Human Apelin ELISA kit

Code CSB-E14334h
Size 96T,5×96T,10×96T How to order?
Trial Size 24T ELISA kits trial application
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Product Details

Description

This Human APLN ELISA Kit was designed for the quantitative measurement of Human APLN protein in serum, plasma, cell culture supernates. It is a Sandwich ELISA kit, its detection range is 125 pg/mL-8000 pg/mL and the sensitivity is 31.25 pg/mL .

Target Name apelin
Alternative Names AGTRL1 ligand ELISA Kit; APEL ELISA Kit; APEL_HUMAN ELISA Kit; Apelin 13 ELISA Kit; Apelin-13 ELISA Kit; APJ endogenous ligand ELISA Kit; Apln ELISA Kit; XNPEP2 ELISA Kit
Abbreviation APLN
Uniprot No. Q9ULZ1
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Sample Types serum, plasma, cell culture supernates
Detection Range 125 pg/mL-8000 pg/mL
Sensitivity 31.25 pg/mL
Assay Time 1-5h
Sample Volume 50-100ul
Detection Wavelength 450 nm
Research Area Neuroscience
Assay Principle quantitative
Measurement Sandwich
Precision
Intra-assay Precision (Precision within an assay): CV%<8%
Three samples of known concentration were tested twenty times on one plate to assess.
Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays): CV%<10%
Three samples of known concentration were tested in twenty assays to assess.
Linearity
To assess the linearity of the assay, samples were spiked with high concentrations of human apelin in various matrices and diluted with the Sample Diluent to produce samples with values within the dynamic range of the assay.
 SampleSerum(n=4)
1:1Average %96
Range %91-104
1:2Average %90
Range %84-96
1:4Average %86
Range %82-92
1:8Average %101
Range %98-106
Recovery
The recovery of human apelin spiked to levels throughout the range of the assay in various matrices was evaluated. Samples were diluted prior to assay as directed in the Sample Preparation section.
Sample TypeAverage % RecoveryRange
Serum (n=5) 9489-97
EDTA plasma (n=4)9994-105
Typical Data
These standard curves are provided for demonstration only. A standard curve should be generated for each set of samples assayed.
pg/mlOD1OD2AverageCorrected
80002.532 2.432 2.482 2.354
40001.904 1.804 1.854 1.726
20001.287 1.187 1.237 1.109
10000.726 0.716 0.721 0.593
5000.457 0.447 0.452 0.324
2500.355 0.345 0.350 0.222
1250.237 0.227 0.232 0.104
00.129 0.127 0.128  
ELISA Data Analysis Watch ELISA data processing video & download Curve Expert if needed
Troubleshooting
and FAQs
ELISA kit FAQs
Storage Store at 2-8°C. Please refer to protocol.
Lead Time 3-5 working days

Customer Reviews and Q&A

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 Q&A
Q:

Please confirm whether the below kit can be used with Saliva samples and also suggest suitable protocol for saliva sample preparation. CSB-E14334h Human Apelin ELISA kit

A:
Thanks for your inquiry. If you want to use the kit CSB-E14334h to test human saliva samples, here advice you to arrange preliminary experiment.
Here is the processing method on saliva sample preparation.You can take it as reference:Remove particulates by centrifugation for 10 minutes at 4000x g at 2-8°C and assay immediately or aliquot and store samples at -20°C. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Recommend to use fresh saliva samples.

Target Background

Function
(From Uniprot)
Endogenous ligand for the apelin receptor (APLNR). Drives internalization of the apelin receptor. Apelin-36 dissociates more hardly than (pyroglu)apelin-13 from APLNR. Hormone involved in the regulation of cardiac precursor cell movements during gastrulation and heart morphogenesis. Has an inhibitory effect on cytokine production in response to T-cell receptor/CD3 cross-linking; the oral intake of apelin in the colostrum and the milk might therefore modulate immune responses in neonates. Plays a role in early coronary blood vessels formation. Mediates myocardial contractility in an ERK1/2-dependent manner. May also have a role in the central control of body fluid homeostasis by influencing vasopressin release and drinking behavior.; (Microbial infection) Endogenous ligand for the apelin receptor (APLNR), an alternative coreceptor with CD4 for HIV-1 infection. Inhibits HIV-1 entry in cells coexpressing CD4 and APLNR. Apelin-36 has a greater inhibitory activity on HIV infection than other synthetic apelin derivatives.
Gene References into Functions
  1. In hemodialysis patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, apelin peptide serum levels are significantly lower than patients with normal arterial pressure and this condition is not affected by hemodialysis. PMID: 30087215
  2. associated with reduced pressure pulsatility in rheumatoid arthritis patients without but not with a high inflammatory burden PMID: 29423718
  3. Review: apelin has certain therapeutic abilities and can be useful in the treatment of, e.g., insulin resistance, hypertension, etc., but it also can sometimes serve as a negative factor. PMID: 29750964
  4. In patients with acute obstructive coronary syndrome that had the V103V polymorphism of the APLN gene, they were at greater risk for coronary artery disease. PMID: 28902642
  5. The aims of this study were to evaluate and correlate circulating chemerin, apelin, vaspin, and omentin-1 levels in obese type 2 diabetic Egyptian patients with coronary artery stenosis (CAS), and to assess their usefulness as noninvasive diagnostic biomarkers. PMID: 28957639
  6. these observations suggest apelin-APJ signaling in hepatocytes functions to protect against lipid accumulation in liver through two signaling pathways, that is, via AMPK activation and PPARalpha induction. PMID: 28821440
  7. Studies suggest that apelin/APJ system may be applied to the treatment of cancers by regulating apoptosis, which may play a vital role in anticancer therapy [review]. PMID: 28407045
  8. miR-497 contributes to oxLDL-induced lipid deposition in macrophages largely via targeting of apelin. PMID: 28653788
  9. we have identified APLN as putative predictive bvz biomarker in CRC patients. High APLN levels predict a poor response to bvz therapy in CRC. PMID: 28487489
  10. serum level not associated with increased odds of severe hypertension PMID: 26869250
  11. Apelin-12 influences troponin I levels in the acute phase of STEMI, whereas during the non-acute phase, low apelin levels were associated with a high rate of MACE. PMID: 28728608
  12. Apelin concentrations are associated with altered plaque stability mediator levels and atherosclerosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. These relations are partially dependent on population origin and systemic inflammatory status. PMID: 28017911
  13. APLN and APLNR are present in human ovarian cells and APLN increases IGF1-induced steroidogenesis in granulosa cells through an increase in HSD3B protein expression and activation of the MAPK3/1 and Akt pathways. Therefore, APLN and APLNR may play a role in human follicular development and the pathogenesis of PCOS. PMID: 27683264
  14. Apelin levels mirror the cardiovascular changes seen in pregnancy. Serum and placental apelin levels are decreased in intrauterine growth restriction . PMID: 26880769
  15. Reduced apelin levels may enhance vasoconstriction to influence high BP and heart's workload in EH and ACS. PMID: 27543713
  16. Our data suggest that tumor Apelin can be used as a marker to evaluate clinical characteristics and predict prognosis in GC patients. PMID: 27733135
  17. The apelin/APLNR axis regulates cholangiocarcinoma cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. PMID: 27894959
  18. While plasma apelin increases in obesity, it decreases with increasing age and pubertal stage PMID: 24896245
  19. Increased plasma concentrations of apelin are associated with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction severity. PMID: 27889567
  20. Data suggest that the differential expression of Apelin and Apelin receptor APJ yields a "self-generated" gradient mechanisms that accelerates the extension of the sprout. PMID: 27828952
  21. Postmenopausal breast cancer patients had high levels of apelin and high BMI scores. PMID: 28039702
  22. For the first time, PRCP is identified as an apelin-cleaving enzyme. PMID: 27449720
  23. The aim of this study was to evaluate if polymorphisms of APLN and APLNR genes may play a role as susceptibility markers for hypertension in a group of Mexican-Mestizo patients. PMID: 27450650
  24. serum levels were not statistically different between patients with atrial fibrillation and coronary artery disease PMID: 27776716
  25. According to this study results, physicians may use initial apelin-12 levels which have a correlation with the disease severity calculated by SYNTAX score to stratify ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients to a high-risk group during hospitalization because of its level as an independent predictor of major adverse coronary event.s PMID: 27770057
  26. Six-month CT-apelin might be a valuable novel biomarker in identifying non-responders to cardiac resynchronization therapy that was superior to NT-proBNP PMID: 27471876
  27. high ACE and low apelin preoperatively have roles in CRP and MDA being increased postoperatively, which may be associated with postoperative atrial fibrillation after off pump coronary artery bypass grafting PMID: 28299332
  28. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the Apelin gene is associated with diabetes mellitus. PMID: 27831922
  29. Our results suggest that bisphenol A and its derivatives induce ovarian cancer cell progression by up-regulating apelin, which acts as a mitogenic factor in OVCAR-3 cells. PMID: 28111160
  30. APLN expression is significantly upregulated in human masticatory mucosa during wound healing PMID: 28005267
  31. The optimal gene-gene interaction model for both males and females with regard to hypertension was apelin rs3761581-apelin rs3115757-APJ rs7119375. In conclusion, gene polymorphisms of the apelin-APJ system are associated with susceptibility to hypertension. PMID: 27338090
  32. Lower apelin and higher visfatin plasma levels in high normal blood pressure subjects compared to normal or optimal BP individuals could partially explain the higher cardiovascular risk of the high normal BP group. PMID: 26276791
  33. apelin 13 levels are elevated in patients with PE. These results suggest that apelin may be a novel biomarker and a potential therapeutic target in patients with acute PE in the future. PMID: 25693918
  34. Up-regulation of apelin and APJ expression plays an important role in cardioprotection from myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID: 27854125
  35. There was no significant change in plasma apelin levels in acute pulmonary embolism. PMID: 26968282
  36. The concentrations of gastric peptide(Ghrelin and obestatin)and adipocytokines(omentin and Apelin ) across all subgroups were lower than in the control group. The differences were statistically significant (p < 0.0001), which may be of importance in the development of the disease complications PMID: 26904686
  37. Resequencing of the apelin gene in subjects stratified by low or high apelin levels identified five APLN variants in an European population. No association was found between the most frequent variant, diabetes, and metabolic parameters. PMID: 26789934
  38. These findings suggested that Apelin/APLNR signaling may be used as a potential therapeutic target for hypoxic/ischemic injury. PMID: 26676468
  39. apelin attenuates the osteoblastic differentiation of aortic valve interstitial cells via the ERK and PI3-K/Akt pathway PMID: 26142632
  40. Genetic variants in the apelin gene are significantly associated with the risk of coronary artery disease in the Turkish population. PMID: 25592107
  41. Apelin could activate multiple protective mechanisms to prevent heart, brain, liver and kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury. [Review] PMID: 25447414
  42. Apelin and APLN SNP rs3761581 was associated with combined hypertension with CRAE, indicating that the expression of APLN gene products may be involved in vascular injury. PMID: 25272042
  43. The expressions of apelin and APJ are significantly augmented by hypoxia through the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) signaling pathway. PMID: 26436483
  44. obese (especially diabese) youngsters demonstrated lower serum apelin levels; the G212A polymorphism of the APLNR gene was found to exert a favourable effect on circulating apelin levels in childhood obesity PMID: 25060841
  45. Apelin directly interferes with thrombin-mediated signaling pathways and platelet activation, secretion, and aggregation, but not with ADP and thromboxane A2-mediated pathways. PMID: 26634301
  46. apelin is a potential indicator of the vessel normalization window during antiangiogenic therapy. PMID: 26475217
  47. Mean vaspin and apelin levels were significantly lower in underweight children compared to controls PMID: 25915077
  48. Treatment with metformin and DPP4 inhibitor vildagliptin favorably changed glycemic indices and apelin levels in type 2 diabetics. PMID: 26316706
  49. Serum apelin is evelated in new-onset diabetes after transplant, and positively correlate with proteinuria. PMID: 26295182
  50. apelin13 promoted MCF-7 cell proliferation and invasion via the ERK1/2/AIB1 signaling pathway. PMID: 26135903

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Subcellular Location Secreted. Secreted, extracellular space.
Protein Families Apelin family
Tissue Specificity Expressed in the brain with highest levels in the frontal cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus and midbrain. Secreted by the mammary gland into the colostrum and the milk.
Database Links

HGNC: 16665

OMIM: 300297

KEGG: hsa:8862

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000305464

UniGene: Hs.303084

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