Recombinant Rat DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase(Apex1)

Code CSB-YP001900RA
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Source Yeast
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Code CSB-EP001900RA
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Source E.coli
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Code CSB-EP001900RA-B
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Source E.coli
Conjugate Avi-tag Biotinylated
E. coli biotin ligase (BirA) is highly specific in covalently attaching biotin to the 15 amino acid AviTag peptide. This recombinant protein was biotinylated in vivo by AviTag-BirA technology, which method is BriA catalyzes amide linkage between the biotin and the specific lysine of the AviTag.
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Code CSB-BP001900RA
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Source Baculovirus
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Code CSB-MP001900RA
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Source Mammalian cell
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Product Details

Purity >85% (SDS-PAGE)
Target Names Apex1
Uniprot No. P43138
Alternative Names Apex1; Ape; Apex; Ref1DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase; EC 3.1.-.-; EC; APEX nuclease; APEN; Apurinic-apyrimidinic endonuclease 1; AP endonuclease 1; REF-1; Redox factor-1) [Cleaved into: DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase; mitochondrial]
Species Rattus norvegicus (Rat)
Expression Region 2-317
Protein Length Full Length of Mature Protein
Tag Info The following tags are available.
N-terminal His-tagged
The tag type will be determined during production process. If you have specified tag type, please tell us and we will develop the specified tag preferentially.
Form Lyophilized powder
Note: We will preferentially ship the format that we have in stock, however, if you have any special requirement for the format, please remark your requirement when placing the order, we will prepare according to your demand.
Buffer before Lyophilization Tris/PBS-based buffer, 6% Trehalose, pH 8.0
Reconstitution We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20℃/-80℃. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
and FAQs
Protein FAQs
Storage Condition Store at -20°C/-80°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Note: All of our proteins are default shipped with normal blue ice packs, if you request to ship with dry ice, please communicate with us in advance and extra fees will be charged.
Notes Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet Please contact us to get it.

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Target Background

Multifunctional protein that plays a central role in the cellular response to oxidative stress. The two major activities of APEX1 are DNA repair and redox regulation of transcriptional factors. Functions as a apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endodeoxyribonuclease in the DNA base excision repair (BER) pathway of DNA lesions induced by oxidative and alkylating agents. Initiates repair of AP sites in DNA by catalyzing hydrolytic incision of the phosphodiester backbone immediately adjacent to the damage, generating a single-strand break with 5'-deoxyribose phosphate and 3'-hydroxyl ends. Does also incise at AP sites in the DNA strand of DNA/RNA hybrids, single-stranded DNA regions of R-loop structures, and single-stranded RNA molecules. Has a 3'-5' exoribonuclease activity on mismatched deoxyribonucleotides at the 3' termini of nicked or gapped DNA molecules during short-patch BER. Possesses a DNA 3' phosphodiesterase activity capable of removing lesions (such as phosphoglycolate) blocking the 3' side of DNA strand breaks. May also play a role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression by participating in DNA demethylation. Acts as a loading factor for POLB onto non-incised AP sites in DNA and stimulates the 5'-terminal deoxyribose 5'-phosphate (dRp) excision activity of POLB. Plays a role in the protection from granzymes-mediated cellular repair leading to cell death. Also involved in the DNA cleavage step of class switch recombination (CSR). On the other hand, APEX1 also exerts reversible nuclear redox activity to regulate DNA binding affinity and transcriptional activity of transcriptional factors by controlling the redox status of their DNA-binding domain, such as the FOS/JUN AP-1 complex after exposure to IR. Involved in calcium-dependent down-regulation of parathyroid hormone (PTH) expression by binding to negative calcium response elements (nCaREs). Together with HNRNPL or the dimer XRCC5/XRCC6, associates with nCaRE, acting as an activator of transcriptional repression. Stimulates the YBX1-mediated MDR1 promoter activity, when acetylated at Lys-6, leading to drug resistance. Acts also as an endoribonuclease involved in the control of single-stranded RNA metabolism. Plays a role in regulating MYC mRNA turnover by preferentially cleaving in between UA and CA dinucleotides of the MYC coding region determinant (CRD). In association with NMD1, plays a role in the rRNA quality control process during cell cycle progression. Associates, together with YBX1, on the MDR1 promoter. Together with NPM1, associates with rRNA. Binds DNA and RNA.
Gene References into Functions
  1. Study shows that genetically enhancing apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease expression or treatment with the small molecule, E3330, increases DNA repair. PMID: 28965839
  2. Our findings provided valuable insights into the redox function of APE1/Ref-1 in preventing Pi-induced VSMC calcification by inhibiting oxidative stress and osteoblastic differentiation, resulting in prevention of altered osteoblastic phenotypes in VSMCs. PMID: 28946662
  3. The results of this study suggest that Ape1 protects against neuron death by activating the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. PMID: 27893608
  4. altered expression and/or subcellular distribution of APE1/Ref-1 in activated astrocytes regulated the neuroinflammatory response to excitotoxin and endotoxin insults used in model of neurodegenerative brain diseases. PMID: 27986089
  5. This study suggests that a new function of GLP-1 is to elevate DNA repair by inducing the expression of the DNA repair protein APE1. PMID: 27698937
  6. In summary, APE1 is regulated at different levels after acute and chronic UUO. Thus, our results suggest that DNA repair activity is regulated in response to progressive (7 days) obstruction and that APE1 potentially could play a role in the development of fibrosis in kidney disease. PMID: 26608791
  7. Ape1 expression was initially high and then gradually reduced along with the tooth development. PMID: 26639148
  8. these data provide the first evidence that a critical BER enzyme, APE1, helps regulate the NER pathway in the repair of cisplatin damage in sensory neurons. PMID: 26164266
  9. BDNF stimulates DNA repair by activating CREB, which, in turn, induces the expression of APE1. Suppression of either APE1 or TrkB by RNA interference abolishes the ability of BDNF to protect neurons against oxidized DNA damage-induced death. PMID: 24114393
  10. a unique redox modification of APE1 protein and consequent loss of its activity seem to play a crucial role in increased apurinic/apyrimidinic-site accumulation and eventually liver carcinogenesis. PMID: 24337968
  11. In an experimental condition preceding tumorigenesis, APE1 contributes to the repair of oxidative DNA lesions in the spleen. PMID: 23352893
  12. Protein-disulfide isomerase regulates the thyroid hormone receptor-mediated gene expression via redox factor-1 through thiol reduction-oxidation. PMID: 23148211
  13. p53-dependent apoptosis resulting in suppressed apurinic-apyrimidinic endonuclease might be an underlying mechanism of diabtic nephropathy. PMID: 22172708
  14. Modulation of AP-endonuclease1 levels associated with hepatic cirrhosis in rat model treated with human umbilical cord blood mononuclear stem cells. PMID: 22076170
  15. the repair function of APE1 is required to protect both hippocampal and DRG neuronal cultures--specifically neuronal cells--from IR-induced damage, while the redox activity of APE1 does not appear to be involved. PMID: 21741887
  16. Conclude that curcumin reduced markers of liver damage in rats treated with CCl4, with concomitant elevation in AP-endonuclease1 protein level indicating a possible protective effect with unknown mechanism. PMID: 21911894
  17. The immunolocalization of 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1) and AP endonuclease 1 (APE1) in the lens and three of the predominant base excision repair (BER) enzymes: OGG1, APE1, and DNA polymerase gamma, were studied. PMID: 20808729
  18. DNA damage that is rapidly repaired by a mechanism involving Ca(2+)-induced, CREB-mediated APE1 expression PMID: 20573957
  19. Ref-1 expression increased in the after hippocampus CA1 area after induction of Alzheimer's disease. PMID: 19084962
  20. Data show that the rabbit anti-human APE1 polyclonal antibody with high titer and specificity can be used not only to elucidate the roles of APE1 protein in cellular procedures, but also to detect the expression of the APE1 protein in mice and rats. PMID: 19351502
  21. increased expression in liver transplanted group PMID: 19728933
  22. redox and cAMP regulatory mechanisms were determined in thyroid cells PMID: 12173070
  23. APEX contributes to the regulation of PDGF-BB-stimulated cell cycle progression from G0/G1 to S in SMCs, with one of the possible steps being redox-regulation of AP-1 by Ref-1 protein. PMID: 12730053
  24. cysteamine increases the expression and nuclear translocation of Egr-1, Ref-1, and Trx, and activates binding of Egr-1 to DNA PMID: 13679060
  25. Ref-1/Ape is a critical component of the hypoxia-inducible transcriptional complex forming on the VEGF gene's hypoxic response element PMID: 15084519
  26. data support the notion that both of functions of Ape1, redox and repair are necessary for optimal levels of neuronal cell survival PMID: 15661660
  27. Ischemic preconditioning potentiates survival signal through phosphorylation of Akt by causing nuclear translocation & activation of Ref-1, where significant interaction among NFkappaB & Ref-1, Trx-1, & Nrf2 regulates Ref-1-induced survival signal. PMID: 17602955
  28. Report alterations in the expression of the apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-1/redox factor-1 (APE/ref-1) and DNA damage in the caudal region of acute and chronic spinal cord injured rats treated by embryonic neural stem cells. PMID: 18637713

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Subcellular Location Nucleus. Nucleus, nucleolus. Nucleus speckle. Endoplasmic reticulum. Cytoplasm.; [DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) endonuclease, mitochondrial]: Mitochondrion.
Protein Families DNA repair enzymes AP/ExoA family
Database Links

KEGG: rno:79116

STRING: 10116.ENSRNOP00000013176

UniGene: Rn.5949

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