Autophagy is the natural, regulated, destructive mechanism of the cell that disassembles unnecessary or dysfunctional components, involving in protein degradation, organelle turnover, and non-selective breakdown of cytoplasmic components. Generally speaking, autophagy exists three types, including macroautophagy, microautophagy, and chaperone-mediated autophagy, but the term "autophagy" usually indicates macroautophagy unless otherwise specified.
Autophagy is an intracellular degradation system that delivers cytoplasmic constituents to the lysosome. Despite its simplicity, recent progress has demonstrated that autophagy plays a wide variety of physiological and pathophysiological roles, which are sometimes complex.
Autophagy consists of several sequential steps—sequestration, transport to lysosomes, degradation, and utilization of degradation products—and each step may exert different function.
This progress initiates with production of the autophagosome, a double-membrane intracellular structure of reticular origin that engulfs cytoplasmic contents and ultimately fuses with lysosomes for cargo degradation.
In mammals, amino acid sensing and additional signals such as growth factors and reactive oxygen species regulate the activity of the protein kinases mTOR and AMPK. These two kinases regulate autophagy pathway through inhibitory phosphorylation of the Unc-51-like kinases ULK1 and ULK2. Induction of autophagy results in the dephosphorylation and activation of the ULK kinases. Autophagy is upregulated in response to extra- or intracellular stress and signals such as starvation, growth factor deprivation, ER stress, and pathogen infection.
Defective autophagy plays a significant role in human pathologies, including cancer, neurodegeneration, and infectious diseases. If you want to know more information about autophagy including definition, types, pathway and related diseases, you can click the following link: https://www.cusabio.com/c-20666.html.
Additionally, for the hot topic of crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis, an intelligible guy has written a review about this topic. You can click here to view the full text.
|AKT1||AKT1 Antibody||AKT1 Protein||AKT1 cDNA||AKT1 ELISA Kit|
|AKT1S1||AKT1S1 Antibody||AKT1S1 Protein||AKT1S1 cDNA||AKT1S1 ELISA Kit|
|AKT2||AKT2 Antibody||AKT2 Protein||AKT2 cDNA||AKT2 ELISA Kit|
|AKT3||AKT3 Antibody||AKT3 Protein||AKT3 cDNA||AKT3 ELISA Kit|
|AMBRA1||AMBRA1 Antibody||AMBRA1 Protein||AMBRA1 cDNA||AMBRA1 ELISA Kit|
|ATG10||ATG10 Antibody||ATG10 Protein||ATG10 cDNA||ATG10 ELISA Kit|
|ATG101||ATG101 Antibody||ATG101 Protein||ATG101 cDNA||ATG101 ELISA Kit|
|ATG12||ATG12 Antibody||ATG12 Protein||ATG12 cDNA||ATG12 ELISA Kit|
|ATG13||ATG13 Antibody||ATG13 Protein||ATG13 cDNA||ATG13 ELISA Kit|
|ATG14||ATG14 Antibody||ATG14 Protein||ATG14 cDNA||ATG14 ELISA Kit|
|ATG16L1||ATG16L1 Antibody||ATG16L1 Protein||ATG16L1 cDNA||ATG16L1 ELISA Kit|
|ATG16L2||ATG16L2 Antibody||ATG16L2 Protein||ATG16L2 cDNA||ATG16L2 ELISA Kit|
|ATG2A||ATG2A Antibody||ATG2A Protein||ATG2A cDNA||ATG2A ELISA Kit|
|ATG2B||ATG2B Antibody||ATG2B Protein||ATG2B cDNA||ATG2B ELISA Kit|
|ATG3||ATG3 Antibody||ATG3 Protein||ATG3 cDNA||ATG3 ELISA Kit|
|ATG4A||ATG4A Antibody||ATG4A Protein||ATG4A cDNA||ATG4A ELISA Kit|
|ATG4B||ATG4B Antibody||ATG4B Protein||ATG4B cDNA||ATG4B ELISA Kit|
|ATG4C||ATG4C Antibody||ATG4C Protein||ATG4C cDNA||ATG4C ELISA Kit|
|ATG4D||ATG4D Antibody||ATG4D Protein||ATG4D cDNA||ATG4D ELISA Kit|
|ATG5||ATG5 Antibody||ATG5 Protein||ATG5 cDNA||ATG5 ELISA Kit|