PAWR Antibody

Code CSB-PA017486GA01HU
Size $600
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Product Details

Uniprot No.
Target Names
Alternative Names
2310001G03Rik antibody; PAR 4 antibody; PAR-4 antibody; Pawr antibody; PAWR_HUMAN antibody; PRKC Apoptosis WT1 Regulator antibody; PRKC apoptosis WT1 regulator protein antibody; Prostate apoptosis response 4 protein antibody; Prostate apoptosis response protein 4 antibody; prostate apoptosis response protein PAR-4 antibody; Transcriptional repressor Par-4-like protein PAWR antibody; Transcriptional repressor PAR4 antibody; WT1 Interacting Protein antibody
Raised in
Rabbit
Species Reactivity
Human,Mouse,Rat
Immunogen
Human PAWR
Immunogen Species
Homo sapiens (Human)
Isotype
IgG
Purification Method
Antigen Affinity purified
Concentration
It differs from different batches. Please contact us to confirm it.
Buffer
PBS with 0.02% Sodium Azide, 50% Glycerol, pH 7.3. -20°C, Avoid freeze / thaw cycles.
Tested Applications
ELISA,WB
Troubleshooting and FAQs
Storage
Upon receipt, store at -20°C or -80°C. Avoid repeated freeze.
Lead Time
Basically, we can dispatch the products out in 1-3 working days after receiving your orders. Delivery time maybe differs from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.

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Target Background

Function
Pro-apoptotic protein capable of selectively inducing apoptosis in cancer cells, sensitizing the cells to diverse apoptotic stimuli and causing regression of tumors in animal models. Induces apoptosis in certain cancer cells by activation of the Fas prodeath pathway and coparallel inhibition of NF-kappa-B transcriptional activity. Inhibits the transcriptional activation and augments the transcriptional repression mediated by WT1. Down-regulates the anti-apoptotic protein BCL2 via its interaction with WT1. Seems also to be a transcriptional repressor by itself. May be directly involved in regulating the amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleavage activity of BACE1.
Gene References into Functions
  1. These findings suggest that PAR4 plays a potential tumor suppressor role in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells PMID: 30363984
  2. we determined that increased miR-17-3P level plays crucial role in CRC cells survival by targeting Par4, contributing to colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID: 29115593
  3. PAR4 is the target of mir-107 in colorectal cancer cells. PMID: 27938501
  4. we confirmed that the RASSF2-PAR-4 axis was mainly responsible for miR-7 functions in CAFs using bioinformatics methods. Overexpression of miR-7 in CAFs led to down-regulation of RASSF2, which dramatically decreased the secretion of PAR-4 from CAFs and then enhanced the proliferation and migration of the co-cultured cancer cells. PMID: 27901488
  5. we investigated in the present study the mechanisms regulating the accumulation of a 25kDa cleaved-Par-4 (cl-Par-4) fragment in ovarian and endometrial cancer cell lines PMID: 27175591
  6. Authors demonstrate that TRIM21 expression predicts survival in pancreatic cancer patients. This work highlights a novel mechanism of Par-4 regulation, and identifies a novel prognostic marker and potential therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer. PMID: 27830973
  7. Data suggest that PAR4 and P2Y12 heterodimer internalization/endocytosis is required for beta-arrestin-2 recruitment to endosomes and up-regulation of Akt signaling; activation of PAR4 but not of P2Y12 drives internalization of the PAR4-P2Y12 heterodimer. (PAR4 = protease-activated receptor 4; P2Y12 = purinergic receptor P2Y, G-protein coupled, 12 protein; Akt = proto-oncogene protein c-akt) PMID: 28652403
  8. In this review, we will focus on the therapeutic perspective of Par-4 with a special reference to its (Par-4) virgin prospect of devastating metastasis control. PMID: 27568374
  9. in vitro and in vivo upregulation of Par-4 expression is indispensable for the trafficking of GRP78 to the cell membrane and subsequent apoptosis of cancer cell PMID: 28720068
  10. Prostate apoptosis response 4 (PAR4) expression modulates WNT signaling pathways in MCF7 breast cancer cells: A possible mechanism underlying PAR4-mediated docetaxel chemosensitivity. PMID: 28259909
  11. Decreased PAR4 expression in breast cancer is associated with shorter survival. PAR4 suppresses growth and invasiveness of breast cancer cells. PMID: 26977019
  12. Authors determined that PAR-4 induces cell apoptosis in response to stimuli, in vitro, but is also involved in the relocation of GRP78 from endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface of ovarian cancer cell line. PMID: 26246468
  13. These results suggest that Porphyromonas gingivalis activates PAR4 signaling pathways, leading proMMP9 over-expression and cellular invasion in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. PMID: 25670650
  14. PAR1-platelet releasate enhances vasculogenesis more potently than PAR4-platelet releasate, and the enhancements require a cooperation of multiple platelet-derived angiogenic regulators. PMID: 25495701
  15. A novel long non-coding RNA T-ALL-R-LncR1 knockdown and Par-4 cooperate to induce cellular apoptosis in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. PMID: 23906015
  16. Data indicate that PAR1 and PAR4 activate common promigratory signalling pathways in Hep3B liver carcinoma cells including activation of the receptor tyrosine kinases Met and PDGFR, the formation of ROS and the inactivation of PTP1B. PMID: 25373316
  17. a Par-4 mutant that is unable to bind Fbxo45 is stabilized and further enhances staurosporine-induced apoptosis. PMID: 24992930
  18. C-terminus of the rat homologue of Par-4 was crystallized and a 3.7 A resolution X-ray diffraction data set was collected PMID: 25195896
  19. These results indicate that the expression of PAR1 and PAR2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is increased but PAR4 is decreased. PMID: 25297082
  20. our results indicate that the mechanism by which PAR-4 orchestrates the apoptotic process requires cleavage by caspase-8. PMID: 24931006
  21. Par-4 is expressed in trophoblastic cells and is involved in transport of GRP78 to the cell surface. PMID: 24282526
  22. The addition of TRAIL to WIN 55.212-2-treated cells led to apoptotic death probably mediated by up-regulation of the tumor suppressor factor PAR-4, whose levels increased after WIN treatment, and by the translocation of GRP78 on cell surface. PMID: 24795528
  23. The cancer cell specific activity of Par-4 is elicited through intracellular as well as extracellular mechanisms. PMID: 25001535
  24. prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) has a role in human glioma stem cells in drug-induced apoptosis PMID: 24523904
  25. These results suggested a prognostic role of Par-4 in hypopharyngeal carcinoma. PMID: 24418097
  26. Phosphorylation by CK2 impairs Par-4 proapoptotic functions. PMID: 24457960
  27. Par-4 is a target of TGF-beta signaling and acts as an important factor during TGF-beta-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. PMID: 24503536
  28. Par-4 expression modulates apoptosis in response to docetaxel in MCF7 breast cancer cells. PMID: 23760770
  29. Down-regulation of protease-activated receptor 4 in lung adenocarcinoma is associated with a more aggressive phenotype PMID: 23886184
  30. Par-4-induced multinucleation as a mechanism of cell death in oncogene-addicted cells and establish Par-4 as a negative regulator of breast cancer recurrence. PMID: 23770012
  31. our results identify a novel intracellular pathway of apoptosis mediated by NF-kappaB through UACA elevation, which by attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress and GRP78 translocation to the cell surface can blunt the sensitivity of cancer cells to apoptosis. PMID: 23204231
  32. Gamma-tocotrienol inhibited IL-13/STAT6-activated eotaxin secretion via up-regulation of PAR4 expression and enhancement of aPKC-PAR4 complex formation. PMID: 21764283
  33. a novel mechanism of apoptosis induction by PAR-4/ceramide-enriched exosomes, which may critically contribute to Alzheimer disease. PMID: 22532571
  34. identified a novel specific caspase-3 cleavage site in Par-4, and the cleaved fragment of Par-4 retains proapoptotic activity PMID: 22184067
  35. The biological significance of PrPc association with par-4 provided the first evidence of a relationship between the endogenous levels of PrPc and the resistance of glioma cells to the apoptotic effects of TMZ. PMID: 21328340
  36. 17beta-estradiol and Insulin-like growth factor-1 inhibit PAR-4 gene expression in MCF-7 cells. PMID: 21567071
  37. Par-4-overexpressing tumors exhibited a bystander effect on wild-type tumors growing distally in the same mouse. PMID: 21555373
  38. The expression of PAR-4 protein in B cells correlated positively with the percentage of CD38(+) cells, as well as with CD38(+)/ZAP-70(+) cells. PMID: 21526495
  39. Decreased Par-4 expression is associated with cholangiocarcinoma. PMID: 20724592
  40. siRNA against Par-4 gene could inhibit the apoptosis of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. PMID: 19099901
  41. findings suggest that a lower expression level of Par-4 is related to an unfavorable prognosis in breast cancer patients PMID: 20637369
  42. Downregulation of PAR4 is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. PMID: 20514395
  43. Compared to normal controls, mean Par-4 levels appeared slightly lower in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, in major depression, Par-4 was decreased by 67% compared to normal controls. PMID: 20067857
  44. Data show that RASSF2 forms a direct and endogenous complex with prostate apoptosis response protein 4 (PAR-4) and that this interaction is regulated by K-Ras and is essential for the full apoptotic effects of PAR-4. PMID: 20368356
  45. Endoplasmic reticulum stress causes translocation of the Par-4-GRP78 complex from the ER to the plasma membrane, and through a positive feedback loop, extracellular Par-4 binds to cell surface GRP78 activating the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Review. PMID: 19823030
  46. Results suggest that, in breast cancer, Par-4 plays a similar tumor suppressor gene role as reported in endometrial carcinoma, and that Par-4 expression has a significant inverse association with expression of progesterone receptor. PMID: 20082875
  47. These data suggest PAWR is a novel PITX2-interacting protein that regulates PITX2 activity in ocular cells. PMID: 19801652
  48. mechanical strain increased PAR-4 gene expression in macrophages PMID: 11910304
  49. role in regulating Bcl-2 through a WT1-binding site on the bcl-2 promoter PMID: 12644474
  50. Par-4 enables cells to circumvent inhibition of the central executioner caspase-3 by alternative activation of caspases following a decrease in expression levels of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins PMID: 12685825

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Subcellular Location
Cytoplasm. Nucleus.
Tissue Specificity
Widely expressed. Expression is elevated in various neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer, Parkinson and Huntington diseases and stroke. Down-regulated in several cancers.
Database Links

HGNC: 8614

OMIM: 601936

KEGG: hsa:5074

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000328088

UniGene: Hs.643130

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