Recombinant Human Galectin-9 (LGALS9)

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Code CSB-EP012895HU
Size $224
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  • (Tris-Glycine gel) Discontinuous SDS-PAGE (reduced) with 5% enrichment gel and 15% separation gel.
  • Based on the SEQUEST from database of E.coli host and target protein, the LC-MS/MS Analysis result of CSB-EP012895HU could indicate that this peptide derived from E.coli-expressed Homo sapiens (Human) LGALS9.
  • Based on the SEQUEST from database of E.coli host and target protein, the LC-MS/MS Analysis result of CSB-EP012895HU could indicate that this peptide derived from E.coli-expressed Homo sapiens (Human) LGALS9.
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Product Details

Greater than 90% as determined by SDS-PAGE.
Target Names
Uniprot No.
Research Area
Alternative Names
36 kDa beta-galactoside-binding lectin; Ecalectin; Gal-9; galectin 9; Galectin-9; galectin9; HOM HD 21; HOMHD21; HUAT; Lectin galactoside binding soluble 9; LEG9_HUMAN; LGAL S9; LGALS 9; Lgals9; LGALS9A; MGC117375; MGC125973; MGC125974; Tumor antigen HOM-HD-21; UAT; Urate transporter/channel; Urate transporter/channel protein
Homo sapiens (Human)
Expression Region
Target Protein Sequence
Note: The complete sequence including tag sequence, target protein sequence and linker sequence could be provided upon request.
Mol. Weight
Protein Length
Full length of Isoform 2
Tag Info
N-terminal 6xHis-GST-tagged
Liquid or Lyophilized powder
Note: We will preferentially ship the format that we have in stock, however, if you have any special requirement for the format, please remark your requirement when placing the order, we will prepare according to your demand.
If the delivery form is liquid, the default storage buffer is Tris/PBS-based buffer, 5%-50% glycerol.
Note: If you have any special requirement for the glycerol content, please remark when you place the order.
If the delivery form is lyophilized powder, the buffer before lyophilization is Tris/PBS-based buffer, 6% Trehalose, pH 8.0.
We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
Troubleshooting and FAQs
Storage Condition
Store at -20°C/-80°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life
The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time
3-7 business days
Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA
Please contact us to get it.

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Target Background

Binds galactosides. Has high affinity for the Forssman pentasaccharide. Ligand for HAVCR2/TIM3. Binding to HAVCR2 induces T-helper type 1 lymphocyte (Th1) death. Also stimulates bactericidal activity in infected macrophages by causing macrophage activation and IL1B secretion which restricts intracellular bacterial growth. Ligand for P4HB; the interaction retains P4HB at the cell surface of Th2 T-helper cells, increasing disulfide reductase activity at the plasma membrane, altering the plasma membrane redox state and enhancing cell migration. Ligand for CD44; the interaction enhances binding of SMAD3 to the FOXP3 promoter, leading to up-regulation of FOXP3 expression and increased induced regulatory T (iTreg) cell stability and suppressive function. Promotes ability of mesenchymal stromal cells to suppress T-cell proliferation. Expands regulatory T-cells and induces cytotoxic T-cell apoptosis following virus infection. Activates ERK1/2 phosphorylation inducing cytokine (IL-6, IL-8, IL-12) and chemokine (CCL2) production in mast and dendritic cells. Inhibits degranulation and induces apoptosis of mast cells. Induces maturation and migration of dendritic cells. Inhibits natural killer (NK) cell function. Can transform NK cell phenotype from peripheral to decidual during pregnancy. Astrocyte derived galectin-9 enhances microglial TNF production. May play a role in thymocyte-epithelial interactions relevant to the biology of the thymus. May provide the molecular basis for urate flux across cell membranes, allowing urate that is formed during purine metabolism to efflux from cells and serving as an electrogenic transporter that plays an important role in renal and gastrointestinal urate excretion. Highly selective to the anion urate.; Acts as an eosinophil chemoattractant. It also inhibits angiogenesis. Suppresses IFNG production by natural killer cells.
Gene References into Functions
  1. Gal-9 intrinsically regulates B cell activation and may differentially modulate B cell receptor signaling at steady state and within germinal centers. PMID: 30120234
  2. High GAL9 expression is associated with gastric cancer. PMID: 30106451
  3. Gal-9 is a promising biomarker for allograft dysfunction, but unable to differentiate allograft rejection from other causes of renal dysfunction in kidney transplantation recipients PMID: 29310109
  4. this study showed that blood level of galectin-9 increased during pregnancy PMID: 29205636
  5. Gal-9 expression determined the DFS and OS of ovarian cancer patients in two opposing ways-moderate Gal-9 expression was correlated with a reduced outcome as compared to Gal-9 negative cases, while patients with high Gal-9 expression showed the best outcome. PMID: 29361803
  6. these data indicate a novel role for galectin-9 in modulating innate immunity by inducing aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in CD103+ dendritic cells PMID: 28889122
  7. Gal-9 was down modulated in stroma of patients with chronic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection. PMID: 28939284
  8. T-cell immunoglobulin mucin-3/galectin-9 (Tim-3/Gal-9) binding signaling can also engage other binding partners to induce distinct cellular responses [Review]. PMID: 29027155
  9. the present study was the first to report the participation of Gal-9 in Chagas disease PMID: 28554765
  10. The interaction between Gal-9/TIM-3 pathway and follicular helper cells contributed to viral persistent in chronic hepatitis C virus infection. PMID: 28772217
  11. Our data reveal that Gal9 suppresses the growth of liver metastasis, possibly by inducing apoptosis through a mechanism involving mitochondria and changes in miRNA expression. Thus, Gal9 might serve as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of liver metastasis from pancreatic cancer. PMID: 28656219
  12. Exosomal total protein, Tim-3 and Galectin-9 were up-regulated in non-small cell lung cancer plasma. PMID: 29452091
  13. Galectin-9, a soluble lectin expressed by T cells, endothelial cells and dendritic cells, binds to and retains PDI on the cell surface. PMID: 28810662
  14. results suggested that Tim-3 and Gal-9 could downregulate T cell inflammation in Osteoarthritis PMID: 28393295
  15. Results show that human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells possess a secretory pathway which leads to the production and release of soluble Tim-3 and galectin-9. Both proteins prevent the activation of NK cells and impair their AML cell-killing activity. PMID: 28750861
  16. Significantly elevated Gal-9 levels were found in both minimal-mild (I-II) and moderate-severe (III-IV) stages of endometriosis in comparison with healthy controls. PMID: 29202955
  17. We investigated tumor-infiltrating CD4 and CD8 T cells and the expression of PD-L1, Galectin-9, and XAGE1 in stage I to IIIA lung adenocarcinomas using a tissue microarray to deduce their contribution to overall survival, and our data showed that PD-L1 expression was a positive indicator, whereas Galectin-9 and XAGE1 expression was negative. PMID: 27799141
  18. Tim3/Gal-9 alleviates the inflammation of TAO patients via suppressing Akt/NF-kappaB signaling pathway. PMID: 28756232
  19. Low Gal-9 expression is associated with pancreatic and ampullary cancer. PMID: 28470686
  20. Galectin 9 is a novel dectin 1 ligand in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Upon disruption of the dectin 1-galectin 9 axis, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, which are dispensable for PDA progression in hosts with an intact signaling axis, become reprogrammed into indispensable mediators of anti-tumor immunity. PMID: 28394331
  21. X-ray structure of a protease-resistant mutant form of human galectin-9 having two carbohydrate recognition domains with a metal-binding site has been presented. PMID: 28687490
  22. These findings may indicate that an increase in the Gal-9 level, a novel immune checkpoint molecule, can reflect immune-related adverse effects of various biotherapies. PMID: 28321034
  23. Our data suggest a role of galectin-9 in regulating HIV transcription and viral production in vivo during therapy PMID: 27253379
  24. these data suggest that the high Tim-3 expression in monocytes could be utilized by tumor-promoting Gal-9 expression on CD4(+) T cells PMID: 28466780
  25. this study shows that in osteosarcoma patients, Tim3 expression did not directly mediate immune suppression, but the interaction between Tim3+ T cells and monocytes, naive CD4+ T cells, and Gal9-expressing CD4+ CD25+ Tregs could resulting in progressive suppression of Th1 responses PMID: 28103502
  26. The human recombinant galectin-9 has demonstrated anti-cancer activities, including inducing apoptosis in hematological, dermatological and gastrointestinal malignancies. In this review, the molecular characteristics, history and apoptosis-inducing potential of galectin-9 are described. [review] PMID: 28045432
  27. In this review, we summarize the latest knowledge on the structure, receptors, cellular targets, trafficking pathways and functional properties of galectin-9 and discuss how galectin-9-mediated signalling cascades can be exploited in cancers and immunotherapies PMID: 27581941
  28. this study shows that the levels of expression of Gal-9 on CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD56+ T cells and in serum in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus are significantly higher than those of healthy controls PMID: 27394439
  29. In a genetic analysis of heavy consumers of alcohol, the authors associated 2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in LGALS9 with the development of advanced alcoholic liver disease. PMID: 26598225
  30. The integrative analysis of galectins(Gal-1, -3, -4, -9) discriminated IBD from other intestinal inflammatory conditions and could be used as potential mucosal biomarker. PMID: 26891020
  31. Gal-9 suppresses the growth of GBC, possibly by inducing apoptosis and altering miRNA expression PMID: 26797414
  32. The expression of Galectin-9 mRNA has a close relationship with pathological differentiation, tumor staging, and recurrence metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma PMID: 26823850
  33. The Gal-9/Tim-3 signal is important for the regulation of decidua NK cells function, which is beneficial for the maintenance of a normal pregnancy. PMID: 25578313
  34. Gal-9 suppressed T-helper 17 (Th17) and expanded regulatory T cells (Tregs), resulting in decreased IL-17 production and increased secretion of TGF-beta1 PMID: 26663989
  35. an abnormal Tim-3/Gal-9 pathway was able to facilitate the development of preeclampsia. PMID: 26342682
  36. Galectin-9 stimulated migration in human NK-92 cells by affecting F-actin polarization through the Rho/ROCK1 signaling pathway. PMID: 27028892
  37. may contribute to elevated galectin-9 and adaptive immune inhibition in hepatitis C virus infection PMID: 26475932
  38. TIM-3 and its ligand, galectin-9 (Gal-9), constitute an autocrine loop critical for leukemic stem cells self-renewal and development of human acute myeloid leukemia. PMID: 26279267
  39. Galectin-9 is involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease.Graves' disease is associated with a defective expression of the immune regulatory molecule galectin-9 in antigen-presenting dendritic cells. PMID: 25880730
  40. Study found that LGALS9 was expressed in 68.4% of the human gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) and Tim-3 in the infiltrated NK cells of 68.4% of GISTs and suggest that Tim-3/LGALS9 pathway may be involved in the immune checkpoint mechanism of GISTs. PMID: 26239720
  41. We also observed that the Gal-9/miR-22 axis may influence lymphocyte apoptosis and tumor cell proliferation. These studies contribute to a further understanding of the microRNAmediated regulation of the Gal-9 pathway . PMID: 26239725
  42. These results indicate the possibility that cooperative binding of oligosaccharide and neighboring polypeptide structures of monoclonal IgE to galectin-9 affects the overall affinity and specificity of the IgE-lectin interaction. PMID: 26582205
  43. These findings suggest that Gal-9 can be a candidate of therapeutic target in the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma PMID: 26260906
  44. the increased expression may be helpful to differentiate of oral squamous cell carcinoma from oral leukoplakia and oral lichen planus PMID: 25956455
  45. Data show that dengue virus (DV) infection specifically increased mRNA and protein levels of galectin-9 (Gal-9). PMID: 25754930
  46. Participation of TIM-3 and its ligand (galectin-9) in the pathogenesis of active generalized vitiligo PMID: 25784621
  47. Results show that galectin-9 inhibited the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells by apoptosis, but not cell cycle arrest. Its antitumor effect is mediated by miR1246. PMID: 25823465
  48. Gal-9 expression is a potential independent prognostic factor for OS and RFS in patients with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma PMID: 25716202
  49. Tim-3, which specifically expresses on LSCs, is beneficial for LSCs survival and AML progression by promoting expansion of MDSCs and differentiating into TAMs at the leukemia site PMID: 24639110
  50. Gal-9 as a novel component of the first wave of the cytokine storm in acute HIV infection that is sustained at elevated levels in virally suppressed subjects PMID: 24786365

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Subcellular Location
Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Secreted.; [Isoform 2]: Secreted.; [Isoform 3]: Secreted.
Tissue Specificity
Peripheral blood leukocytes and lymphatic tissues. Expressed in lung, liver, breast and kidney with higher levels in tumor endothelial cells than normal endothelium (at protein level). Expressed in trophoblast cells in decidua and placenta in pregnancy (a
Database Links

HGNC: 6570

OMIM: 601879

KEGG: hsa:3965

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000378856

UniGene: Hs.81337

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