Recombinant Human Prostaglandin E synthase(PTGES)

Code CSB-CF018976HU
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Source in vitro E.coli expression system
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Product Details

Target Names
Uniprot No.
Alternative Names
PTGES; MGST1L1; MPGES1; PGES; PIG12; Prostaglandin E synthase; Glutathione peroxidase PTGES; Glutathione transferase PTGES; Microsomal glutathione S-transferase 1-like 1; MGST1-L1; Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1; MPGES-1; p53-induced gene 12 protein
Homo sapiens (Human)
Expression Region
Target Protein Sequence
Protein Length
Full length protein
Tag Info
The following tags are available.
N-terminal His-tagged
The tag type will be determined during production process. If you have specified tag type, please tell us and we will develop the specified tag preferentially.
Lyophilized powder
Note: We will preferentially ship the format that we have in stock, however, if you have any special requirement for the format, please remark your requirement when placing the order, we will prepare according to your demand.
Buffer before Lyophilization
Tris/PBS-based buffer, 6% Trehalose, pH 8.0
We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20℃/-80℃. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
and FAQs
Storage Condition
Store at -20°C/-80°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life
The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time
Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Note: All of our proteins are default shipped with normal blue ice packs, if you request to ship with dry ice, please communicate with us in advance and extra fees will be charged.
Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Please contact us to get it.

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Target Background

Terminal enzyme of the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2-mediated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) biosynthetic pathway. Catalyzes the glutathione-dependent oxidoreduction of prostaglandin endoperoxide H2 (PGH2) to prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in response to inflammatory stimuli. Plays a key role in inflammation response, fever and pain. Catalyzes also the oxidoreduction of endocannabinoids into prostaglandin glycerol esters and PGG2 into 15-hydroperoxy-PGE2. In addition, displays low glutathione transferase and glutathione-dependent peroxidase activities, toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and 5-hydroperoxyicosatetraenoic acid (5-HPETE), respectively.
Gene References into Functions
  1. study reveals that upregulation of PGES via TLR3 is critical for BM-MSCs-mediated immunosuppression by PGE2 secretion via the COX-2/PGE2 pathway. PMID: 29273868
  2. Down-regulation of mPGES-1 has been noted in the infrapatellar fat pad of osteoarthritis patients with hypercholesterolemia. PMID: 29898737
  3. we provide proof-of-principle of the benefits of targeting mPGES-1 in neuroblastoma, applicable to a wide variety of tumors. This non-toxic single drug treatment targeting infiltrating stromal cells opens up for combination treatment options with established cancer therapies. PMID: 29804818
  4. In contrast to COX-2 inhibition, inhibition of mPGES-1 reduced vasoconstriction by increasing PGI2 synthesis. Targeting mPGES-1 could provide a lower risk of cardiovascular side effects, compared with those of the COX-2 inhibitors. PMID: 28675448
  5. this paper focuses on recent studies that have demonstrated the involvement of mPGES-1 in pathological brain diseases--{REVIEW} PMID: 28458341
  6. Studied iNOS(inducible nitric oxide synthase) activation thru mPGES-1 (microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1) signaling driven by EGFR (EGF receptor) in cancer progression models. PMID: 28257996
  7. Rs5629CC is not only independent risk factor for symptomatic carotid artery or intracranial arterial stenosis, but is also independent risk predictor for neurologic deterioration in ischemic stroke patients. PMID: 28108096
  8. COX-2 and mPGES-1-dependent synthesis of PGE2 contributes to a dedifferentiated aortic smooth muscle cell phenotype. PMID: 27159620
  9. Several studies provide evidence that the expression of mPGES1 is regulated by a number of transcriptional factors and inducible in conditions of inflammation and hypoxia.[review] PMID: 27570080
  10. The Genome Wide Area Study, using a phenotyping algorithm for asthma for data mining electronic medical records, identified four asthma susceptibility loci: 6p21.31, 9p21.2, and 10q21.3 in the European American population; and the prostaglandin synthase E gene (PTGES) at 9q34.11 in African Americans. Biologic support exists for genes at the 9p21.2 and 9q34.11 loci TEK, encoding the endothelial tyrosine in animal studies. PMID: 27611488
  11. C-myc regulates mPGES1 expression by binding to the proximal promoter. C-myc transfection in HeLa cells up-regulates mPGES1 mRNA and protein expression. PMID: 27864144
  12. COX-2 and mPGES-1 have roles in arachidonic acid regulation of inflammatory prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis PMID: 27177970
  13. The identified amino acid residues can act as target sites for the design and development of drug candidates against mPGES-1 PMID: 27012893
  14. These findings support the value of a prognostic and predictive role for mPGES1. PMID: 26801201
  15. Data show that statins limit hepatic myofibroblasts proliferation via a cyclooxyegnase-2 (COX-2) and microsomal PGE synthase-1 (mPGES-1) dependent pathway. PMID: 26477987
  16. Data show that cyclooxygenase2 (COX2)overexpression induces prostaglandin E synthase (PTGES) through early growth response 1 (EGR1) in colorectal cancer cell lines. PMID: 26498686
  17. mPGES-1 is downregulated via EGR1 and has a role in caffeine inhibition on PGE2 synthesis of HBx hepatocytes PMID: 26538827
  18. results demonstrate that mPGES-1 is a target gene of defective mismatch repair in human colorectal cancer, with functional consequence PMID: 25817443
  19. Altered expression of EP2 in patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease contributes to deficient induction of IL-1RI, reducing the capacity of IL-1beta to increase COX-2 and mPGES-1 expression, which results in low PGE2 production PMID: 26560040
  20. High levels of intra tumoral mPGES-1 is associated with poor prognosis. mPGES-1 after chemotherapy is associated with improved outcomes. PMID: 24771596
  21. mPGES-1 in prostate cancer controls stemness and amplifies epidermal growth factor receptor-driven oncogenicity PMID: 26113609
  22. Data suggest that, in organization of enzymes in post-translational endoplasmic reticulum, mPGES1 is likely co-localized with COX2 (cyclooxygenase-2) within a distance of 14.4 A; mPGES-1 is localized much farther from COX1 (cyclooxygenase-1). PMID: 25988363
  23. mPGES-1 expression is positively correlated to hepatitis B virus X protein expression in hepatocellular carcinoma tissue. PMID: 25108236
  24. the microsomal PGE2-synthase-1/PGE-receptor-4 axis is increased by smoking in human abdominal aortic aneurysms PMID: 24876670
  25. This study clearly demonstrated that the human COX-2 linked to mPGES-1 is a pathway that, when mediated by the prostaglandin E receptor, is linked to promoting cancer growth in a chronic inflammatory environment PMID: 25139833
  26. Data indicate that the Tibetan prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 2 (PHD2) haplotype (D4E/C127S) strikingly diminishes the interaction of PHD2 with heat shock protein 90 co-chaperone protein p23 (prostaglandin E synthase). PMID: 24711448
  27. potential relevance of the COX-2/mPGES-1/EP-4 axis in the AAA-associated hypervascularization PMID: 24133193
  28. COX-2 and mPGES-1 were highly expressed in PSC-associated CCA tissues and non-neoplastic BDECs in PSC, suggesting the involvement of COX-2 and mPGES-1 in cholangiocarcinogenesis. PMID: 23900502
  29. microsomal PGES-1 (mPGES-1) is induced, and its expression is associated with beta-amyloid (Abeta) plaques in the cerebral cortex in human AD patients. PMID: 23553915
  30. mPGES1 is a target gene of KLF5 in human breast cancer celsl PMID: 23913682
  31. mPGES1 expression was associated with multiple malignant characteristics and enhanced tumorigenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma PMID: 23791007
  32. Knockdown of NF-kappaB1 p50 by p50 siRNA significantly decreased acid-induced increase in mPGES1 expression. PMID: 23439561
  33. Relationship between TLR4 and mPGES-1 mRNA in endometriotic lesions indicate that innate immunity may play an important role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. PMID: 23252918
  34. S. officinalis extracts and its ingredients carnosol and carnosic acid inhibit PGE(2) formation by selectively targeting mPGES-1. PMID: 22511203
  35. Cyclooxygenase-2, not microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1, is the mechanism for interleukin-1beta-induced prostaglandin E2 production and inhibition of insulin secretion in pancreatic islets PMID: 22822059
  36. a tight cooperation between the EGF/EGFR and mPGES-1 leads to a significant tumorigenic gain in epithelial cells PMID: 22081067
  37. Cyclooxygenase-2/mPGES-1 are expressed in the wall of human cerebral aneurysms and more abundantly so in ruptured aneurysms than in nonruptured. PMID: 22588264
  38. NM 004878 NM 004878 PMID: 22342541
  39. imidazoquinolines represent a novel structural class of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 inhibitors PMID: 22137787
  40. IL-1 released by head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells plays a key role in inducing the expression of COX-2 and mPGES-1 in fibroblasts. PMID: 22308510
  41. identified two DNase I-hypersensitive sites within the proximal promoter near the Egr-1 element and a novel distal site near -8.6 kb PMID: 22260630
  42. Data show a crosstalk between mPGES-1/PGE(2) and EGR1/beta-catenin signaling that is critical for hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID: 21743491
  43. Over-expression of mPGES-1 was associated with tumorigenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID: 21645444
  44. In meniscal cells from osteoarthritic knees, AGEs increased the production of inflammatory mediators, including PGE(2), COX-2 and mPGES-1 PMID: 21842276
  45. microsomal prostaglandin-E synthase is normally expressed constitutively in human neurons, microglia, astrocytes, and endothelial cells but is up-regulated in Alzheimer's disease PMID: 18631945
  46. The present study was aimed at addressing the hypothesis that the activated state of RhoA GTPase signals can trigger mPGES-1. PMID: 21907186
  47. Treatment of Ca9-22 cells and HOK with oxLDL induced an up-regulation of IL-8 and the PGE(2)-producing enzymes, cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal PGE(2) synthase-1. PMID: 21925143
  48. Study of specific inhibitor binding sites of MPGES1 demonstrates the glutathione binding site and a hydrophobic cleft in the protein thought to accommodate the prostaglandin H2 substrate. PMID: 21805999
  49. Study found that gene polymorphisms in PTGES might have not only a disease-predisposing impact but also a disease-modifying effect, as two SNPs within PTGES gene were related to early disease onset. PMID: 21448233
  50. Tumor cell-induced COX-2 and mPGES-1 in human microvascular endothelial cells was strongly inhibited by the IL-1-receptor antagonist, indicating the important implication of tumor-derived IL-1 in this effect. PMID: 21277871

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Subcellular Location
Membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Cytoplasm, perinuclear region.
Protein Families
MAPEG family
Database Links

HGNC: 9599

OMIM: 605172

KEGG: hsa:9536

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000342385

UniGene: Hs.146688

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