Human Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9(PCSK9) ELISA kit

Code CSB-EL017647HU
Size 96T,5×96T,10×96T
Trial Size 24T ELISA kits trial application
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Product Details

Description

This human PCSK9 ELISA kit employs the quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique to measure the levels of human PCSK9 in different samples, including serum, plasma, or tissue homogenates. The enzyme-substrate chromogenic reaction is also used to amplify the signal and quantify the levels of the analyte through the intensity of the colored product. The color intensity positively correlates with the amount of PCSK9 bound in the initial step.

PCSK9 is a serine protease that acts as a ligand for the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and is a master participant in cholesterol homeostasis. PCSK9 upregulates LDL-cholesterol levels by binding to the LDLR and promoting its lysosomal degradation. PCSK9/LDLR binding also induces lysosomal degradation inside the cells thus resulting in a reduced LDLRexpression on the cell membrane. It is an important drug target due to its crucial role in lipid metabolism. High levels of PCSK9 are linked to enhanced increased atherosclerosis progress independent of LDL levels. PCSK9 also exerts pleiotropic roles in promoting inflammation in atherosclerosis.

Target Name proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9
Alternative Names Convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 preproprotein ELISA Kit; FH3 ELISA Kit; HCHOLA3 ELISA Kit; Hypercholesterolemia autosomal dominant 3 ELISA Kit; LDLCQ1 ELISA Kit; NARC 1 ELISA Kit; NARC-1 ELISA Kit; NARC1 ELISA Kit; Neural apoptosis regulated convertase 1 ELISA Kit; Neural apoptosis-regulated convertase 1 ELISA Kit; PC 9 ELISA Kit; PC9 ELISA Kit; PCSK 9 ELISA Kit; PCSK9 ELISA Kit; PCSK9_HUMAN ELISA Kit; Proprotein convertase 9 ELISA Kit; Proprotein convertase PC9 ELISA Kit; Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 ELISA Kit; PSEC0052 ELISA Kit; Subtilisin/kexin like protease PC9 ELISA Kit; Subtilisin/kexin-like protease PC9 ELISA Kit
Abbreviation PCSK9
Uniprot No. Q8NBP7
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Sample Types serum, plasma, tissue homogenates
Detection Range 0.45 ng/mL-30 ng/mL
Sensitivity 0.11 ng/mL
Assay Time 1-5h
Sample Volume 50-100ul
Detection Wavelength 450 nm
Research Area Metabolism
Assay Principle quantitative
Measurement Competitive
Precision
Intra-assay Precision (Precision within an assay): CV%<8%      
Three samples of known concentration were tested twenty times on one plate to assess.  
Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays): CV%<10%      
Three samples of known concentration were tested in twenty assays to assess.    
             
Linearity
To assess the linearity of the assay, samples were spiked with high concentrations of human PCSK9 in various matrices and diluted with the Sample Diluent to produce samples with values within the dynamic range of the assay.
  Sample Serum(n=4)  
1:100 Average % 87  
Range % 84-90  
1:200 Average % 101  
Range % 94-106  
1:400 Average % 92  
Range % 88-97  
1:800 Average % 100  
Range % 95-105  
Recovery
The recovery of human PCSK9 spiked to levels throughout the range of the assay in various matrices was evaluated. Samples were diluted prior to assay as directed in the Sample Preparation section.
Sample Type Average % Recovery Range  
Serum (n=5) 97 94-101  
EDTA plasma (n=4) 101 97-103  
             
             
Typical Data
These standard curves are provided for demonstration only. A standard curve should be generated for each set of samples assayed.
ng/ml OD1 OD2 Average    
30 0.090 0.086 0.088    
15 0.228 0.241 0.235    
7.5 0.351 0.372 0.362    
3.75 0.573 0.598 0.586    
1.8 0.927 0.936 0.932    
0.9 1.607 1.632 1.620    
0.45 1.907 1.876 1.892    
0 2.655 2.615 2.635    
ELISA Data Analysis Watch ELISA data processing video & download Curve Expert if needed
Troubleshooting
and FAQs
ELISA kit FAQs
Storage Store at 2-8°C. Please refer to protocol.
Lead Time 3-5 working days

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Target Background

Function
(From Uniprot)
Crucial player in the regulation of plasma cholesterol homeostasis. Binds to low-density lipid receptor family members: low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR), apolipoprotein E receptor (LRP1/APOER) and apolipoprotein receptor 2 (LRP8/APOER2), and promotes their degradation in intracellular acidic compartments. Acts via a non-proteolytic mechanism to enhance the degradation of the hepatic LDLR through a clathrin LDLRAP1/ARH-mediated pathway. May prevent the recycling of LDLR from endosomes to the cell surface or direct it to lysosomes for degradation. Can induce ubiquitination of LDLR leading to its subsequent degradation. Inhibits intracellular degradation of APOB via the autophagosome/lysosome pathway in a LDLR-independent manner. Involved in the disposal of non-acetylated intermediates of BACE1 in the early secretory pathway. Inhibits epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC)-mediated Na(+) absorption by reducing ENaC surface expression primarily by increasing its proteasomal degradation. Regulates neuronal apoptosis via modulation of LRP8/APOER2 levels and related anti-apoptotic signaling pathways.
Gene References into Functions
  1. The present study shows that serum PCSK9 levels, but not PCSK9 polymorphisms, are associated with coronary artery disease risk in Southern Chinese Han population, and that serum PCSK9 levels are positively associated with AIP PMID: 30205809
  2. In Japanese male subjects, the concentrations of serum PCSK9 and TBIL were correlated with periodontal parameters. PMID: 29516504
  3. C679X loss-of-function PCSK9 variant lowers fasting glucose levels. PMID: 30227170
  4. There was no protective or no deleterious effect of carrying PCSK9 LOF mutations on AD [Alzheimer disease]prevalence nor on age of onset, even when stratified by apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 genotype or by gender. Conclusion: Our data indicate that carrying PCSK9 LOF mutations has a neutral effect on neurocognitive health and the prevalence of AD [Alzheimer disease]. PMID: 29562810
  5. High serum PCSK9 levels predict acute coronary syndrome occurrence at 24-month follow-up after carotid endarterectomy in patients with severe carotid artery stenosis. PMID: 29754909
  6. Taken together, the present study provides evidence of a pro-inflammatory action of PCSK9 on macrophages, mainly dependent by the LDLR. PMID: 29396513
  7. HepG2 cell lines transfected with siRNA directed to PCSK9 were challenged with Hcy, homocysteine thiolactone (HTL), testosterone, 5alpha-dihydroxytestosterone (5alpha-DHT), or estradiol for 24h, leading to an overt expression of PCSK9 and down-regulated expression of LDLR. PMID: 29660344
  8. Plasma PCSK9 levels and lipoprotein distribution are preserved in hypolipoproteinemia carriers. PMID: 29852278
  9. Inverse correlation between PCSK9 and CD36 in hypertrophic adipocytes may be associated with AAA development. PMID: 30210081
  10. Plasma Lp(a) level was associated with PCSK9 in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia PMID: 29129821
  11. Authors performed an analysis of public databases and literature for every variant published associated with FH, in the genes LDLR, APOB, and PCSK9. PMID: 29261184
  12. PCSK9 levels increase as glucose metabolism deteriorated. Serum PCSK9 levels positively correlated with 2-hPG (2-h postchallenge plasma glucose) in Chinese Han patients with glucose metabolic diseases. PMID: 29343301
  13. PCSK9i-treated patients had higher rates of cardiovascular comorbidities. PMID: 28849360
  14. PCSK9 overexpression in the aorta may promote acute aortic dissection. PMID: 29197601
  15. High PCSK9 expression is associated with metabolic syndrome. PMID: 28283395
  16. A positive association between plasma PCSK9 concentration and coronary artery calcification in untreated patients with angina-like chest pain was observed in our study, suggesting that further investigation may be needed in order to confirm our primary findings and explore the clinical implications PMID: 28166668
  17. In conclusion, PCSK9 inhibitors such as alirocumab may be an excellent lipid lowering agent in patients with statin intolerance and myotonic dystrophy. PMID: 29056268
  18. Obesity and type 2 diabetes were associated with significantly higher serum levels in young women, but not in young men PMID: 28093849
  19. Reduction of LDL-C With PCSK9 Inhibition in Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia Disorder (RUTHERFORD; phase 2) and RUTHERFORD-2 (phase 3). PMID: 29066265
  20. We present a case of homozygous familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 due to APOB R3500Q (rs5742904) treated with evolocumab ..Identification of a patient homozygous for familial defective apolipoprotein B-100(FDB) and successful treatment with PCSK9 inhibition PMID: 28988723
  21. A complex link between hepatitis C virus infection and PCSK9 has emerged, in which a bidirectional loop of interactions is conceivable. (Review) PMID: 28722331
  22. Genetically determined PCSK9 deficiency might be associated with ectopic fat accumulation. PMID: 28758421
  23. These results suggest that PCSK9 rs7552841 is associated with plasma lipids profiles only in female adolescents, but not in male students. This association can be modified and negated by posttraumatic stress disorder. PMID: 29081489
  24. PCSK9 carriers tended to be associated with an increased response to simvastatin therapy PMID: 28851085
  25. PCSK9 polymorphism may affect HIV pathogenesis, particularly in HIV/hepatitis C coinfected women. A likely mechanism for this effect is PCSK9-mediated regulation of cholesterol metabolism. PMID: 29120899
  26. There was no relationship between plasma PCSK9 levels and arterial stiffness. PMID: 28816230
  27. PCSK9 variants associated with lower LDL cholesterol were also associated with circulating higher fasting glucose concentration, body weight and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. PMID: 27908689
  28. ABGL4, LRP8 and PCSK9 polymorphisms and gene interactions increase cardiometabolic risk. PMID: 27853278
  29. these results provide insights into a novel coordinated interplay among three important molecular players in lipid homeostasis - circulating miR-24, miR-223 and PCSK9 - whose regulation is affected by HCV infection and treatment-based viral cure. PMID: 28864162
  30. The present study aimed to explore the direct toxicity of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) to atherosclerosis (AS) and its association with apoptotic endothelial cells. PMID: 28656218
  31. The minor allele frequency of the PCSK9 A443T, I474V, E670G, and C679X polymorphisms in healthy and malaria-infected Malian children was 0.12, 0.20, 0.26, and 0.02, respectively. 17.6% of subjects carried two of the four SNPs examined. Carriers of the minor allele of the E670G PCSK9 polymorphism might be more susceptible to severe malaria. PMID: 29447211
  32. Circulating PCSK9 concentration as a continuous variable was not significantly associated with the risk of cardiovascular events. More well-designed studies are needed to clarify the role of PCSK9 in cardiovascular risk. PMID: 28413188
  33. Data indicate that the elevation in plasma apoB-48 levels associated with FH is independent of PCSK9 levels. PMID: 28619117
  34. we discuss current experimental and clinical evidence of the role of PCSK9 and its inhibition on lipid metabolism and several pathologic conditions with a focus on clinical outcomes--{REVIEW} PMID: 27533061
  35. The E670G polymorphism of the PCSK9 gene is associated with the lipid levels and risk for coronary heart disease. PMID: 28981947
  36. Here, we assess the available evidence for the association of PCSK9 status with the incidence and control of diabetes mellitus in preclinical and clinical studies, and identify molecular mechanisms regulating PCSK9 expression in the diabetic state. [Review] PMID: 28111330
  37. These results demonstrated the molecular mechanisms of how HCV modulates PCSK9 promoter activity and advanced our understanding on the mutual interactions between HCV and PCSK9. PMID: 29397939
  38. These findings provide useful information for researchers interested in the fields of PCSK9 genetics and cardiovascular risk prediction not only for designing future studies, but also for clinical and public health applications PMID: 28606094
  39. Circulating PCSK9 is significantly related to arterial stiffness, independent of sex and menopausal status in women. PMID: 28468788
  40. Study demonstrated PCSK9 as a direct target of miR-224 and increased miR-224 or decreased PCSK9 could promote apoptosis and suppress proliferation, invasion of tumor cell line in pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms. PMID: 28036293
  41. There are no associations between PCSK9 levels and either glucose or lipid homeostasis parameters. Nevertheless, a statistically significant link was observed between PCSK9 and markers of insulin homeostasis, solely in CF patients who presented normal glucose tolerance. PMID: 28447578
  42. PCSK9 interacts with heparan sulfate proteoglycans.Heparan sulfate proteoglycans binding is required for PCSK9-induced LDLR degradation. PMID: 28894089
  43. The results of this study suggest that these biomarker PCSK9 can serve as a potential non-invasive early diagnosis platform reflecting PiB-PET imaging for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease. PMID: 27392853
  44. PCSK9 is not altered specifically in PCOS. PMID: 29109005
  45. A high-throughput time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay for autocleavage has been developed using a PCSK9 monoclonal antibody that is sensitive to the conformational changes that occur upon maturation of the proprotein. PMID: 27412534
  46. These studies provide a definitive characterization of the composition and activity of the truncated form of PCSK9 found in human serum PMID: 24776539
  47. PCSK9 loss-of-function variants were associated with a pooled odds ratio for coronary heart disease of 0.51 in blacks and 0.82 in whites. PMID: 28768753
  48. Mature PCSK9 associated with atheroma volume and impaired vessel remodeling in HeFH patients with coronary artery disease PMID: 28502498
  49. Despite having lower LDL-C, circulating PCSK9 levels were increased in patients coinfected with HIV and HCV in parallel with elevations in the inflammatory, proatherogenic cytokine interleukin-6. PMID: 27130349
  50. Circulating PCSK9 is associated with New-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) in renal transplant recipients. The PCSK9 pathway may contribute to the pathogenesis of NODAT. PMID: 28461454

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Involvement in disease Hypercholesterolemia, autosomal dominant, 3 (HCHOLA3)
Subcellular Location Cytoplasm. Secreted. Endosome. Lysosome. Cell surface. Endoplasmic reticulum. Golgi apparatus. Note=Autocatalytic cleavage is required to transport it from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus and for the secretion of the mature protein. Localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum in the absence of LDLR and colocalizes to the cell surface and to the endosomes/lysosomes in the presence of LDLR. The sorting to the cell surface and endosomes is required in order to fully promote LDLR degradation.
Protein Families Peptidase S8 family
Tissue Specificity Expressed in neuro-epithelioma, colon carcinoma, hepatic and pancreatic cell lines, and in Schwann cells.
Database Links

HGNC: 20001

OMIM: 603776

KEGG: hsa:255738

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000303208

UniGene: Hs.18844

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