Recombinant Human Protachykinin-1(TAC1)

Code CSB-EP023062HU
Size US$1726
  • (Tris-Glycine gel) Discontinuous SDS-PAGE (reduced) with 5% enrichment gel and 15% separation gel.

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Product Details

Purity Greater than 90% as determined by SDS-PAGE.
Target Names TAC1
Uniprot No. P20366
Research Area Neuroscience
Alternative Names C-terminal-flanking peptide; Hs.2563; neurokinin 1; neurokinin 2; neurokinin A; neurokinin alpha; Neuromedin L; neuropeptide gamma; neuropeptide K; NK2; NKA; NKNA; NPK; PPT; preprotachykinin; protachykinin; protachykinin-1; Substance K; SubstanceP; TAC1; TAC2; TAC2; formerly; Tachykinin 1; tachykinin 2; tachykinin 2; formerly; Tachykinin precursor 1; tachykinin; precursor 1 (substance K; substance P; neurokinin 1; neurokinin 2; neuromedin L; neurokinin alpha; neuropeptide K; neuropeptide gamma); Tachykinin1; TKN1_HUMAN
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Source E.coli
Expression Region 1-129aa
Note: The complete sequence including tag sequence, target protein sequence and linker sequence could be provided upon request.
Mol. Weight 42.0kDa
Protein Length Full Length
Tag Info N-terminal GST-tagged
Form Liquid or Lyophilized powder
Note: We will preferentially ship the format that we have in stock, however, if you have any special requirement for the format, please remark your requirement when placing the order, we will prepare according to your demand.
Buffer If the delivery form is liquid, the default storage buffer is Tris/PBS-based buffer, 5%-50% glycerol.
Note: If you have any special requirement for the glycerol content, please remark when you place the order.
If the delivery form is lyophilized powder, the buffer before lyophilization is Tris/PBS-based buffer, 6% Trehalose, pH 8.0.
Reconstitution We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
and FAQs
Protein FAQs
Storage Condition Store at -20°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Notes Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA Please contact us to get it.

Target Data

Function Tachykinins are active peptides which excite neurons, evoke behavioral responses, are potent vasodilators and secretagogues, and contract (directly or indirectly) many smooth muscles.
Gene References into Functions
  1. Preincubation of LAD2 cells with the natural flavonoid methoxyluteolin (1-100 mM) inhibits (P < 0.0001) secretion and gene expression of IL-1beta, procaspase-1, and pro-IL-1beta. Mast cell secretion of IL-1beta in response to SP and IL-33 reveals targets for the development of antiinflammatory therapies. PMID: 30232261
  2. High TAC1 expression is associated with primary central nervous system lymphoma. PMID: 28521029
  3. These findings reported here for the first time suggest an important role for a SP/NK1R system, either as genetic and/or epigenetic factor, in both the cytoplasm and nucleus functions of the adipose stem cells. PMID: 28500728
  4. This study showed that ADMA, carbonyl groups, CAT and NKA can be useful markers of chronic stress in both males and females with depression, PTSD, and depression concurrent with PTSD. PMID: 28554099
  5. Inhibition of SP through use of a neurokinin 1 (NK1) antagonist is highly beneficial following both traumatic brain injury (TBI) and ischaemic stroke in pre-clinical models. The role of CGRP is more unclear, especially with respect to TBI, with both elevations and reductions in CGRP levels reported following trauma PMID: 28817088
  6. serum SP levels during the first week could be used as a biomarker of sepsis mortality. PMID: 28714876
  7. elevated plasma SP level, up-regulated expression of SP and NK1R indicate that the SP/NK1R complex is important in the development of Atopic dermatitis. PMID: 28460633
  8. High methylation of TAC1 is associated with head and neck cancer. PMID: 27027429
  9. Data suggest that serum substance P concentrations at the day of oocyte retrieval after ovulation induction may be used to predict oocyte maturation during in vitro oocyte maturation to be followed by intracytoplasmic sperm injections and may be an indirect indicator for treatment outcome in women with infertility. PMID: 27908224
  10. expressed in mural granulosa and cumulus cells PMID: 27146034
  11. Expression substance P/neurokinin A/hemokinin-1 and their preferred neurokinin 1/neurokinin 2 receptors are dysregulated in uterine leiomyomata. PMID: 27456549
  12. These results suggest that Substance P can retain the therapeutic effect of adipose-derived stem cells by elevating their proliferative and paracrine potential in ex vivo culture. PMID: 28192115
  13. Data suggest that endogenous tachykinin ligands for neurokinin-1 receptor exhibit large variations in binding/activation kinetics; substance P exhibits fast association kinetics; neurokinin A exhibits slow association kinetics. PMID: 27501920
  14. Mapping the co-localization of the circadian proteins PER2 and BMAL1 with enkephalin and substance P throughout the rat forebrain has been reported. PMID: 28423013
  15. Circulating Neurokinin A >/= 50 ng/L is a strong indicator of poor prognosis when Neurokinin A remains above this concentration PMID: 26038607
  16. Substance P enhances tissue factor release from granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-dependent macrophages via the p22phox/beta-arrestin 2/Rho A signaling pathway. PMID: 26852662
  17. Decrease of mGluR5 receptor density goes parallel with changes in enkephalin and substance P immunoreactivity in Huntington's disease PMID: 24969128
  18. Report absence of full-length neurokinin-1 receptor protein expression by cutaneous T cells in mycosis fungoides and discuss substance P signaling. PMID: 25783846
  19. findings suggest a proinflammatory role for SP in autoimmune inflammation PMID: 25690155
  20. The spatial structures of human, mouse, and rat hemokinin-1 protein isoforms have been presented. PMID: 26349209
  21. Substance P was significantly increased in hypertrophic scars compared with matched unburned skin. In the reticular dermis and papillary dermis, SP represented significant correlation with pain. PMID: 24908181
  22. High TAC1 expression is associated with breast cancer. PMID: 25750171
  23. An increased presence of Substance P in the trochanteric bursa may be related to the pain associated with greater trochanteric pain syndrome. PMID: 24563019
  24. Substance P is upregulated in the serum of patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria PMID: 24844859
  25. SP may influence the KP and NKB secretory output via additional autocrine/paracrine mechanisms or regulate GnRH neurosecretion directly. PMID: 23977290
  26. we define a three-gene panel, CDO1, HOXA9, and TAC1, which we subsequently validate in two independent cohorts of primary NSCLC samples PMID: 24486589
  27. The results showed that the expression of SP and CGRP was significantly enhanced in the neurogenic SMSCs in response to IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha, and the effect was remarkably inhibited by HA. PMID: 25135735
  28. The antimicrobial peptide substance P has activity against invasive bacteria and fungi. PMID: 12074933
  29. TAC1 expression level was differentially altered in Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis patients. PMID: 23827863
  30. study investigated the role of SP in promoting the development of brain tumors; an increase in the levels of SP was noted in brain tumors; results suggest that SP and its NK1 receptor may play a major role in the progression of certain types of brain tumors PMID: 24374326
  31. SP induces higher levels of CD163 in monocytes and that high expression of CD163 is associated with increases HIV infection in macrophages. PMID: 24577568
  32. Substance P may be protective acutely following ischemia-reperfusion, but damaging long-term in non-ischemic induced remodeling and heart failure. PMID: 24286592
  33. Overexpression of membrane metalloendopeptidase inhibits substance P stimulation of cholangiocarcinoma growth. PMID: 24603459
  34. Copper(II) complexes of neuropeptide gamma with point mutations (S8,16A) products of metal-catalyzed oxidation. PMID: 24084156
  35. Data indicate that both nucleus pulposus (NP) and annulus fibrosus (AF) cells expressed Substance P (SP) at low levels. PMID: 23873242
  36. Substance P does not play any important role in pruritus in hemodialysed and peritoneal dialyzed patients. PMID: 23995243
  37. Serum methylation levels of TAC1, SEPT9, and EYA4 were significant discriminants between stage I colorectal cancer and healthy controls. PMID: 23862763
  38. TRH, LH-RH and substance P are not affected in Alzheimer disease and Down's syndrome. PMID: 24010162
  39. The results showed that SP is present in the gengival sulcus in elements undergoing orthodontic forces during treatment with Invisalign technique and not in the control teeth. PMID: 23737731
  40. Our results suggest that Substance P plays an important role in the development of pancreatic cancer metastasis and PNI, and blocking the SP/NK-1R signaling system is a novel strategy for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID: 23345604
  41. Data indicate that circulating substance P (SP) and TGF-beta1 levels are increased in patients with myelofibrosis. PMID: 22906243
  42. CpG hypermethylation is a likely mechanism of TAC1 and TACR1 gene inactivation, supporting the hypothesis that TAC1 and TACR1 play a role in the tumorigenesis of HNSCC and that this hypermethylation may serve as an important biomarker. PMID: 23420374
  43. SP stimulates complement C3 secretion in adipocytes, and expression of NK1R in human omental adipose tissue correlates with plasma complement C3. PMID: 23257919
  44. Elevated substance P levels might be regarded as an important contributor of sulfur mustard-induced chronic pruritus and a potential target for reducing the symptoms PMID: 22681041
  45. Expression of esophageal epithelial CGRP and substance P is increased, and correlates negatively with perception thresholds in non-erosive reflux disease. PMID: 22961239
  46. This study aims to explore the associations of polymorphisms in tachykinin, precursor 1 (TAC1), tachykinin receptor 1 (TACR1), and tachykinin receptor 2 (TACR2) genes and their interactions with the risk of colorectal cancer among Chinese population. PMID: 22733436
  47. This study indicates that SP, mediated via NK-1 R, increases collagen remodeling and leads to increased MMP3 mRNA and protein expression that is further enhanced by cyclic mechanical loading. PMID: 22836729
  48. These data suggest a direct relationship between central nervous system substance P containing neural circuits and aggression in human subjects PMID: 22449753
  49. Tissue and serum levels of substance P were increased in chronic pancreatitis, while neprilysin levels remained unaltered. PMID: 22572771
  50. The unique co-existence of SP and phospho-NMDAR1 in tendinopathy presumably reflects a tissue proliferative and nociceptive role. PMID: 22354721
  51. the importance of p31(comet) in checkpoint silencing and its potential as a target for antimitotic therapies. PMID: 22057425
  52. CGRP and SP may have a role in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease in patients with diabetes. PMID: 22429353
  53. TAC1 has a key role in developmental regulation of mesenchymal stem cells differentiation into neurons. PMID: 21671725
  54. Human progenitor cells (PC) express NK1, and substance p-induced migration provides enrichment for proangiogenic PC PMID: 22392530
  55. elevated MMP-9, reduced SP, and normal CGRP levels were characteristic of the blood biomarker profiles of alternating hemiplegia of childhood patients PMID: 21550738
  56. Data show that serum neurokinin A levels are elevated in some autistic children and are significantly correlated to the severity of autism and to serum levels of anti-ribosomal P protein antibodies. PMID: 22189180
  57. Substance P upregulates monocyte tissue factor (TF), the major coagulation cascade stimulator, in a concentration and time dependent manner. PMID: 22115773
  58. neuropeptide S precursor gene. PMID: 20405330
  59. The promoter of the TAC1 transgene must act in synergy with a remote enhancer in order to respond to MAP kinase signalling that modulates the expression of TAC1 in sensory neurones. PMID: 21160161
  60. Report validation of neurokinin A biomarker assays across continents. PMID: 21926539
  61. Our data suggests that substance P induces NK92-MI cell cytotoxicity by directly increasing the expression of cytotoxic granules and indirectly upregulates the receptor-mediated functions of NK92-MI cells. PMID: 21375557
  62. fibroblastic CD10 expression may down-regulate skin inflammation by degrading SP or reducing its level in the dermal microenvironment PMID: 21076839
  63. The SP level of the nasal septum in the perennial allergic rhinitis patients was higher than that in the normal controls. PMID: 19685709
  64. Substance P and hemokinin-1 are novel T helper (Th)17 cell-inducing factors that may act locally on memory T cells to amplify inflammatory responses. PMID: 21368235
  65. Substance P and VIP neurofibers are present in the fibroid pseudocapsule of uterine fibroids, similar to the values in the normal myometrium of a non-pregnant uterus. PMID: 21167238
  66. cigarette smoke amplifies the LPS-induced macrophages' secretion of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha through synergizing SP secretion, which activates NF-kappaB via binding with NK1R PMID: 20160043
  67. SP, CGRP and VIP may play important roles in the pathophysiological mechanism of vasomotor rhinitis. PMID: 17087112
  68. These findings suggest that SP contributes to the pain and inflammation associated with carpal tunnel syndrome. PMID: 21107196
  69. The substance P-neurokinin-1 receptor system is reviewed in relationship to their immune system functions and selected infections. PMID: 21091716
  70. Truncated and full-length NK1R isoforms are expressed in and SP bound by ex vivo NK cells and the YTS NK cell line. PMID: 20940324
  71. The SP amount was higher in the post-cesarean section scar than in lower uterine fibers in first cesarean section. PMID: 20692311
  72. Substance P primes TLR2-mediated activation of human mast cells by up-regulating TLR expression and potentiating signalling pathways associated with TLR. PMID: 20497485
  73. Bupivacaine wound infusion resulted in a significant decrease of interleukin 10 and increase of substance P in wounds after cesarean section. PMID: 20861424
  74. Data show that 1/3 of pediatric slow-transit constipation patients have low substance P or vasoactive intestinal peptide nerve fiber density in proximal colon. PMID: 20529207
  75. In this study, although significant association with asthma is observed for the single nucleotide polymorphisms of the TAC3 and TAC4 genes, no association with asthma pathogenesis is found for TAC1. PMID: 20580442
  76. In cholestasis, there is increased availability of substance P which may mediate the development of pruritus. PMID: 20526012
  77. Similar to the situation in prurigo nodularus, chronic pruritus lesions also demonstrate a preponderance of SP+ sensory nerve fibers relative to sympathetic nerve fibers, which probably acts as a causal pro-inflammatory signal in development of pruritus PMID: 20417061
  78. indicate alterations of the cerebral PENK A- and PTA-system in both, dementia and acute neuroinflammatory disorders PMID: 20207019
  79. Our results have demonstrated, for the first time, a positive impact for Substance P and CGRP as expansion factors for the growth of cord blood CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells. PMID: 19909213
  80. Nicergoline increases substance P levels in ischaemic stroke patients with partial damage to basal ganglia, who have a decreased swallowing response and consequent risk of aspiration pneumonia. PMID: 20029189
  81. Substance P and NK-1R are expressed in oral precancerous epithelium PMID: 19885583
  82. Studies indicate that CgA, pancreastatin and neurokinin A have strong prognostic value. PMID: 19855234
  83. We report on an HD phenocopy with selective loss of preprotachykinin (PPT) neurons, dysfunction of surviving PPT neurons, preservation of preproenkephalin (PPE) neurons within the striatum. PMID: 11921119
  84. Involvement of the second extracellular loop (E2) of the neurokinin-1 receptor in the binding of substance P PMID: 11950831
  85. Substance P up-regulates the TGF-beta 1 mRNA expression of human dermal fibroblasts in vitro PMID: 12382579
  86. Substance P induced intracellular signalling in Caco-2 cells. It induced the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases in a time- and dose-dependent manner. PMID: 12383866
  87. REVIEW: Substance p-fibronectin-cytokine interactions in myeloproliferative disorders with bone marrow fibrosis. PMID: 12486316
  88. Substance P is expressed in human articular cartilage and is involved in chondrocyte mechanotransduction via the NK1 receptor in an autocrine and paracrine manner. PMID: 12528114
  89. Substance P expressed in NT2-N neuronal cells is functionally involved in the regulation of macrophage inflammatory protein 1 beta and may play a major role in modulating neuronal functions related to immune regulatory activities within the CNS. PMID: 12548712
  90. The release of substance P is higher during the first 12 hours after a cerebral ischemia attack, decreasing later but remaining high compared to controls. PMID: 12578734
  91. a role for substance P and its receptor, neurokinin NK(1) receptor, in the brainstem nuclei in the development of emesis (review) PMID: 12686752
  92. Expression of substance P was studied in neoplastic cells of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. It was detected in the cytoplasm of blasts in leukemias of the common and T-lymphocyte cell types. PMID: 12705477
  93. correlation between SP levels and diarrhea severity in cryptosporidiosis; may imply that SP plays a role in diarrhea mediation PMID: 12854086
  94. This review points out a distinct role for full-length peptide substance P by reducing excessive excitation in the activity-dependent modulation of cholinergic neurotransmission. PMID: 12871824
  95. substance P receptor dimerization with micro-opioid receptor, sequestering MOR-1 via an endocytotic pathway with delayed recycling and resensitization kinetics. PMID: 14532289
  96. Elevated substance P in nasal lavage fluid associated with increased cough sensitivity in patients with chronic nonproductive cough. Neurochemical abnormality in upper airway. PMID: 14564346
  97. Presence of substance P within these nerves is strong evidence that these nerves have the potential to transmit signals of nociception. PMID: 14589248
  98. Normal component of human tears. Levels might reflect denervation of eye surface. Catabolized by degradative enzymes in tears to maintain ocular surface by exerting trophic effects of substance P while avoiding undesirable effects. PMID: 14703707
  99. The contents of plasma neurokinin A (NKA) were significantly higher during the asthma attack stage of children, and the higher was the level of NKA, the more severe the attack. PMID: 14749007
  100. SP stimulates platelet aggregation, intracellular mobilization of calcium and degranulation. Platelets contain SP-like immunoreactivity that is secreted upon activation implicating SP-like substances in the autocrine/paracrine regulation of these cells. PMID: 15130944

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Subcellular Location Secreted
Protein Families Tachykinin family
Database Links

HGNC: 11517

OMIM: 162320

KEGG: hsa:6863

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000321106

UniGene: Hs.2563


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