Recombinant Human Serum amyloid A-1 protein(SAA1) (Active)

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Code CSB-AP000441HU
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Product Details

Purity >98% as determined by SDS-PAGE and HPLC.
Endotoxin Less than 1.0 EU/μg as determined by LAL method.
Activity Fully biologically active when compared to standard. The biological activity determined by a chemoattract bioassay using human monocytes is in a concentration range of 10-100 ng/ml.
Target Names SAA1
Uniprot No. P0DJI8
Research Area Immunology
Alternative Names SAA1; Serum amyloid A-1 protein; SAA) [Cleaved into: Amyloid protein A; Amyloid fibril protein AA); Serum amyloid protein A(2-104); Serum amyloid protein A(3-104); Serum amyloid protein A(2-103); Serum amyloid protein A(2-102); Serum amyloid protein A(4-101)]
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Source E.Coli
Expression Region 19-122aa
Mol. Weight 11.7 kDa
Protein Length Full Length of Mature Protein
Tag Info Tag-Free
Form Lyophilized powder
Buffer Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered concentrated solution in 20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 9.0, 150 mM NaCl
Reconstitution We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
and FAQs
Protein FAQs
Storage Condition Store at -20°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time Basically, we can dispatch the products out in 5-10 working days after receiving your orders. Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Notes Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA Please contact us to get it.

Target Data

Function Major acute phase protein.
Gene References into Functions
  1. SAA1 can be produced in human fetal membranes, which can be greatly induced in the presence of proinflammatory cytokines and glucocorticoids thereby producing effects associated with parturition PMID: 28386088
  2. High SAA1 expression in the stromal component is associated with pancreatic tumors. PMID: 29351990
  3. Data suggest that anti-inflammatory capacity of HDL (high-density lipoprotein) from patients with type 2 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy is impaired; this effect might be attributable to SAA enrichment in HDL in these patients; up-regulation of SAA in HDL appears to be associated with increased risk of diabetic angiopathy or vasculitis in such patients. PMID: 28760652
  4. The frequencies of the CC genotype and the C allele of SAA rs12218 were higher in participants with ischemic stroke than in the control group. The frequencies of the AG genotype and the G allele of rs2468844 were higher in participants with ischemic stroke than in the control group. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed the significance of the rs12218 in males and in large-artery atherosclerosis group. PMID: 28870546
  5. we show that astrocytoma patients have increased levels of serum SAA and SAA1 is expressed and secreted in glioblastoma, and its co-expression with tumor-related genes supports its involvement in glioblastoma angiogenesis and progression. PMID: 28283801
  6. These results suggested that the C-terminal truncation of human SAA accelerates amyloid fibril formation. PMID: 29288051
  7. SAA1 can be a potential mediator for UV-induced MMP-1 expression in human skin. PMID: 26900010
  8. Data suggest that serum amyloid A (SAA) immunoreactivity in tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) is associated with worse recurrence-free survival, and is perhaps a therapeutic target for breast cancer. PMID: 27058895
  9. Findings indicate that in Lyme disease patients, circulating CRP and SAA (Serum Amyloid A) levels are highest when the concentration of spirochetes is greatest in skin and/or blood and that levels decline after the dissemination of the organism to extracutaneous sites in subsequent stages of infection. PMID: 27585799
  10. The Serum amyloid A (SAA)/formyl peptide receptor-like 1 (FPRL1) contributed to pathogenesis of psoriasis by promoting keratinocyte proliferation and inflammation, thus providing a potential therapeutic target for disease therapy. PMID: 27910163
  11. High SAA expression is associated with lung cancer. PMID: 27809798
  12. SAA, PROZ, and C4BPB may serve as new potential biomarkers for TB PMID: 28278182
  13. Novel truncated form of serum amyloid A is elevated in the plasma of Kawasaki disease (KD) when compared with Febrile control subjects. Future studies will evaluate its relevance as a diagnostic biomarker and its potential role in the pathophysiology of KD. PMID: 27271757
  14. SR-A1 suppresses lung cancer metastasis by downregulating SAA1 production in tumor-associated macrophages (TAM). PMID: 28202524
  15. The SAA1.1 allele was found in four familial Mediterranean fever patients, including two with AA amyloidosis. PMID: 27150194
  16. genetic variants at the CRP and SAA1 loci independently affect both CRP and SAA levels, and their respective circulating levels act as suppressors. PMID: 27313400
  17. Serum amyloid A could represent a novel marker of primary unexplained recurrent early pregnancy loss because affected women exhibited elevated levels of this protein. PMID: 28099717
  18. The polymorphism of SAA1 is not associated with susceptibility and severity of Familial Mediterranean Fever in Egyptian children PMID: 27300189
  19. The findings identify SR-BII as a functional SAA receptor that mediates SAA uptake and contributes to its proinflammatory signaling via the MAPK-mediated signaling pathways. PMID: 28423002
  20. Correlate MEFV genotype and the SAA1 polymorphisms with the clinical manifestations of familial Mediterranean fever and the occurrence of amyloidosis in a large cohort of Armenian patients. PMID: 27791951
  21. Study found increased SAA concentration in patients with sarcoidosis. PMID: 26919159
  22. the detection of residues 76 and 77 of SAA (AA76) may alter the ability to diagnose AA amyloidosis. PMID: 27098620
  23. The results demonstrated that SAA upregulated Visfatin expression in cultured RAW264.7 macrophages and in the primary monocytes. PMID: 27006946
  24. Structure, function and SAA1 gene polymorphisms PMID: 26945629
  25. Serum Amyloid A induces inflammation, proliferation and cell death in activated hepatic stellate cells. PMID: 26937641
  26. Amyloid A overexpressed in renal cell carcinoma patients and can serve as a prognostic marker. PMID: 26750935
  27. incorporation of SAA into HDL preparations reduced antiinflammatory properties but not to the same extent as HDL from AgNO3-injected mice PMID: 26642365
  28. human SAA is possibly only expressed in a subset of septic patients; SAA induces HMGB1 release via TLR4 and RAGE receptors; SAA supplementation worsens the outcome of lethal endotoxemia PMID: 26052716
  29. The SAA1 rs12218 polymorphism was significantly more prevalent in ankylosing spondylitis patients with amyloidosis. PMID: 26300108
  30. Autocrine/paracrine and recombinant human SAA1 via TLR4 stimulate a proinflammatory phenotype that is both part of the early phase of osteogenic differentiation and the development of senescence. PMID: 26135899
  31. Serum amyloid A1alpha induces paracrine IL-8/CXCL8 via TLR2 and directly synergizes with this chemokine via CXCR2 and formyl peptide receptor 2 to recruit neutrophils. PMID: 26297794
  32. These functional properties set SAA apart from well-characterized inflammatory factors, such as LPS and TNF-alpha, suggesting that it may play a homeostatic role during the course of inflammation. PMID: 26130702
  33. The detailed analysis of the docking results points to the fact that the best serum amyloid A-Cystatin C (SAA-hCC) binding is achieved by the peptides inclined toward interacting via Lys90 and Arg 96 (with ffhCC Ser98 and Tyr102, respectively). PMID: 25736604
  34. Our results showed PCT as a valuable marker of bacterial infections in febrile patients. PCT was superior to CRP, IL-6 or SAA in the early identification of bacterial infection PMID: 25963492
  35. Mutations in genetic biomarker SAA1 gene related to amyloidosis processes may play a crucial role in chronic renal failure patients who require long-term hemodialysis. PMID: 25394530
  36. The relative abundance of the N-terminal arginine truncation of SAA1.1 is significantly decreased in diabetes and negatively correlates with measures of glycemic and lipid control. PMID: 25607823
  37. potential marker for detecting the activity of srcoidosis PMID: 25623898
  38. Genetic polymorphisms in SAA1 are associated with coronary artery disease in the Han and Uygur populations in Western China. PMID: 25656165
  39. High SAA serum level is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID: 25605163
  40. HDL3 subpopulations in ST segment elevation myocardial infarction were enriched 10 times in SAA patients. PMID: 26037829
  41. SAA has a role in activity of rheumatoid arthritis and risk of cardiovascular and renal involvement PMID: 25525305
  42. SR-B1 and p38 MAPK are involved in signaling pathway of serum amyloid A-induced angiogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis. PMID: 25932604
  43. Although SAA concentrations were elevated in the sera, there was no significant difference in these concentrations between familial Mediterranean fever patients and rheumatoid arthritis patients. PMID: 25240611
  44. Zn deficiency enhances the acute phase response and particularly the JAK-STAT3 pathway, resulting in increased serum amyloid A production. PMID: 24732911
  45. Serum amyloid A is a retinol binding protein that transports retinol during bacterial infection. PMID: 25073702
  46. Data suggest that serum amyloid A (SAA) is a candidate for diabetic kidney disease therapeutic and biomarker discovery. PMID: 25531567
  47. The CSF biomarker amyloid 1-42 is important and useful as part of the diagnostic procedure for detecting AD and other dementia in elderly patients displaying psychotic symptoms. PMID: 23597931
  48. homozygous SAA1.5/1.5 genotype appears to be a recessive susceptibility gene, which has lost the antiangiogenic function, whereas SAA1.1 and SAA1.3 are the dominant alleles of the tumor suppressor phenotype. PMID: 24608426
  49. keratinocyte-derived SAA triggers a key inflammatory mediator, IL-1beta, via NLRP3 inflammasome activation, providing new potential targets for the treatment of this chronic skin disease. PMID: 25231464
  50. SAA1 gene expression in COPD patients is responsible for the secretion of this molecule in different cell types. PMID: 24884805
  51. the innate neutrophil immune response against SAA involves a two-step activation process: an initial signal promoting expression of pro-IL-1beta and a second signal involving Syk-dependent activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and caspase-1. PMID: 24846290
  52. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adipose tissue-derived human SAA on atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice. PMID: 24751653
  53. we concluded that genetic polymorphisms of SAA1 may be a genetic marker of MI in the Chinese population PMID: 24854450
  54. The genetic polymorphisms of SAA1 were associated with plasma glucose levels in non-diabetic subjects PMID: 23940069
  55. during the first 24 hours from beginning of acute pancreatitis, SAA achieved its best prognostic value. PMID: 25344970
  56. the amyloid formation pathway of SAA PMID: 23750222
  57. we find no evidence that adipose tissue-derived hSAA1 influences the development of insulin resistance or obesity-related inflammation. PMID: 23967285
  58. SAA was higher in metabolic syndrome patients than controls. The inverse relationship between SAA and bilirubin found in controls was absent in MetS patients, which could be attributable to MetS-associated abnormalities in HDL characteristics. PMID: 24209691
  59. Differential proteomic analysis allowed for identifying increased levels of acute-phase serum amyloid A protein (AP SAA) in all lipoprotein fractions. PMID: 24454983
  60. Obese children showed increased frequency of SAA1 rs12218 and rs4638289 polymorphisms as compared to healthy children. PMID: 24171731
  61. CGRP promotes SAA synthesis through activation of IL-6 in human hepatocytes PMID: 24096654
  62. Genetic polymorphism of SAA1 may be a genetic marker of cerebral infarction in Chinese. PMID: 23987125
  63. Increased serum levels of SAA, phospholipase A2 group IIA , and C reactive protein were observed in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia, localized and metastasized prostate cancer in comparison to healthy individuals. PMID: 24061501
  64. combined structural and functional studies provide mechanistic insights into the pathogenic contribution of glycosaminoglycan in SAA1.1-mediated AA amyloid formation PMID: 24706838
  65. From the findings of experimental studies, PON1 appears to be cooperatively regulated by inflammation- and oxidative stress-related molecules linked with SAA regulation in humans PMID: 24228251
  66. these results point to a novel mechanism, by which SAA initiates a monocyte-dependent process that drives mitogenic signals in Treg. PMID: 24632292
  67. SAA is independently and inversely related to apoA-I but not to HDL-cholesterol in patients with angina pectoris. PMID: 23994331
  68. Data suggest that SAA is expressed in developing ovarian follicles and in corpora lutea; high levels of SAA in follicular fluid are associated with reduced pregnancy rate in women undergoing ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization. PMID: 24030940
  69. Examined the effect of amino acid variations in SAA1 isoforms on the amyloidogenic properties. All SAA1 isoforms adopted alpha-helix structures at 4 degrees C, but were unstructured at 37 degrees C. PMID: 24440699
  70. Our results indicated that the rs12218 in the SAA1gene was associated with lipid levels in a Chinese population PMID: 23898911
  71. All amino acid residues in the SAA sequence, essential for the formation of the protein complex with cystatin C, are basic ones. PMID: 23836469
  72. Systemic or local A-SAA expression inside OA joint cavity may play a key role in inflammatory process seen in osteoarthritis, which could be counteracted by TLR4 inhibition. PMID: 23776697
  73. The present results indicate that both osteoporosis and lipids levels are associated with the TT genotype of rs12218 in the human SAA1 gene. PMID: 23522429
  74. Findings indicate similarly strong prospective associations with type 2 diabetes for A-SAA and hs-CRP and suggest a potential causal link via postchallenge hyperglycemia. PMID: 23238662
  75. SAA up-regulates Lp-PLA2 production significantly via a FPRL1/MAPKs./PPAR-gamma signaling pathway. PMID: 23623642
  76. in acute phase of epilepsy, the serum SAA increased, but after 3 months of treatment, the SAA peak was disappeared. PMID: 23230824
  77. Renal AA-amyloidosis is the predominant cause of renal failure in intravenous drug users. Patients with AA-amyloidosis are more likely to be HIV infected and tend to have a higher rate of repeated systemic infections. PMID: 23171281
  78. Letter: serum amyloid A levels are elevated in venous thromboembolism. PMID: 23255027
  79. SAA1 gene polymorphisms, consisting of -13T/C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the 5'-flanking region and SNPs within exon 3 are associated with susceptibility to Familial Mediterranean Fever in the Japanese population. PMID: 23437051
  80. a novel STAT3 non-consensus TFBS at nt -75/-66 downstream of the NF-kappaB RE in the SAA1 promoter region that is required for NF-kappaB p65 and STAT3 to activate SAA1 transcription PMID: 23391827
  81. variant p.Gly90Asp SAA1 protein eliciting significantly reduced inflammatory responses in macrophages through a reduction in the secretion of inflammatory cytokines. PMID: 23357645
  82. Lipid-poor SAA, but not high density lipoprotein-associated SAA, stimulates G-CSF production. PMID: 23165195
  83. High serum SAA level is associated with obesity and estrogen receptor-negative breast tumors. PMID: 23300020
  84. SAA levels can be associated with clinical phenotypes in multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica. PMID: 23566403
  85. Serum amyloid A-positive hepatocellular neoplasms may be a new type of inflammatory hepatocellular tumors in alcoholic patients. PMID: 22766792
  86. SAA stimulates foam cell formation via LOX1 induction, and thus likely contributes to atherogenesis. PMID: 23454129
  87. SAA levels measured by ELISA in 97 NSCLC patients treated with gefitinib correlated with the clinical outcome of the patients PMID: 22771314
  88. Data suggest that serum amyloid protein A (SAA1) level in gestational diabetes is predictive of subclinical atherosclerosis in these women; SAA1 levels correlate with risk factors and may serve as biomarker of future atherosclerotic heart disease. PMID: 22827403
  89. Pathogenic serum amyloid A 1.1 shows a long oligomer-rich fibrillation lag phase contrary to the highly amyloidogenic non-pathogenic SAA2.2 PMID: 23223242
  90. findings suggested that SAA was significantly associated with disease duration and gastrointestinal manifestations manifestations in Henoch-Schonlein purpura patients PMID: 22367597
  91. High serum amyloid A expression is associated with benign neoplasm of pancreas. PMID: 22901189
  92. The rs12218 single nucleotide polymorphism in the SAA1 gene was associated with SUA levels in Chinese subjects, indicating that carriers of the T allele of rs12218 have a high risk of hyperuricemia. PMID: 22768267
  93. In patients with persistent Atrial Fibrillation and preserved LVEF, serum amyloid a and CRP levels are independent predictors of AF subacute recurrence rate. PMID: 22552174
  94. acute phase SAA may be involved in joint destruction though MMP induction and collagen cleavage in vivo. PMID: 22076945
  95. report abundance levels of SAA in serum samples from patients with advanced breast cancer, colorectal cancer (CRC) and lung cancer compared to healthy controls (age and gender matched) using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits PMID: 21953030
  96. Large-scale isotype-specific quantification of Serum amyloid A 1/2 by multiple reaction monitoring in crude sera. PMID: 22300576
  97. Purified ten targeted proteins from sera of patients with various types of advanced stage(stage III-IV)cancers. These proteins were identified as isoforms of the human serum amyloid protein A (SAA) family with or without truncations at their N-terminals. PMID: 22341353
  98. Amyloid A (AA) proteins in biopsy samples taken from the stomachs of patients with AA amyloidosis PMID: 22371903
  99. CC genotype of rs12218 in the SAA1 gene was associated with decreased ABI in Chinese Han subjects, which indicated that the carriers of CC genotype of rs12218 have high risk of peripheral arterial disease. PMID: 21449704
  100. Serum amyloid alpha is increased in complicated parapneumonic effusion, and it might be useful as a biomarker for complicated and uncomplicated parapneumonic effusion. PMID: 21876610

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Involvement in disease Reactive, secondary amyloidosis is characterized by the extracellular accumulation in various tissues of the SAA1 protein. These deposits are highly insoluble and resistant to proteolysis; they disrupt tissue structure and compromise function.
Subcellular Location Secreted
Protein Families SAA family
Tissue Specificity Expressed by the liver; secreted in plasma (at protein level).
Database Links

HGNC: 10513

OMIM: 104750

KEGG: hsa:6288

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000348918

UniGene: Hs.632144

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