Recombinant Bovine Interferon tau-1 (IFNT1)

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Code CSB-YP322795BO
Size $436
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  • (Tris-Glycine gel) Discontinuous SDS-PAGE (reduced) with 5% enrichment gel and 15% separation gel.
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Product Details

Greater than 90% as determined by SDS-PAGE.
Target Names
Uniprot No.
Research Area
Alternative Names
IFNT1; Interferon tau-1; IFN-tau-1; Antiluteolysin; Trophoblast antiluteolytic protein; Trophoblast protein 1; TP-1; Trophoblastin
Bos taurus (Bovine)
Expression Region
Target Protein Sequence
Note: The complete sequence including tag sequence, target protein sequence and linker sequence could be provided upon request.
Mol. Weight
Protein Length
Full Length of Mature Protein
Tag Info
N-terminal 6xHis-tagged
Liquid or Lyophilized powder
Note: We will preferentially ship the format that we have in stock, however, if you have any special requirement for the format, please remark your requirement when placing the order, we will prepare according to your demand.
If the delivery form is liquid, the default storage buffer is Tris/PBS-based buffer, 5%-50% glycerol.
Note: If you have any special requirement for the glycerol content, please remark when you place the order.
If the delivery form is lyophilized powder, the buffer before lyophilization is Tris/PBS-based buffer, 6% Trehalose, pH 8.0.
We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
Troubleshooting and FAQs
Storage Condition
Store at -20°C/-80°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life
The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time
3-7 business days
Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA
Please contact us to get it.

Interferon tau-1 (IFNT1) is a crucial cytokine involved in maternal recognition of pregnancy in ruminant ungulates. It is primarily secreted by mononuclear trophectoderm cells of peri-implantation conceptuses into the uterine lumen [1][2]. Initially known as ovine trophoblast protein (oTP-1) or trophoblastin, IFNT1 was later named interferon tau (IFNT) due to its unique developmental expression by trophectoderm and its similarity to other Type I interferons [3][4]. IFNT1 is synthesized and secreted by the trophectoderm of blastocysts, serving as the initial fetal signal required for maternal recognition of pregnancy [5]. It acts on endometrial cells in a paracrine manner, inhibiting the transcription of certain genes and suppressing the release of luteolytic prostaglandin F2α, thereby maintaining corpus luteum function [6][7]. IFNT1 plays a critical role in preventing luteolysis and supporting early pregnancy [8][9].

The biological activity of IFNT1 is essential for establishing and maintaining pregnancy in ruminants. It is a major conceptus protein that initiates maternal recognition of pregnancy and exerts an antiluteolytic effect crucial for the continuation of pregnancy [10][11]. IFNT1's unique properties, such as its massive production by trophectoderm cells and potent antiviral and antiproliferative effects, distinguish it as a distinct Type I interferon subtype with significant biological functions [12]. The cytokine's actions on the endometrium and its ability to modulate gene expression highlight its importance in the complex interactions between the conceptus and the maternal reproductive system [6][7][13].

[1] . Sakurai, A. Sakamoto, Y. Muroi, H. Bai, K. Nagaoka, K. Tamuraet al., "Induction of endogenous interferon tau gene transcription by cdx2 and high acetylation in bovine nontrophoblast cells1", Biology of Reproduction, vol. 80, no. 6, p. 1223-1231, 2009.
[2] M. Kim, H. Lim, J. Lee, S. Park, J. Won, & H. Kim, "Analysis of bovine interferon-tau gene subtypes expression in the trophoblast and non-trophoblast cells", Journal of Animal Reproduciton and Biotechnology, vol. 33, no. 4, p. 195-203, 2018.
[3] F. Bazer and W. Thatcher, "Chronicling the discovery of interferon tau", Reproduction, vol. 154, no. 5, p. F11-F20, 2017.
[4] M. Conde-Hinojosa, J. Gallegos-Sánchez, G. Hernández, J. Salazar-Ortiz, F. Clemente-Sánchez, & C. Cortez-Romero, "Involvement of the interferon tau gene in maternal recognition of gestation in sheep", Agro Productividad, 2021.
[5] Y. N, W. Pc, H. Zd, G. Ff, L. Yang, C. Mset al., "Expression of interferon‐tau mrna in bovine embryos derived from different procedures", Reproduction in Domestic Animals, vol. 44, no. 1, p. 132-139, 2009.
[6] J. Lee, J. Stanley, J. McCracken, S. Banu, & J. Arosh, "Intrauterine coadministration of erk1/2 inhibitor u0126 inhibits interferon tau action in the endometrium and restores luteolytic pgf2alpha pulses in sheep1", Biology of Reproduction, vol. 91, no. 2, 2014.
[7] . Sakurai, H. Bai, R. Bai, D. Sato, M. Arai, K. Okudaet al., "Down‐regulation of interferon tau gene transcription with a transcription factor, eomes", Molecular Reproduction and Development, vol. 80, no. 5, p. 371-383, 2013.
[8] N. Forde and P. Lonergan, "Interferon-tau and fertility in ruminants", Reproduction, vol. 154, no. 5, p. F33-F43, 2017.
[9] T. Fair, "Embryo maternal immune interactions in cattle", Animal Reproduction, vol. 13, no. 3, p. 346-354, 2016.
[10] M. Stojković, E. Wolf, M. Büttner, U. Berg, G. Charpigny, A. Schmittet al., "Secretion of biologically active interferonτ by in vitro-derived bovine trophoblastic tissue1", Biology of Reproduction, vol. 53, no. 6, p. 1500-1507, 1995.
[11] A. Ealy, A. Alexenko, D. Keisler, & R. Roberts, "Loss of the signature six carboxyl amino acid tail from ovine interferon-tau does not affect biological activity1", Biology of Reproduction, vol. 58, no. 6, p. 1463-1468, 1998.
[12] F. Bazer, T. Spencer, & T. Ott, "Placental interferons", American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 35, no. 4, p. 297-308, 1996.
[13] K. Nakamura, K. Kusama, Y. Suda, H. Fujiwara, M. Hori, & K. Imakawa, "Emerging role of extracellular vesicles in embryo–maternal communication throughout implantation processes", International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 21, no. 15, p. 5523, 2020.

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Target Background

Paracrine hormone primarily responsible for maternal recognition of pregnancy. Interacts with endometrial receptors, probably type I interferon receptors, and blocks estrogen receptor expression, preventing the estrogen-induced increase in oxytocin receptor expression in the endometrium. This results in the suppression of the pulsatile endometrial release of the luteolytic hormone prostaglandin F2-alpha, hindering the regression of the corpus luteum (luteolysis) and therefore a return to ovarian cyclicity. This, and a possible direct effect of IFN-tau on prostaglandin synthesis, leads in turn to continued ovarian progesterone secretion, which stimulates the secretion by the endometrium of the nutrients required for the growth of the conceptus. In summary, displays particularly high antiviral and antiproliferative potency concurrently with particular weak cytotoxicity, high antiluteolytic activity and immunomodulatory properties. In contrast with other IFNs, IFN-tau is not virally inducible.
Gene References into Functions
  1. Interferon tau secreted from Day-7 embryo in vivo generates anti-inflammatory immune response in the bovine uterus, which may provide immunological tolerance to accept the embryo. PMID: 29702095
  2. The data suggest that TEAD relocation and/or YAP degradation following its phosphorylation down-regulates IFNT gene transcription after conceptus attachment to the uterine endometrium. PMID: 27315596
  3. Report interferon-tau dependent STAT1 regulation of SOCS genes in bovine endometrium during estrus cycle and embryo implantation. PMID: 25116692
  4. Suggest the involvement of IFNT function within the corpus luteum in the establishment of pregnancy in cows. PMID: 26078085
  5. These results indicate that HB-EGF and its receptors expression changed in bovine endometrium throughout the oestrous cycle; IFN-tau increased their expression in cultured endometrial cells. PMID: 25779761
  6. Data suggest exposure to maternal CSF2 from D5-D7 of development is fundamentally different for female/male blastocysts with respect to embryo elongation, characteristics of transcriptome/methylome, and endometrial interferon tau secretion at D15. PMID: 25078682
  7. as conceptuses attach to the uterine epithelium, IFNT gene transcription is down-regulated by an increase in EOMES expression and EOMES-CREBBP binding in the attached trophoblast cells. PMID: 23606646
  8. Heat shock increased both HSP70 and IFNT expression in blastocysts. PMID: 23638875
  9. The aims of this study were to identify the earliest transcriptional response of the bovine endometrium to the presence of the conceptus and investigate if these genes are regulated by interferon tau (IFNT). PMID: 22759920
  10. Bos taurus (B. T.) Coreanae IFN-tau was cloned from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The amino acid sequence of B. T. Coreanae IFN-tau shares only 90.3% identity with that of Holstein dairy cow. PMID: 22578803
  11. activity in the early pregnancy endometrium in cattle is modulated by cortisol PMID: 22361386
  12. In a cell culture experiment, interferon-tau stimulated stimulated IL-10 mRNA expression in mononuclear leukocytes and tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA levels in neutrophils and eosinophils. PMID: 22052007
  13. In contrast to previous studies in the ovine, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor did not increase interferon tau secretion but in agreement with the ovine did not affect bovine blastocyst development. PMID: 20977503
  14. Differentially expressed genes in the endometrial transcriptome are a consequence of IFNT production by the conceptus. PMID: 21349821
  15. The increase in calving rate caused by CSF2 treatment involves, in part, more extensive development of extraembryonic membranes and capacity of the conceptus to secrete IFNT2 at day 15 of pregnancy. PMID: 21339286
  16. investigation of signaling mechanism used by fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) to regulate IFNT production in trophoblasts: several lines of evidence suggest that FGF2 regulates IFNT production in trophoblasts by acting through protein kinase C-delta PMID: 21191110
  17. These data suggest that GATA2/3 is involved in trophoblast-specific regulation of bovine intereron tau gene transcription. PMID: 19598245
  18. During pregnancy, interferon-tau may block ERalpha in the luminal epithelium but likely does not rescue integrin alphavbeta3. expression. PMID: 12756058
  19. Importance of complex Ets-2 enhancer for expression of interferon-tau. Possible means whereby the mother can exert control over conceptus IFN-tau production. PMID: 15217985
  20. The increase in interferon tau concentrations responsible for the maternal recognition of pregnancy results from the increase in embryo size during elongation and not from any upregulation of mRNA expression. PMID: 16435375
  21. FGF-2 stimulates IFNT expression and plays an active role in regulating the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in ruminants PMID: 16574787
  22. effect of IFN-tau on the proliferation and distribution of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets during one-way mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) in cows and heifers PMID: 16870264
  23. abnormal gene expression of DNMT, INFT, and MHC1 was noted in the majority of cloned embryos, indicating inefficient nuclear reprogramming and retarded embryo development. PMID: 18199878
  24. DLX3 has a central role in controlling IFNT gene expression by associating with ETS2 on the IFNT promoter. PMID: 18322277
  25. Endogenous IFNT transcription in MDBK cells (which do not normally express IFNT) can be induced through CDX2 overexpression and high H3K18 acetylation. PMID: 19211809

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Subcellular Location
Secreted. Note=Secreted into the uterine lumen.
Protein Families
Alpha/beta interferon family, IFN-alphaII subfamily
Tissue Specificity
Constitutively and exclusively expressed in the mononuclear cells of the extraembryonic trophectoderm.
Database Links

KEGG: bta:317698

STRING: 9913.ENSBTAP00000047689

UniGene: Bt.328

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