Human Apelin ELISA kit

Instructions
Code CSB-E14334h
Size 96T,5×96T,10×96T
See More Details 24T ELISA kits trial application
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Product Details

Target Name apelin
Alternative Names AGTRL1 ligand ELISA Kit; APEL ELISA Kit; APEL_HUMAN ELISA Kit; Apelin 13 ELISA Kit; Apelin-13 ELISA Kit; APJ endogenous ligand ELISA Kit; Apln ELISA Kit; XNPEP2 ELISA Kit
Abbreviation APLN
Uniprot No. Q9ULZ1
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Sample Types serum, plasma, cell culture supernates
Detection Range 125 pg/mL-8000 pg/mL
Sensitivity 31.25 pg/mL
Assay Time 1-5h
Sample Volume 50-100ul
Detection Wavelength 450 nm
Research Area Neuroscience
Assay Principle quantitative
Measurement Sandwich
Precision
Intra-assay Precision (Precision within an assay): CV%<8%
Three samples of known concentration were tested twenty times on one plate to assess.
Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays): CV%<10%
Three samples of known concentration were tested in twenty assays to assess.
Linearity
To assess the linearity of the assay, samples were spiked with high concentrations of human apelin in various matrices and diluted with the Sample Diluent to produce samples with values within the dynamic range of the assay.
 SampleSerum(n=4)
1:1Average %96
Range %91-104
1:2Average %90
Range %84-96
1:4Average %86
Range %82-92
1:8Average %101
Range %98-106
Recovery
The recovery of human apelin spiked to levels throughout the range of the assay in various matrices was evaluated. Samples were diluted prior to assay as directed in the Sample Preparation section.
Sample TypeAverage % RecoveryRange
Serum (n=5) 9489-97
EDTA plasma (n=4)9994-105
Typical Data
These standard curves are provided for demonstration only. A standard curve should be generated for each set of samples assayed.
pg/mlOD1OD2AverageCorrected
80002.532 2.432 2.482 2.354
40001.904 1.804 1.854 1.726
20001.287 1.187 1.237 1.109
10000.726 0.716 0.721 0.593
5000.457 0.447 0.452 0.324
2500.355 0.345 0.350 0.222
1250.237 0.227 0.232 0.104
00.129 0.127 0.128  
Troubleshooting
and FAQs
ELISA kit FAQs
Storage Store at 2-8°C. Please refer to protocol.
Lead Time 3-5 working days

Q&A and Customer Reviews

 Q&A
Q:

Please confirm whether the below kit can be used with Saliva samples and also suggest suitable protocol for saliva sample preparation. CSB-E14334h Human Apelin ELISA kit

A:
Thanks for your inquiry. If you want to use the kit CSB-E14334h to test human saliva samples, here advice you to arrange preliminary experiment.
Here is the processing method on saliva sample preparation.You can take it as reference:Remove particulates by centrifugation for 10 minutes at 4000x g at 2-8°C and assay immediately or aliquot and store samples at -20°C. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Recommend to use fresh saliva samples.

Target Data

Function Endogenous ligand for APJ, an alternative coreceptor with CD4 for HIV-1 infection. Inhibits HIV-1 entry in cells coexpressing CD4 and APJ. Apelin-36 has a greater inhibitory activity on HIV infection than other synthetic apelin derivatives. The oral intake in the colostrum and the milk could have a role in the modulation of the immune responses in neonates. May also have a role in the central control of body fluid homeostasis by influencing AVP release and drinking behavior.
Gene References into Functions
  1. In hemodialysis patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, apelin peptide serum levels are significantly lower than patients with normal arterial pressure and this condition is not affected by hemodialysis. PMID: 30087215
  2. associated with reduced pressure pulsatility in rheumatoid arthritis patients without but not with a high inflammatory burden PMID: 29423718
  3. Review: apelin has certain therapeutic abilities and can be useful in the treatment of, e.g., insulin resistance, hypertension, etc., but it also can sometimes serve as a negative factor. PMID: 29750964
  4. In patients with acute obstructive coronary syndrome that had the V103V polymorphism of the APLN gene, they were at greater risk for coronary artery disease. PMID: 28902642
  5. The aims of this study were to evaluate and correlate circulating chemerin, apelin, vaspin, and omentin-1 levels in obese type 2 diabetic Egyptian patients with coronary artery stenosis (CAS), and to assess their usefulness as noninvasive diagnostic biomarkers. PMID: 28957639
  6. these observations suggest apelin-APJ signaling in hepatocytes functions to protect against lipid accumulation in liver through two signaling pathways, that is, via AMPK activation and PPARalpha induction. PMID: 28821440
  7. Studies suggest that apelin/APJ system may be applied to the treatment of cancers by regulating apoptosis, which may play a vital role in anticancer therapy [review]. PMID: 28407045
  8. miR-497 contributes to oxLDL-induced lipid deposition in macrophages largely via targeting of apelin. PMID: 28653788
  9. we have identified APLN as putative predictive bvz biomarker in CRC patients. High APLN levels predict a poor response to bvz therapy in CRC. PMID: 28487489
  10. serum level not associated with increased odds of severe hypertension PMID: 26869250
  11. Apelin-12 influences troponin I levels in the acute phase of STEMI, whereas during the non-acute phase, low apelin levels were associated with a high rate of MACE. PMID: 28728608
  12. Apelin concentrations are associated with altered plaque stability mediator levels and atherosclerosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. These relations are partially dependent on population origin and systemic inflammatory status. PMID: 28017911
  13. APLN and APLNR are present in human ovarian cells and APLN increases IGF1-induced steroidogenesis in granulosa cells through an increase in HSD3B protein expression and activation of the MAPK3/1 and Akt pathways. Therefore, APLN and APLNR may play a role in human follicular development and the pathogenesis of PCOS. PMID: 27683264
  14. Apelin levels mirror the cardiovascular changes seen in pregnancy. Serum and placental apelin levels are decreased in intrauterine growth restriction . PMID: 26880769
  15. Reduced apelin levels may enhance vasoconstriction to influence high BP and heart's workload in EH and ACS. PMID: 27543713
  16. Our data suggest that tumor Apelin can be used as a marker to evaluate clinical characteristics and predict prognosis in GC patients. PMID: 27733135
  17. The apelin/APLNR axis regulates cholangiocarcinoma cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. PMID: 27894959
  18. While plasma apelin increases in obesity, it decreases with increasing age and pubertal stage PMID: 24896245
  19. Increased plasma concentrations of apelin are associated with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction severity. PMID: 27889567
  20. Data suggest that the differential expression of Apelin and Apelin receptor APJ yields a "self-generated" gradient mechanisms that accelerates the extension of the sprout. PMID: 27828952
  21. Postmenopausal breast cancer patients had high levels of apelin and high BMI scores. PMID: 28039702
  22. For the first time, PRCP is identified as an apelin-cleaving enzyme. PMID: 27449720
  23. The aim of this study was to evaluate if polymorphisms of APLN and APLNR genes may play a role as susceptibility markers for hypertension in a group of Mexican-Mestizo patients. PMID: 27450650
  24. serum levels were not statistically different between patients with atrial fibrillation and coronary artery disease PMID: 27776716
  25. According to this study results, physicians may use initial apelin-12 levels which have a correlation with the disease severity calculated by SYNTAX score to stratify ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients to a high-risk group during hospitalization because of its level as an independent predictor of major adverse coronary event.s PMID: 27770057
  26. Six-month CT-apelin might be a valuable novel biomarker in identifying non-responders to cardiac resynchronization therapy that was superior to NT-proBNP PMID: 27471876
  27. high ACE and low apelin preoperatively have roles in CRP and MDA being increased postoperatively, which may be associated with postoperative atrial fibrillation after off pump coronary artery bypass grafting PMID: 28299332
  28. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the Apelin gene is associated with diabetes mellitus. PMID: 27831922
  29. Our results suggest that bisphenol A and its derivatives induce ovarian cancer cell progression by up-regulating apelin, which acts as a mitogenic factor in OVCAR-3 cells. PMID: 28111160
  30. APLN expression is significantly upregulated in human masticatory mucosa during wound healing PMID: 28005267
  31. The optimal gene-gene interaction model for both males and females with regard to hypertension was apelin rs3761581-apelin rs3115757-APJ rs7119375. In conclusion, gene polymorphisms of the apelin-APJ system are associated with susceptibility to hypertension. PMID: 27338090
  32. Lower apelin and higher visfatin plasma levels in high normal blood pressure subjects compared to normal or optimal BP individuals could partially explain the higher cardiovascular risk of the high normal BP group. PMID: 26276791
  33. apelin 13 levels are elevated in patients with PE. These results suggest that apelin may be a novel biomarker and a potential therapeutic target in patients with acute PE in the future. PMID: 25693918
  34. Up-regulation of apelin and APJ expression plays an important role in cardioprotection from myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID: 27854125
  35. There was no significant change in plasma apelin levels in acute pulmonary embolism. PMID: 26968282
  36. The concentrations of gastric peptide(Ghrelin and obestatin)and adipocytokines(omentin and Apelin ) across all subgroups were lower than in the control group. The differences were statistically significant (p < 0.0001), which may be of importance in the development of the disease complications PMID: 26904686
  37. Resequencing of the apelin gene in subjects stratified by low or high apelin levels identified five APLN variants in an European population. No association was found between the most frequent variant, diabetes, and metabolic parameters. PMID: 26789934
  38. These findings suggested that Apelin/APLNR signaling may be used as a potential therapeutic target for hypoxic/ischemic injury. PMID: 26676468
  39. apelin attenuates the osteoblastic differentiation of aortic valve interstitial cells via the ERK and PI3-K/Akt pathway PMID: 26142632
  40. Genetic variants in the apelin gene are significantly associated with the risk of coronary artery disease in the Turkish population. PMID: 25592107
  41. Apelin could activate multiple protective mechanisms to prevent heart, brain, liver and kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury. [Review] PMID: 25447414
  42. Apelin and APLN SNP rs3761581 was associated with combined hypertension with CRAE, indicating that the expression of APLN gene products may be involved in vascular injury. PMID: 25272042
  43. The expressions of apelin and APJ are significantly augmented by hypoxia through the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) signaling pathway. PMID: 26436483
  44. obese (especially diabese) youngsters demonstrated lower serum apelin levels; the G212A polymorphism of the APLNR gene was found to exert a favourable effect on circulating apelin levels in childhood obesity PMID: 25060841
  45. Apelin directly interferes with thrombin-mediated signaling pathways and platelet activation, secretion, and aggregation, but not with ADP and thromboxane A2-mediated pathways. PMID: 26634301
  46. apelin is a potential indicator of the vessel normalization window during antiangiogenic therapy. PMID: 26475217
  47. Mean vaspin and apelin levels were significantly lower in underweight children compared to controls PMID: 25915077
  48. Treatment with metformin and DPP4 inhibitor vildagliptin favorably changed glycemic indices and apelin levels in type 2 diabetics. PMID: 26316706
  49. Serum apelin is evelated in new-onset diabetes after transplant, and positively correlate with proteinuria. PMID: 26295182
  50. apelin13 promoted MCF-7 cell proliferation and invasion via the ERK1/2/AIB1 signaling pathway. PMID: 26135903
  51. apelin may be have a role in left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensive patients PMID: 26342945
  52. The apelin -1860T>C genotype may play an important predictive role in the response to losartan in hypertensive women. PMID: 26125862
  53. rs3115758 accounts for the susceptibility of arterial stiffening through miR-765-induced APLN repression. PMID: 25882991
  54. Data suggest expression of APLN is down-regulated in placental chorionic villi in pre-eclampsia as compared to control villi; pyroglutamate-apelin-13 is predominant form of endogenous apelin in chorionic villi of pre-eclamptic and normal pregnancies. PMID: 26394665
  55. The results of the study suggest that the levels of apelin, TNF-alpha and elastase-1 are important diagnostic markers of CP in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID: 26817104
  56. maternal serum levels were higher in women who subsequently developed early or late pre-eclampsia than in those who remained normotensive PMID: 25068525
  57. These results suggest a prospective role mediated by APLN rs3115757 variant in mounting obesity disorders and as significant as insulin resistance complications. PMID: 26025696
  58. apelin-13 has a role in inducing expression of prothrombotic tissue factor PMID: 25298206
  59. apelin was involved in the formation of epiretinal membranes and promoted the formation of adventitia, including glial, endothelial, and RPE cells PMID: 25324682
  60. In patients with cancer, apelin closely reflects the stage of the disease and represents a strong and independent risk marker for cancer progression. PMID: 24469934
  61. apelin is produced by arterial endothelial cells (ECs) during embryogenesis, induces chemotaxis of venous ECs, and promotes the production of secreted Frizzled-related protein 1 by apelin receptor(+) ECs PMID: 25920569
  62. An imbalance in the apelin and endothelin systems may contribute to an increasing number of vaso-occlusive episodes and baseline pain in children with sickle cell disease. PMID: 25486928
  63. apelin is a novel biomarker for predicting type 2 diabetes in men PMID: 24721640
  64. serum levels lower in acute myocardial infarction patients as compared to patients with stable angina PMID: 24933198
  65. rs3761581 and rs2235312 polymorphisms and methylation of the CpG island influence the expression of apelin in high-altitude pulmonary edema PMID: 25918383
  66. Apelin may play a role in glycaemic balance and even insulin sensitivity. PMID: 24417455
  67. Plasma apelin concentrations do not predict medium to long-term prognosis in patients with advanced HF secondary to left ventricular systolic dysfunction. PMID: 25224937
  68. Apelin was detected in all neonates and concentrations were positively correlated to sepsis scores. Neonates with sepsis had significantly elevated concentrations (8 folds increase) of serum apelin concentration as compared to controls. PMID: 25318629
  69. These results suggest that the increased in plasma apelin levels may be associated with exercise training-induced alternation of arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older adults. PMID: 24691252
  70. We failed to show an association between vitamin D, apelin and mean platelet volume PMID: 25156130
  71. built 3 homology 3-D models of the ApelinR and revealed the conservation at the bottom of the apelin binding site of a hydrophobic cavity in which the C-terminal Phe of pE13F was embedded PMID: 25359495
  72. Significant correlations of apelin with components of carbohydrate pool dedicate that apelin takes part in the development of gluco-metabolic disorders in essential hypertension. PMID: 25020167
  73. ATF4-mediated repression of apelin contributes substantially to the pro-apoptotic effects of p38. PMID: 25052841
  74. plasma apelin was increased in patients with good coronary collaterals and apelinwas an independent marker of good coronary collateral development PMID: 24905139
  75. confirmed for the first time that the dysregulated miR-224/ apelin axis may be associated with tumorigenesis and aggressive progression of prostate cancer PMID: 25532941
  76. In chronic hepatitis C apelin signaling may mediate the evolution and progression of dysplastic nodules and hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID: 24966992
  77. serine 348 on the apelin receptor is a novel regulatory phosphorylation site in apelin-13-induced G protein-independent biased signaling PMID: 25271156
  78. Our findings showed no significant association between the apelin rs2235306 variant and metabolic syndrome in a sample of the Iranian population. PMID: 25539544
  79. REVIEW: Growing evidence shows that apelin/APJ system functions as a critical mediator of cardiovascular homeostasis and is involved in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases. PMID: 24055369
  80. Adiponectin/T-cadherin and apelin/APJ expression patterns were found to be inversely associated with human aortic and coronary atherosclerosis. PMID: 24675084
  81. The data suggest that serum apelin levels are lower in women with polycystic ovary syndrome than in controls; apelin can be used as a specific marker for insulin sensitivity and lipid profile PMID: 24642195
  82. Apelin-APJ is overexpressed, and works as a signal for arteriogenesis in HCC. PMID: 25275024
  83. Apelin-12 levels are significantly higher in obese vs. non-obese girls in China and correlate significantly with obesity-related markers insulin, HOMA-IR, and triglycerides. PMID: 24475149
  84. This study is the first to demonstrate dual vasopressin/apelin adaptation mediated by inflammatory molecules and neuronal Trpv2, during aging. PMID: 24505289
  85. Apelinergic system has important roles in volume regulation, cardiovascular functions, lipid metabolism and bone mineral disorders in PD patients. PMID: 24433492
  86. Serum apelin is significantly higher in patients with metabolic syndrome. PMID: 24736484
  87. Hypothalamic actions of apelin on energy metabolism: new insight on glucose homeostasis and metabolic disorders PMID: 23950038
  88. Apelin messenger RNA is significantly decreased in pre-eclamptic placentas compared with normotensive pregnancies. PMID: 23844873
  89. Apelin is associated with kidney function decline in ADPKD, suggesting that it may be a new marker to predict kidney outcome PMID: 23973863
  90. The apelin-36 is locally synthesized in the arteries and veins and might be important markers in the cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID: 22884920
  91. Apelin levels might have a significant clinical use as a marker/predictor of cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization or even as a therapeutic agent for CKD patients with cardiovascular disease. PMID: 24089668
  92. A negative correlation between plasma apelin levels and blood pressure was found in this 1000-population-based epidemiological study PMID: 24032577
  93. Age and BMI were negatively correlated with several osteoarthritis- and obesity-related genes. Although the bulk of these changes appeared to be driven by age, expression of APLN was related to BMI. PMID: 23318714
  94. APLN is a critical regulator of the myocardial response to infarction and ischemia. PMID: 23817469
  95. This study, for the first time, reveals the antioxidant properties of apelin in adipocytes, and suggests its potential as a novel therapeutic target for metabolic diseases. PMID: 24362107
  96. Circulating concentration of apelin correlates with indices of bone turnover in gestational hypertensive disorders PMID: 23406471
  97. Human labor downregulates apelin expression in human fetal membranes. PMID: 23314958
  98. Apelin produces regulatory effects on drinking behavior, diuresis, arginine vasopressin (AVP) release and glucocorticoids secretion. [Review] PMID: 23557907
  99. In non-diabetic patients with ankylosing spondylitis on treatment with infliximab apelin serum levels do not correlate with disease activity or metabolic syndrome. PMID: 23484462
  100. upregulated apelin in type 2 diabetes promotes angiogenesis in glomeruli to form abnormal vessels PMID: 23577111

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Subcellular Location Secreted
Protein Families Apelin family
Tissue Specificity Expressed in the brain with highest levels in the frontal cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus and midbrain (PubMed:10617103). Secreted by the mammary gland into the colostrum and the milk.
Database Links

HGNC: 16665

OMIM: 300297

KEGG: hsa:8862

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000305464

UniGene: Hs.303084

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