latest information on events, sales and offers.
Sign up now!
We don't deal in spam.