A CANCER JOURNAL FOR CLINICIANS (CA, IF=244.59), is a review, peer-reviewed academic journal sponsored by the American Cancer Society, covering cancer diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Its impact factor has been at the forefront of SCI's annual release of JCR.
On September 12, 2018, CA published the latest global cancer morbidity and mortality statistics, assessing 36 cancer morbidity and mortality rates in 185 countries.
On January 8, 2019, CA issued a new article, "Cancer Statistics, 2019" was released, focusing on the data changes of the incidence, mortality, etc. of various types of tumors since 1991 with the development of human medicine. The whole report includes 28 pages, in which the incidence of cancer in recent years (by 2015) and the mortality rate (by 2016) in the United States were collated. It also predicted the estimated number of new cases and deaths of cancer in the 2019.
The data shows that in the 25 years from 1991-2016, the overall US cancer mortality rate has dropped by 27%, equivalent to a decrease in the number of cancer deaths of about 2.62 million. The report predicts that there will be 1,762,500 new cancer cases in the United States in 2019, and 406,800 deaths due to cancer.
1. It is estimated that 4,800 people are diagnosed with cancer every day
According to comprehensive data, it is estimated that the number of new cancers in the United States in 2019 is about 1,762,400, which is equivalent to 4,800 people diagnosed with cancer every day. It is estimated that 606,880 people will die of cancer, which is equivalent to nearly 1,700 deaths per day from cancer.
The top three male cases account for 42% of new cases:
The top three male deaths account for 33% of deaths:
The top three female new cases account for 51% of new cases:
The top three female deaths account for 46% of deaths:
▲Predicted number of new tumors and new deaths in the United States in 2019
2. The overall incidence of cancer is decreasing year by year
With the control of cancer risk factors and changes in medical practice, the overall incidence of cancer is decreasing year by year.
In the past decade of 2006-2015, the incidence of male cancer decreased by about 2% per year; in the past five years from 2011 to 2015, the incidence of male lung cancer and colorectal cancer accelerated at a rate of 3% per year, and prostate cancer declined. The rate reached 7% due to the promotion of prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening technology.
The overall incidence of cancer in women tends to be stable. Although the incidence of lung cancer and colorectal cancer declines, the incidence of other common cancers is stable or rising.
The decline in cancer mortality over the past two decades has been mainly due to the reduction in the number of smokers and the early detection of clinical tumors and the progress of cancer treatment, mainly reflected in four types of cancer: lung cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer and colorectal cancer.
The incidence of melanoma, liver cancer, thyroid cancer, uterine cancer, and pancreatic cancer continues to rise, especially in liver cancer, and both men and women are growing faster.
▲Trends in the incidence of cancer in men and women in the United States from 1975 to 2015
3. The cancer survival rate is increasing
Since the mid-1970s, in addition to cervical and uterine tumors, the 5-year survival rate of almost all common types of cancer has increased.
For all stages of cancer, according to the 5-year survival rate of cancer, prostate cancer has the highest 5-year survival rate (98%), followed by skin melanoma (92%) and female breast cancer (90%). Due to the limitations in diagnostic techniques, most cancer cases such as lung cancer and pancreatic cancer are diagnosed at an advanced stage. The 5-year survival rate of pancreatic cancer is the lowest (9%), followed by liver cancer (18%), esophageal cancer (19%), and lung cancer (19%).
▲5-year relative survival rate of cancer at different stages of different races in the United States, (2008-2014)
4. The trend of cancer mortality
Compared with the incidence or survival rate, cancer mortality can better reflect the progress of fighting cancer.
From 1991 to 2016, the overall cancer death rate fell by 27% (215.1/100,000 people vs. 156.0/100,000 people), which is equivalent to a reduction of about 2.6 million deaths.
The decline in cancer mortality is mainly attributable to the steady decline in smoking and early diagnosis and treatment progress, which is reflected in the rapid decline in lung cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer and colon cancer mortality.
Prostate cancer mortality experienced a steep decline (4% per year), thanks to PSA screening and treatment progress.
For liver cancer, pancreatic cancer, uterine tumors, and brain and other nervous system tumors, soft tissue tumors (including the heart), HPV-related oral and pharyngeal cancers, mortality increased in 2012-2016.
Cervical cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death in women between the ages of 20 and 39, with 9 deaths per week at this age. This finding underscores the need to increase HPV vaccination among adolescents and to adhere to screening guidelines among young women.
5. The incidence of cancer varies due to the gap between rich and poor
By comparing the overall cancer mortality rate in the poorest and most affluent regions of the United States during 2012-2016, it was found that the overall cancer mortality rate in the poorest regions was about 20% higher than in the richest regions.
This shows that there are differences in cancer mortality rates in different socioeconomic status areas, and the biggest difference is reflected in the majority of cancer-preventable mortality rates. For example, the mortality rate of cervical cancer in women in poor areas is twice that of rich areas, and the mortality rate of male lung cancer and liver cancer is 40% higher.
This is mainly related to the high prevalence of bad behavior in poor areas, such as higher smoking rates and obesity rates. In addition, early screening is less popular, cancer is diagnosed later, and the best treatment accessibility also affects cancer mortality.
6. Children and adolescent cancer
Total cancer mortality in children and adolescents has fallen by 65% for 45 years.
In addition to accidents, cancer is the second leading cause of death among children in the United States (1-14 years). In 2019, it is estimated that 1,060 children in this age group will be diagnosed with cancer, of which 1,190 will die. Leukemia accounts for nearly one-third (28%) of all childhood cancers, followed by brain and other neurological tumors (26%). The distribution of cancer in adolescents (15 to 19 years old) is different from that of children, with lymphoma being the most common.
Since 1975, the overall cancer incidence among children and adolescents has increased slightly by 0.7% per year. However, the mortality rate has continued to decline over the same period, a total of 65% (65% for children and 61% for adolescents).
7. The decline in cancer mortality is attributed to 3 points
●Smoking is reduced stably
Since 1964, the United States has begun to widely publicize the dangers of cigarettes and called on the American people to smoke less. Thirty years later, the incidence of lung cancer in the United States has slowly declined.
●Early cancer screening
In the case of breast cancer, since the American people have a regular awareness of breast cancer screening, 80% of breast cancer can be found early. Since 1990, the United States has been screening for colorectal cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. In 25 years, breast cancer mortality has decreased by 39%, prostate cancer has decreased by 53%, and female colorectal cancer has decreased by 44%. Colorectal cancer was reduced by 47%. It can be seen that carrying out targeted anti-cancer physical examination is an important measure to reduce cancer mortality.
●Medical technology innovation
The highly developed medical industry in the United States has driven innovation in medical technology, and new medical technologies and tools have emerged in the United States, particularly in drug discovery and research and development.
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