Recombinant Human Galectin-9(LGALS9)

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Code CSB-EP012895HU
Size US$1726Purchase it in Cusabio online store
(only available for customers from the US)
  • (Tris-Glycine gel) Discontinuous SDS-PAGE (reduced) with 5% enrichment gel and 15% separation gel.
  • Based on the SEQUEST from database of E.coli host and target protein, the LC-MS/MS Analysis result of CSB-EP012895HU could indicate that this peptide derived from E.coli-expressed Homo sapiens (Human) LGALS9.
  • Based on the SEQUEST from database of E.coli host and target protein, the LC-MS/MS Analysis result of CSB-EP012895HU could indicate that this peptide derived from E.coli-expressed Homo sapiens (Human) LGALS9.
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Product Details

Purity Greater than 90% as determined by SDS-PAGE.
Target Names LGALS9
Uniprot No. O00182
Research Area Neuroscience
Alternative Names 36 kDa beta-galactoside-binding lectin; Ecalectin; Gal-9; galectin 9; Galectin-9; galectin9; HOM HD 21; HOMHD21; HUAT; Lectin galactoside binding soluble 9; LEG9_HUMAN; LGAL S9; LGALS 9; Lgals9; LGALS9A; MGC117375; MGC125973; MGC125974; Tumor antigen HOM-HD-21; UAT; Urate transporter/channel; Urate transporter/channel protein
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Source E.coli
Expression Region 1-323aa
Note: The complete sequence including tag sequence, target protein sequence and linker sequence could be provided upon request.
Mol. Weight 65.9kDa
Protein Length Full length of Isoform 2
Tag Info N-terminal 6xHis-GST-tagged
Form Liquid or Lyophilized powder
Note: We will preferentially ship the format that we have in stock, however, if you have any special requirement for the format, please remark your requirement when placing the order, we will prepare according to your demand.
Buffer If the delivery form is liquid, the default storage buffer is Tris/PBS-based buffer, 5%-50% glycerol.
Note: If you have any special requirement for the glycerol content, please remark when you place the order.
If the delivery form is lyophilized powder, the buffer before lyophilization is Tris/PBS-based buffer, 6% Trehalose, pH 8.0.
Reconstitution We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
and FAQs
Protein FAQs
Storage Condition Store at -20°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time Basically, we can dispatch the products out in 3-7 working days after receiving your orders. Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Notes Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA Please contact us to get it.

Target Data

Function Binds galactosides
Gene References into Functions
  1. Gal-9 intrinsically regulates B cell activation and may differentially modulate B cell receptor signaling at steady state and within germinal centers. PMID: 30120234
  2. High GAL9 expression is associated with gastric cancer. PMID: 30106451
  3. Gal-9 is a promising biomarker for allograft dysfunction, but unable to differentiate allograft rejection from other causes of renal dysfunction in kidney transplantation recipients PMID: 29310109
  4. this study showed that blood level of galectin-9 increased during pregnancy PMID: 29205636
  5. Gal-9 expression determined the DFS and OS of ovarian cancer patients in two opposing ways-moderate Gal-9 expression was correlated with a reduced outcome as compared to Gal-9 negative cases, while patients with high Gal-9 expression showed the best outcome. PMID: 29361803
  6. these data indicate a novel role for galectin-9 in modulating innate immunity by inducing aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in CD103+ dendritic cells PMID: 28889122
  7. Gal-9 was down modulated in stroma of patients with chronic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection. PMID: 28939284
  8. T-cell immunoglobulin mucin-3/galectin-9 (Tim-3/Gal-9) binding signaling can also engage other binding partners to induce distinct cellular responses [Review]. PMID: 29027155
  9. the present study was the first to report the participation of Gal-9 in Chagas disease PMID: 28554765
  10. The interaction between Gal-9/TIM-3 pathway and follicular helper cells contributed to viral persistent in chronic hepatitis C virus infection. PMID: 28772217
  11. Our data reveal that Gal9 suppresses the growth of liver metastasis, possibly by inducing apoptosis through a mechanism involving mitochondria and changes in miRNA expression. Thus, Gal9 might serve as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of liver metastasis from pancreatic cancer. PMID: 28656219
  12. Exosomal total protein, Tim-3 and Galectin-9 were up-regulated in non-small cell lung cancer plasma. PMID: 29452091
  13. Galectin-9, a soluble lectin expressed by T cells, endothelial cells and dendritic cells, binds to and retains PDI on the cell surface. PMID: 28810662
  14. results suggested that Tim-3 and Gal-9 could downregulate T cell inflammation in Osteoarthritis PMID: 28393295
  15. Results show that human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells possess a secretory pathway which leads to the production and release of soluble Tim-3 and galectin-9. Both proteins prevent the activation of NK cells and impair their AML cell-killing activity. PMID: 28750861
  16. Significantly elevated Gal-9 levels were found in both minimal-mild (I-II) and moderate-severe (III-IV) stages of endometriosis in comparison with healthy controls. PMID: 29202955
  17. We investigated tumor-infiltrating CD4 and CD8 T cells and the expression of PD-L1, Galectin-9, and XAGE1 in stage I to IIIA lung adenocarcinomas using a tissue microarray to deduce their contribution to overall survival, and our data showed that PD-L1 expression was a positive indicator, whereas Galectin-9 and XAGE1 expression was negative. PMID: 27799141
  18. Tim3/Gal-9 alleviates the inflammation of TAO patients via suppressing Akt/NF-kappaB signaling pathway. PMID: 28756232
  19. Low Gal-9 expression is associated with pancreatic and ampullary cancer. PMID: 28470686
  20. Galectin 9 is a novel dectin 1 ligand in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Upon disruption of the dectin 1-galectin 9 axis, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, which are dispensable for PDA progression in hosts with an intact signaling axis, become reprogrammed into indispensable mediators of anti-tumor immunity. PMID: 28394331
  21. X-ray structure of a protease-resistant mutant form of human galectin-9 having two carbohydrate recognition domains with a metal-binding site has been presented. PMID: 28687490
  22. These findings may indicate that an increase in the Gal-9 level, a novel immune checkpoint molecule, can reflect immune-related adverse effects of various biotherapies. PMID: 28321034
  23. Our data suggest a role of galectin-9 in regulating HIV transcription and viral production in vivo during therapy PMID: 27253379
  24. these data suggest that the high Tim-3 expression in monocytes could be utilized by tumor-promoting Gal-9 expression on CD4(+) T cells PMID: 28466780
  25. this study shows that in osteosarcoma patients, Tim3 expression did not directly mediate immune suppression, but the interaction between Tim3+ T cells and monocytes, naive CD4+ T cells, and Gal9-expressing CD4+ CD25+ Tregs could resulting in progressive suppression of Th1 responses PMID: 28103502
  26. The human recombinant galectin-9 has demonstrated anti-cancer activities, including inducing apoptosis in hematological, dermatological and gastrointestinal malignancies. In this review, the molecular characteristics, history and apoptosis-inducing potential of galectin-9 are described. [review] PMID: 28045432
  27. In this review, we summarize the latest knowledge on the structure, receptors, cellular targets, trafficking pathways and functional properties of galectin-9 and discuss how galectin-9-mediated signalling cascades can be exploited in cancers and immunotherapies PMID: 27581941
  28. this study shows that the levels of expression of Gal-9 on CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD56+ T cells and in serum in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus are significantly higher than those of healthy controls PMID: 27394439
  29. In a genetic analysis of heavy consumers of alcohol, the authors associated 2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in LGALS9 with the development of advanced alcoholic liver disease. PMID: 26598225
  30. The integrative analysis of galectins(Gal-1, -3, -4, -9) discriminated IBD from other intestinal inflammatory conditions and could be used as potential mucosal biomarker. PMID: 26891020
  31. Gal-9 suppresses the growth of GBC, possibly by inducing apoptosis and altering miRNA expression PMID: 26797414
  32. The expression of Galectin-9 mRNA has a close relationship with pathological differentiation, tumor staging, and recurrence metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma PMID: 26823850
  33. The Gal-9/Tim-3 signal is important for the regulation of decidua NK cells function, which is beneficial for the maintenance of a normal pregnancy. PMID: 25578313
  34. Gal-9 suppressed T-helper 17 (Th17) and expanded regulatory T cells (Tregs), resulting in decreased IL-17 production and increased secretion of TGF-beta1 PMID: 26663989
  35. an abnormal Tim-3/Gal-9 pathway was able to facilitate the development of preeclampsia. PMID: 26342682
  36. Galectin-9 stimulated migration in human NK-92 cells by affecting F-actin polarization through the Rho/ROCK1 signaling pathway. PMID: 27028892
  37. may contribute to elevated galectin-9 and adaptive immune inhibition in hepatitis C virus infection PMID: 26475932
  38. TIM-3 and its ligand, galectin-9 (Gal-9), constitute an autocrine loop critical for leukemic stem cells self-renewal and development of human acute myeloid leukemia. PMID: 26279267
  39. Galectin-9 is involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease.Graves' disease is associated with a defective expression of the immune regulatory molecule galectin-9 in antigen-presenting dendritic cells. PMID: 25880730
  40. Study found that LGALS9 was expressed in 68.4% of the human gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) and Tim-3 in the infiltrated NK cells of 68.4% of GISTs and suggest that Tim-3/LGALS9 pathway may be involved in the immune checkpoint mechanism of GISTs. PMID: 26239720
  41. We also observed that the Gal-9/miR-22 axis may influence lymphocyte apoptosis and tumor cell proliferation. These studies contribute to a further understanding of the microRNAmediated regulation of the Gal-9 pathway . PMID: 26239725
  42. These results indicate the possibility that cooperative binding of oligosaccharide and neighboring polypeptide structures of monoclonal IgE to galectin-9 affects the overall affinity and specificity of the IgE-lectin interaction. PMID: 26582205
  43. These findings suggest that Gal-9 can be a candidate of therapeutic target in the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma PMID: 26260906
  44. the increased expression may be helpful to differentiate of oral squamous cell carcinoma from oral leukoplakia and oral lichen planus PMID: 25956455
  45. Data show that dengue virus (DV) infection specifically increased mRNA and protein levels of galectin-9 (Gal-9). PMID: 25754930
  46. Participation of TIM-3 and its ligand (galectin-9) in the pathogenesis of active generalized vitiligo PMID: 25784621
  47. Results show that galectin-9 inhibited the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells by apoptosis, but not cell cycle arrest. Its antitumor effect is mediated by miR1246. PMID: 25823465
  48. Gal-9 expression is a potential independent prognostic factor for OS and RFS in patients with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma PMID: 25716202
  49. Tim-3, which specifically expresses on LSCs, is beneficial for LSCs survival and AML progression by promoting expansion of MDSCs and differentiating into TAMs at the leukemia site PMID: 24639110
  50. Gal-9 as a novel component of the first wave of the cytokine storm in acute HIV infection that is sustained at elevated levels in virally suppressed subjects PMID: 24786365
  51. Results strongly suggest that Gal-9 is involved in tumorigenesis of gastric cancer. PMID: 24919464
  52. PPARG inhibits cell invasion, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition through upregulation of galectin-9 in vitro and in vivo. PMID: 24976296
  53. Galectin-9 reduced survival by inducing apoptosis and suppressed degranulation in HMC-1 cells, while it induced cytokine and chemokine production by these cells by activating ERK1/2. PMID: 24465902
  54. Tim-3/Gal-9 interaction favors apoptosis of MBP-specific T lymphocytes in benign multiple sclerosis; this process is reduced in PPMS by the up-regulation of Bat3 PMID: 25091272
  55. Human cytomegalovirus upregulates expression of the lectin galectin 9 via induction of beta interferon. PMID: 25008927
  56. Galectin-9 expressing regulatory T cells, TIM-3+ cytotoxic T cells and NK cells could play an important role in the maintenance of healthy pregnancy. PMID: 24651720
  57. The expression of E-cadherin in OSCC was significantly lower than the control tissues but galectin-9 expression was conversely higher. PMID: 24716948
  58. Gal-9 production is induced by influenza virus infection in humans, making it a potential disease biomarker. PMID: 24695077
  59. It was suggested that the overexpression of Tim-3/Gal-9 pathway may be related to the pathogenesis of RSA. PMID: 25135732
  60. Galectin-9 is a suppressor of T and B cells and predicts the immune modulatory potential of mesenchymal stromal cell preparations. PMID: 24083426
  61. The results suggest that expression of Gal-9 and Tim-3 in tumor cells may be a potential, independent prognostic factor for patients with gastric cancer. Gal-9 and TIM-3 may play an important part in the gastric carcinogenesis. PMID: 24339967
  62. action of agonist anti-4-1BB in suppressing autoimmune and allergic inflammation was completely dependent on Galectin-9 (Gal-9). Gal-9 directly bound to 4-1BB, in a site distinct from the binding site of antibodies and the natural ligand of 4-1BB PMID: 24958847
  63. Data show that galectin-9 induces Treg and Th1 polarization through interaction with antigen-presenting cells. PMID: 23735749
  64. two novel genes, galectin 9 and PINCH, were expressed at much higher levels in cancerous lesions than in normal tissues in all the patients with clear-cell carcinoma who were examined PMID: 24895689
  65. High galectin 9 expression is associated with preeclampsia. PMID: 23936526
  66. Data indicate that endothelial cells expressed five Galectin-9 (LGALS9) splice variants. PMID: 24333696
  67. neutrophil TIM-3/Gal-9 signaling is perturbed in the CF airways due to proteolytic degradation of the receptor. PMID: 24477913
  68. a ligand (Gal-9) compartment-dependent regulatory effect on receptor (Tim-3) activities and inflammatory responses via TLR pathways PMID: 23967307
  69. Persistent Gal-9 production might impair Tim-3 activity and contribute to natural killer cell dysfunction in chronic HIV-1 infection. PMID: 23866914
  70. failure of CD4 T cell help during acute HCV is partially due to an imbalance between Th17 and Treg cells whereby exhaustion of both CD4 and CD8 T cells through the Tim-3/Gal-9 pathway PMID: 23818845
  71. Expression of Gal-9 in the lung is increased in patients with interstitial pneumonia associated with collagen vascular disease and that Gal-9 may have a protective role against pulmonary fibrosis of these patients. PMID: 23321864
  72. galectin-9 is expressed in majority of samples of normal epithelium, along with regular presence of keratins 14 or 19. This lectin can represent potential marker of normality in cases of studied squamous cell epithelia. PMID: 22650413
  73. The elevation of serum Gal-9 in the patients with type 2 diabetes is closely linked to GFR and they may be related to the alteration of the immune response and inflammation of the patients with type 2 diabetes and CKD. PMID: 23339460
  74. Galectin-9 impairs the function of NK cells, including cytotoxicity and cytokine production. PMID: 23408620
  75. HCV-infected human hepatocytes express higher levels of Gal-9 and TGF-beta, and upregulate Tim-3 expression. PMID: 23161469
  76. These results show a differential regulation of Lgals9 isoform expression during normal and pathological pregnancies and designate Lgals9 as a potential marker for adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID: 23242525
  77. CD4 T cells expressing Gal-9 on the cell surface (Gal-9(+) Th cells) secrete Gal-9 upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation. PMID: 23144904
  78. galectin-9 suppressed metastasis of hepatocelllular carcinoma cells in multiple steps; propose that galectin-9 might be a new prognostic factor with antimetastatic potential in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma PMID: 22938412
  79. Blocking Gal9 and T cell Ig and mucin domain (Tim)3 interaction in vitro contributes to control of intracellular bacterial replication in human macrophages. PMID: 23180819
  80. Plasma levels of Gal-9 may be predictive of a severe inflammation status during the acute phase of HIV-1 infection and could be a potential biomarker during acute infection. PMID: 23038209
  81. The Tim-3/galectin-9 signaling pathway mediates T-cell senescence in Hepatitis B Virus-associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma. PMID: 22505239
  82. Reduced levels of Tim-3 on CD4(pos) CD25(neg) effector cells and of Gal9 in T-regs contribute to impaired immunoregulation in autoimmune hepatitis by rendering effector cells less prone to T-reg control and T-regs less capable of suppressing. PMID: 22371007
  83. data suggest that TIM-3 and its interaction with Gal-9 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of RA and may represent a potential therapeutic target PMID: 21717191
  84. Soluble Gal-9 interacts with Tim-3 expressed on the surface of activated CD4(+) T cells. This leads to down-regulation of HIV-1 coreceptors and up-regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. PMID: 22438246
  85. Tim-3 is an inducible human natural killer cell receptor that enhances interferon gamma production in response to galectin-9. PMID: 22323453
  86. the effects of galectin-9 on T cells are more complex than previously thought and are mediated by additional receptors apart from Tim-3 PMID: 21187321
  87. investigated the source of Gal-9 in the intestine and the mechanism by which Gal-9 modulated DC's phenotyping and sustained the T helper 2 polarization. PMID: 21426359
  88. galectin-9 binding to PDI on T cells potentiates infection with HIV. We identify a mechanism for regulating cell surface redox status via a galectin-glycoprotein lattice, to regulate distinct T-cell functions PMID: 21670307
  89. TIM-3 and its ligand galectin-9 are constitutively overexpressed in cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelial cell surface, an observation further confirmed in CF patient samples; A neutrophil-dominated immune response exists in the CF airways. PMID: 21263071
  90. galectin-9 production by Kupffer cells links the innate and adaptive immune response in hepatitis C PMID: 20209097
  91. the Gal-9 level correlated with the eotaxin level in patients with acute eosinophilic pneumonia, but there was no significant correlation between those levels in patients with CEP PMID: 20484929
  92. Galectin-9 isoforms regulate the E-selectin expression in LoVo cells differently and thus influence the adhesion between LoVo cells and HUVECs in vitro in different modes. PMID: 19538882
  93. Overexpression of the Tim-3 ligand in Gal-9 transgenic mice results in an increase in CD11b-positive Ly-6G-positive myeloid cells and inhibition of immune responses. PMID: 20574007
  94. galectin-9 induces osteoblast differentiation through the CD44/Smad signaling pathway in the absence of bone morphogenetic proteins. PMID: 20206131
  95. ecalectin is a novel eosinophil-activating factor PMID: 11823532
  96. overexpression of galectin 9 is associated with cell aggregation and apoptosis of melanoma cells PMID: 12115481
  97. IFN-gamma-induced production of galectin-9 by endothelial cells may play an important role in immune responses by regulating interactions between vascular wall & eosinophils. In situ endothelium from inflammatory diseases expressed galectin-9. PMID: 12223516
  98. Galectin 9 in IFN-gamma-stimulated fibroblasts plays a crucial role as a physiological modulator at inflammatory sites. PMID: 12421975
  99. Gal-9 induces the apoptosis of various immune cells, including activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, through the Ca2+-calpain-caspase-1 pathway, playing a role not only in thymocyte maturation but also in immunomodulation by inducing apoptosis of those cells. PMID: 12646627
  100. Changes in the expressions of galectin-9 are potentially important for myeloid cell differentiation into specific lineages. PMID: 12714580

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Subcellular Location Cytoplasm, Nucleus, Secreted
Tissue Specificity Peripheral blood leukocytes and lymphatic tissues. Expressed in lung, liver, breast and kidney with higher levels in tumor endothelial cells than normal endothelium (at protein level) (PubMed:24333696). Expressed in trophoblast cells in decidua and placen
Database Links

HGNC: 6570

OMIM: 601879

KEGG: hsa:3965

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000378856

UniGene: Hs.81337

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