Transmembrane protein (TP), also known as intact protein, is a type of membrane protein exists in the whole biofilm. Transmembrane protein plays an important role in basic physiological processes, including molecule transport, signal transduction, energy utilization, etc. On one hand, they are useful for signaling to the cell what the external environment contains. On the other hand, they serve as a way for the cell to gather information about the external environment.
Almost 30% of genes in genomic sequence encode transmembrane proteins, of which 50% are targets for currently known drugs. However, expression and purification of transmembrane protein are very difficult. And CUSABIO will help you to overcome the difficulties.
Why Choose Us?
CUSABIO, as an experienced protein manufacturer, provides three technology platforms to fuel the development of transmembrane proteins, including virus like particles (VLPs) platform, detergent micelle platform and nanodisc Platform. Since establishment of these platforms, 200 proteins have been successfully produced with a yield of mg/ml, which contains 99 transmembrane proteins (TPs) with 1-15 transmembrane domains and toxic proteins that are difficult to express in traditional E.coli expression systems. We have also produced high molecular weight proteins (130 kDa -140 kDa) that contain multiple transmembrane domains.
Based on these advantages, CUSABIO can produce 36,000+ multiple transmembrane proteins, mainly including G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), Aquaporin (AQP), Ion channel, ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC), Human leucocyte antigen (HLA), drug target protein, and more.
● Multiple membrane protein expression technology platforms.
Virus Like Particles (VLPs) Platform
Virus Like Particles (VLPs) are nanometer-scale particles formed by the automatic assembly of one or more capsid proteins of multiple viruses. VLPs do not contain viral nucleic acid, cannot replicate autonomously, have high safety, and an overall structure similar to virus particles.
Detergent Micelle Platform
Detergents are bipolar molecules, which can disintegrate lipid membranes to release membrane proteins, and provide a hydrophobic environment for membrane proteins in the state of membrane removal in solution to maintain the hydrophobic transmembrane structure of membrane proteins. This characteristic is used to solve the problem of natural conformation in TPs expression.
A few TPs that are sensitive to detergents are not suitable for buffer containing detergents, which are specifically characterized as being unable to be purified, easily degraded and inactive. For this type of membrane protein, we suggest to try the nanodiscs technology.
● Nearly 200 full-length membrane proteins have been successfully developed.
● High purity determined by SDS-PAGE.
● High Specificity Validated by Western blot (WB).
● Good bioactivity validated by Functional ELISA.
● Correct structure validated by SEM.
Transmembrane Proteins Catalog
Here is the catalog of all transmembrane proteins. You can find the right ones for your research, or search them in the search box on the header part of this website.
If you can’t find the protein you need, please check CUSABIO protein custom service.
* Browse products by selecting the initials of target names.
Transmembrane proteins are located at the interface between cells and the outside world, mediating the signal transduction between cells and the outside world, and performing many important cellular biological functions. For example, it is a receptor for various signaling molecules, hormones and other substrates; it is involved in the exchange of substances, energy and signal between the inside and outside of the cell membrane; it constitutes a channel for various ion transmembranes, which inputs nutrients and some inorganic electrolytes into cells, and discharges toxic or useless metabolites into cells.
Cell-free expression systems play an important role in the expression of transmembrane proteins due to their unique advantages.
In a cell-free expression system, we can modify transmembrane proteins. For example, non-natural amino acids can be added to the protein expression to realize the complex modification process that is difficult to be solved after conventional recombinant expression.
Compared with the traditional intracellular protein expression system, the cell-free system has significant advantages. For details, click the link below: https://www.cusabio.com/protein_service/In_vitro_E.coli_Expression_System.html
The types and functions of transmembrane proteins expressed by cell-free expression system are diverse. Currently, the most popular products are listed as follows:
- G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR): G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) is a general term for a large class of membrane protein receptors. It binds to extracellular molecules and activates internal signal transduction pathways, ultimately activating cellular responses. GPCRs mediate signals involving visual control, kidney function, tumorigenesis, immune response, and inflammation.
For more details, please click the following link: https://www.cusabio.com/c-20796.html
- Aquaporin (AQP): Aquaporin is a protein located on the cell membrane (internal membrane protein) that forms "channels" in the cell membrane that control the flow of water in and out of cells.
Now we have already successfully developed some active aquaporins through the cell-free expression system. Detergent plays an important role in the extraction, purification and operation of membrane proteins.
To learn more about the use of detergent in aquaporin, this article may help you: The Nature of Detergent and Its Application in Membrane Proteins
- Ion channel: Ion channel is a passive transport pathway for various inorganic ions across the membrane and an important way for living cells to carry out metabolic activities and material exchange. Ion channels have great significance for the realization of various functions of cells.
You may want to learn more about the function of ion channels, please click here: A Switch that Controls the Entry and Exit of Ions
- ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC): ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein can bind and hydrolyze ATP and use energy to drive various molecules across the plasma membrane as well as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), peroxisome and mitochondrial inner membrane. It is involved in the transport of specific molecules on the lipid membrane and the resistance in all organisms.
More information about ABC structure, function, and its relationship with disease can be found in this article: A transport machine -- ATP-binding cassette
- Human leucocyte antigen (HLA): HLA is a protein or antigen found on the surface of cells in the body, which specifically presents short peptides to T cells and haves a key role in the immune defense of the body. The clinical application of HLA is mainly the matching of donor and recipient in organ transplantation.
If you are interested in information about it, this article fits your needs: Human Leukocyte Antigen: Distinguish between Friend and Foe
Transmembrane protein products expressed by cell-free expression systems can be used to study the functions of transmembrane proteins. The integration of transmembrane proteins into vesicles for structural and functional studies is a hot topic in membrane protein research.
According to its structure, transmembrane proteins can be classified into alpha helix and β - barrel membrane proteins. For details, please refer to the article: A Resume for Transmembrane Proteins.