Recombinant Human Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3(AKR1C3)

Code CSB-EP001544HU
Size US$1726
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  • (Tris-Glycine gel) Discontinuous SDS-PAGE (reduced) with 5% enrichment gel and 15% separation gel.

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Product Details

Purity Greater than 90% as determined by SDS-PAGE.
Target Names AKR1C3
Uniprot No. P42330
Research Area Signal Transduction
Alternative Names 17 beta HSD 5; 17 beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 5; 17-beta-HSD 5; 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 5; 2-dihydrobenzene-1; 2-diol dehydrogenase; 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; 20-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; 3 alpha hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II; 3-alpha-HSD type 2; 3-alpha-HSD type II; 3-alpha-HSD type II; brain; 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2; AK1C3_HUMAN; AKR1 C3; Akr1c18; AKR1C3; Aldo keto reductase family 1 member C3; Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3; brain; Chlordecone reductase; Chlordecone reductase homolog HAKRb; DD-3; DD3; DDH1; DDX; Dihydrodiol dehydrogenase 3; Dihydrodiol dehydrogenase type I; Dihydrodiol dehydrogenase X; HA1753; HAKRB; HAKRe; hluPGFS; HSD17B5; Indanol dehydrogenase; KIAA0119; PGFS; Prostaglandin F synthase; Testosterone 17-beta-dehydrogenase 5; Trans-1; Trans-1,2-dihydrobenzene-1,2-diol dehydrogenase; Type IIb 3 alpha hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Source E.coli
Expression Region 1-323aa
Target Protein Sequence MDSKHQCVKLNDGHFMPVLGFGTYAPPEVPRSKALEVTKLAIEAGFRHIDSAHLYNNEEQVGLAIRSKIADGSVKREDIFYTSKLWSTFHRPELVRPALENSLKKAQLDYVDLYLIHSPMSLKPGEELSPTDENGKVIFDIVDLCTTWEAMEKCKDAGLAKSIGVSNFNRRQLEMILNKPGLKYKPVCNQVECHPYFNRSKLLDFCKSKDIVLVAYSALGSQRDKRWVDPNSPVLLEDPVLCALAKKHKRTPALIALRYQLQRGVVVLAKSYNEQRIRQNVQVFEFQLTAEDMKAIDGLDRNLHYFNSDSFASHPNYPYSDEY
Note: The complete sequence including tag sequence, target protein sequence and linker sequence could be provided upon request.
Mol. Weight 63.9kDa
Protein Length Full Length
Tag Info N-terminal GST-tagged
Form Liquid or Lyophilized powder
Note: We will preferentially ship the format that we have in stock, however, if you have any special requirement for the format, please remark your requirement when placing the order, we will prepare according to your demand.
Buffer If the delivery form is liquid, the default storage buffer is Tris/PBS-based buffer, 5%-50% glycerol.
Note: If you have any special requirement for the glycerol content, please remark when you place the order.
If the delivery form is lyophilized powder, the buffer before lyophilization is Tris/PBS-based buffer, 6% Trehalose, pH 8.0.
Reconstitution We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
Troubleshooting
and FAQs
Protein FAQs
Storage Condition Store at -20°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Notes Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA Please contact us to get it.

Target Data

Function Catalyzes the conversion of aldehydes and ketones to alcohols. Catalyzes the reduction of prostaglandin (PG) D2, PGH2 and phenanthrenequinone (PQ) and the oxidation of 9-alpha,11-beta-PGF2 to PGD2. Functions as a bi-directional 3-alpha-, 17-beta- and 20-alpha HSD. Can interconvert active androgens, estrogens and progestins with their cognate inactive metabolites. Preferentially transforms androstenedione (4-dione) to testosterone.
Gene References into Functions
  1. Genotype data on the AKR1C3 rs12529 SNP indicates that all three prostate cancer groups (New Zealanders, African Americans, and Caucasian Americans) have similar genotype and allele frequencies. The highest percentage of high-risk PC as a percentage of all PC were recorded for ever-smoker AA men with the AKR1C3 rs12529 CC genotype while the lowest was recorded for never-smoker NZ men with the CG+GG genotypes. PMID: 29920533
  2. AKR1C3 is a novel epithelial-mesenchymal transition driver in prostate cancer metastasis through activating ERK signaling. PMID: 30139661
  3. The GG genotype of AKR1C3 rs10508293 is associated with decreased risk for preeclampsia. PMID: 29777907
  4. AKR1C3 transcriptional regulation and its role in prostate cancer progression [review] PMID: 28359237
  5. Overexpression of AKR1C3 could result in the accumulation of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha), which can not only promote prostate cancer cell 's proliferation but also could enhance prostate cancer cells resistance to radiation. PMID: 27385003
  6. The replacement of C154 with a residue possessing a bulky aromatic side-chain impairs the folding of the alpha-helix containing C154 and its neighboring secondary structures, leading to low thermostability of AKR1C3. PMID: 28025170
  7. Data suggest that, in breast cancer cells, expression of HSD17B5 and expression of GRP78 (an apoptosis inhibitor) are strongly but negatively correlated; GRP78 knockdown decreases breast cancer cell viability whereas HSD17B5 knockdown increases cell viability and cell proliferation. (HSD17B5, 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 5; GRP78, 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein) PMID: 28457968
  8. AKR1C3 is the primary enzyme and CBR1 is a minor enzyme responsible for warfarin reduction in human liver cytosol. PMID: 27055738
  9. the present study suggests that AKR1C1, AKR1C2, AKR1C3, and AKR1C4 are closely associated with drug resistance to both CDDP and 5FU, and that mefenamic acid, an inhibitor of AKR1C, restores sensitivity through inhibition of drug-resistance in human cancer cells. PMID: 28259989
  10. a variant in the promoter region of HSD17B5 related to fetal androgen synthesis influences the genital phenotype in 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency females. PMID: 27082632
  11. Five common AKR1C3 polymorphisms were associated with decreased rates of exemestane catalysis. PMID: 27111237
  12. If our these findings can be reproduced in larger homogeneous cohorts, a genetic stratification based on the AKR1C3 rs12529 single nucleotide polymorphism, can minimize androgen deprivation therapy-related health-related quality of life effects in prostate cancer patients PMID: 27485119
  13. We identified strong associations between the studied AKR1C3 variants and UBC risk. The homozygous variant genotype of rs12529 was found to be inversely associated with UBC, and rs1937920 was shown to be associated with increased risk of UBC. None of the genotypes were found to be significantly associated with tumor characteristics. PMID: 27085562
  14. aldo-keto reductase 1C3-mediated prostaglandin D2 metabolism has a role in keloids PMID: 26308156
  15. The results suggest that decreased expression of AKR1C3 may be involved in development of gastric cancer and can be restored by Sodium Butyrate. PMID: 27019068
  16. AKR1C3 expression is elevated in prostate cancer cell lines and primary prostate cancer, suggesting a link between AKR1C3 levels and the epigenetic status in prostate cancer cells. PMID: 26429394
  17. Aldo-keto reductase 1C3 is overexpressed in skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). AKR1C3 affects SCC growth via prostaglandin metabolism. PMID: 24917395
  18. these results indicated that the actions of AKR1C3 can produce FP receptor ligands whose activation results in carcinoma cell survival in breast cancer. PMID: 26170067
  19. and AKR1C3 may serve as a valuable therapeutic target in the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer PMID: 25754347
  20. AKR1C3 activation is a critical resistance mechanism associated with enzalutamide resistance. PMID: 25649766
  21. In the present study, crystal structures of complexes of HSD17B5 with structurally diverse inhibitors derived from high-throughput screening were determined. PMID: 25849402
  22. AKR1C3 mRNA expression did not differ between bipolar disorder patients in any affective state or in comparison with healthy control subjects. PMID: 25522430
  23. A catalysis-independent role for AKR1C3 on AR activity via Siah2 has been identified. PMID: 26160177
  24. AKR1C3 mediated doxorubicin resistance might be resulted from the activation of anti-apoptosis PTEN/Akt pathway via PTEN loss. PMID: 25661377
  25. Findings indicate the potential involvement of aldo-keto reductase AKR1C3 in the acquired radioresistance by AKR1C3 overexpression. PMID: 25419901
  26. Higher expression of PLA2G2A, PTGS2, AKR1B1, AKR1C3 and ABCC4 was seen in 22-B endometriosis cells. PMID: 25446850
  27. P450c17 and AKR1C3 inhibition may be an effective combinatorial treatment strategy. PMID: 25514466
  28. AKR1C3 2 G allele carriers exhibited greater increases in heart rate and stimulant and sedative effects of alcohol than C allele homozygotes PMID: 24838369
  29. Data suggest that reduction of daunorubicin/idarubicin is catalyzed by AKR1C3 and contributes to resistance of carcinoma cells to these anthracyclines; expression of AKR1C3 is induced in carcinoma cells following exposure to daunorubicin/idarubicin. PMID: 24832494
  30. AKR1C3 can serve as a promising biomarker for the progression of prostate cancer PMID: 24571686
  31. The -71G HSD17B5 variant is not a major component of the molecular pathogenetic mechanisms of PCOS, although it might contribute to the severity of hyperandrogenemia in women with PCOS and biochemical hyperandrogenism. PMID: 18692800
  32. Significantly higher levels of SRD5A1, AKR1C2, AKR1C3, and HSD17B10 mRNA were however found in bone metastases than in non-malignant and/or malignant prostate tissue PMID: 24244276
  33. Report expression of AKR1C3 in neuroendocrine tumors and adenocarcinomas of pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, and lung. PMID: 24228104
  34. Silencing of AKR1C3 increases LCN2 expression and inhibits metastasis in cervical cancer. PMID: 24316309
  35. Data indicate that fallopian tube and the epithelial component of Brenner tumours (BTs) expressed AKR1C3 and androgen receptor, but the tumour stromal cells showed strong expression of calretinin, inhibin and steroidogenic factor 1 in the majority of BTs. PMID: 24012099
  36. Correlation of aldo-ketoreductase (AKR) 1C3 genetic variant with doxorubicin pharmacodynamics in Asian breast cancer patients. PMID: 23116553
  37. examine the evidence that supports the vital role of AKR1C3 in CRPC and recent developments in the discovery of potent and selective AKR1C3 inhibitors PMID: 23748150
  38. AKR1C3-mediated radioresistance in lung cancer cells is correlated with an arrest in the G2/M cell cycle and a decreased induction of apoptosis. PMID: 23519145
  39. The involvement of up-regulated AKR1C1, AKR1C3 and proteasome in CDDP resistance of colon cancers. PMID: 23165153
  40. Affect further reduction of 3-keto and 20-keto groups catalyzed by AKR1C2 and AKR1C3. PMID: 23183084
  41. AKR1C3 can be considered a therapeutic target in a subgroup of patients with high AKR1C3 expression. PMID: 23196782
  42. Our data suggest that there is no association of HSD17B6 and HSD17B5 variants with the occurrence of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in the Chinese population PMID: 21039282
  43. Activin A stimulates AKR1C3 expression and growth in human prostate cancer PMID: 23024260
  44. AKR1C3 immunoreactivity was extensively present in both adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma arising from the lung and the gastroesophageal junction, but not in small cell carcinoma. PMID: 22670171
  45. determined the X-ray crystal structure of AKR1C3 with the cofactor NADP+ and the drug-like inhibitor 3-phenoxybenzoic acid bound at a resolution of 1.68 A degrees in space group P212121 PMID: 22505408
  46. AKR1C3 functions in differentiation-associated gene regulation and also has a role in supporting inflammation in atopic dermatitis. PMID: 22170488
  47. Evidence of association of two alleles for alcohol dependence (AD) is found in SRD5A1 and AKR1C3, mediating a protective effect of the minor allele at each AD marker based on the genotype of the second marker. PMID: 21323680
  48. the pro-proliferative action of AKR1C3 in HL-60 cells involves the retinoic acid signalling pathway and that this is in part due to the retinaldehyde reductase activity of AKR1C3 PMID: 21851338
  49. role of AKR1C3 in the metabolism of testosterone and progesterone via the 5beta-reductase pathway. PMID: 21521174
  50. enhanced metabolism of progesterone by SRD5A1 and the 20alpha-HSD and 3alpha/beta-HSD activities of AKR1C1, AKR1C2 and AKR1C3 PMID: 21232532
  51. PTHrP stimulates prostate cancer cell growth and upregulates aldo-keto reductase 1C3 PMID: 21444150
  52. AKR1C3 is expressed in both sex hormone-dependent and hormone-independent malignancies. PMID: 21151387
  53. These findings suggest that AKR1C3 may play important roles in the physiology of endometrial cells PMID: 20661409
  54. AKR1C3 expression occurs in a Tanner stage dependent-fashion. Pre- and peri-pubertal changes appear to promote expression in Leydig cells. The pediatric cryptorchid testis reveals AKR1C3 expression in Sertoli cells PMID: 19942269
  55. Expression of AKR1C3 in renal cell carcinoma, papillary urothelial carcinoma, and Wilms tumor is reported. PMID: 20126582
  56. A population level survey of AKR1C3 expression in 2,490 individual cases across 19 cancer types using tissue microarrays revealed marked upregulation of AKR1C3 in a subset. PMID: 20145130
  57. AKR1C3 expression increased steroid conversion by MCF-7 cells, leading to a pro-estrogenic state. Expression of AKR1C3 also reduced the anti-proliferative effects of PGD(2) on MCF-7 cells. PMID: 20036328
  58. Data indicate that enzymes CYP17A1 and HSD3B1 showed low expression, while AKR1C3 and SRD5A1 were abundantly expressed. PMID: 20086173
  59. Glaucomatous optic nerve head astrocytes express a higher level of 3 alpha-HSD isoform AKR1C3 and its mRNA than normal astrocytes. PMID: 13678667
  60. expression and activity of type 5 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and type 3 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in female subcutaneous tissue and omental adipose tissue and in preadipocytes PMID: 14671194
  61. On the basis of crystal structures, a detailed catalytic mechanism of prostaglandin F synthase is proposed and compared to that of AKR1C1 and AKR1C3. PMID: 14979715
  62. Overexpression of hPGFS is associated with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and tumour cell lines derived from respiratory and digestive organs PMID: 14997212
  63. Expression of SRD5A1 (5alphaR1) and SRD5A2 (5alphaR2) is elevated, and expression of AKR1C1 (20alpha-HSO), AKR1C2 (3alpha-HSO3) and AKR1C3 (3alpha-HSO2) is reduced in tumorous as compared to normal breast tissue. PMID: 15212687
  64. Single nucleotide polymorphism may play a role in the pathogenesis of lung cancer in this population, particularly among heavily exposed women. PMID: 15284179
  65. enzyme distribution differs between normal and hormonal dependent malignancies of the breast and prostate PMID: 15582534
  66. Members of the Sp family of transcription factors play an important role in regulating constitutive and stimulated expression of the HSD17B5 gene in H295R cells. PMID: 15814298
  67. AKR1C3 protects the mineralocorticoid receptor from activation by deoxycorticosterone in mineralocorticoid target cells of the kidney and colon. PMID: 16337083
  68. The expression of AKR1C1 and AKR1C3 in endometrial cancer will govern the ratio of P:E2. PMID: 16338060
  69. Based on model structures & inhibition, catalytic mechanism of PGH2 9,11-endoperoxide reductase of PGFS is proposed.Formation of PGF(2alpha) from PGH2 may involve hydride transfer from bound NADPH to PGH2 endoperoxide without specific amino acid residues. PMID: 16475787
  70. Type 5 17beta-HSD (AKR1C3) differs significantly from the type 1 enzyme by possessing a spacious and flexible steroid-binding site. PMID: 16480815
  71. Elevated expression of AKR1C3 is highly associated with prostate carcinoma PMID: 16601286
  72. Glu77Gly AKR1C3 polymorphism is associated with lower testosterone levels in serum. PMID: 16983398
  73. report the clinical history, endocrine evaluation and molecular genetics of a prepubertal girl affected by 17beta-HSD3 deficiency, in whom an erroneous diagnosis of androgen insensitivity syndrome was made PMID: 17071532
  74. analysis of human type 5 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase conformation and binding to inhibitors PMID: 17166832
  75. HSD17B5 single nucleotide polymorphisms predicted to have functional effects do not appear to be a risk factor for precocious pubarche in girls from Barcelona, despite these girls being at high risk of developing androgen excess in adulthood PMID: 17583494
  76. Carbonyl reductase-1 (CBR1), microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 and 2 (mPGES-1, mPGES-2), cytosolic prostaglandin E synthase (cPGES), aldoketoreductase (AKR1C1) and prostaglandin F synthase (AKR1C3) were all expressed in hair follicles. PMID: 17697149
  77. Polymorphisms in the HSD17B5 gene are not associated with risk of polycystic ovary syndrome or elevated testosterone levels. PMID: 17940109
  78. The maternal methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase A1298C polymorphism was found to be an effect modifier of the maternal intron 4 polymorphism of the AKR1C3 gene and the childhood leukemia risk. PMID: 18339682
  79. Among gene transcripts elevated in depressed episodes were prostaglandin D synthetase (PTGDS) and prostaglandin D2 11-ketoreductase (AKR1C3), both involved in hibernation. We hypothesized them to account for some of the rapid cycling symptoms. PMID: 18552976
  80. A strong immunoreactivity was detected not only in classically hormone-associated tissues such as prostate and testis but also in non-hormone-associated tissues such as kidney and bladder in humans and rats. PMID: 18574251
  81. genetic variation in carcinogen-metabolizing genes, particularly AKR1C3, could be associated with bladder cancer risk. PMID: 18632753
  82. Data suggest that adipose tissue AKR1C3 expression may be affected by metabolic disease, and its levels are significantly reduced in response to diet-induced weight loss and correlate with leptin levels. PMID: 18641923
  83. Higher mRNA levels of enzymes synthesizing and inactivating androgens are found in differentiated adipocytes, consistent with higher androgen-processing rates in these cells. PMID: 18984855
  84. 17beta-HSD type 5 was expressed in 56% of breast cancer specimens. decrease in 17beta-HSD type 5 expressions in breast cancer may play a role in the development &/or progression of cancer by modifying the intratumoral levels of estrogens & androgens. PMID: 18996480
  85. This is the first study that addresses whether AKR1C3 mediates carcinogen activation within intact living cells following manipulation of AKR1C3 by molecular intervention. PMID: 19162045
  86. By western blot analysis, AKR1C3 is present in human liver obtained at autopsy. By western blot analysis, AKR1C3 is barely detectible in human brain obtained at autopsy. PMID: 19273550
  87. AKR1C subfamily genes are stress-inducible and might function as survival factors in keratinocytes. PMID: 19320734
  88. AKR1C3, through its ability to convert androstenedione to testosterone, is likely responsible for adrenal testosterone production. PMID: 19336506
  89. There is no difference in catalytic properties between variants of 17beta-HSD types 7 and 12 and wild-type enzymes, while variants p.Glu77Gly and p.Lys183Arg in 17beta-HSD type 5 showed a slightly decreased activity. PMID: 19460435
  90. AKR1C isoforms as a novel target of jasmonates in cancer cells. PMID: 19487289
  91. The researchers found an increased risk of breast cancer in women with AKR1C3 who carried 1 or 2 alleles and who used estrogen-progesterone therapy. PMID: 19846565

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Subcellular Location Cytoplasm
Protein Families Aldo/keto reductase family
Tissue Specificity Expressed in many tissues including adrenal gland, brain, kidney, liver, lung, mammary gland, placenta, small intestine, colon, spleen, prostate and testis. The dominant HSD in prostate and mammary gland. In the prostate, higher levels in epithelial cells
Database Links

HGNC: 386

OMIM: 603966

KEGG: hsa:8644

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000369927

UniGene: Hs.78183

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