Recombinant Human Glutamine synthetase (GLUL)

Code CSB-YP009553HU
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Source Yeast
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Code CSB-EP009553HU
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Source E.coli
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Code CSB-EP009553HU-B
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Source E.coli
Conjugate Avi-tag Biotinylated
E. coli biotin ligase (BirA) is highly specific in covalently attaching biotin to the 15 amino acid AviTag peptide. This recombinant protein was biotinylated in vivo by AviTag-BirA technology, which method is BriA catalyzes amide linkage between the biotin and the specific lysine of the AviTag.
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Code CSB-BP009553HU
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Source Baculovirus
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Code CSB-MP009553HU
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Source Mammalian cell
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Product Details

>85% (SDS-PAGE)
Target Names
Uniprot No.
Alternative Names
cell proliferation-inducing protein 59; Cgl2214; GLNA; GLNA_HUMAN; GLNS; GLUL; Glutamate ammonia ligase; Glutamate decarboxylase; Glutamate--ammonia ligase; glutamine synthase; Glutamine synthetase; glutamine synthetase I; GS; PIG 43; PIG 59; PIG43; PIG59; Proliferation inducing protein 43
Homo sapiens (Human)
Expression Region
Target Protein Sequence
Protein Length
Full Length of Mature Protein
Tag Info
The following tags are available.
N-terminal His-tagged
The tag type will be determined during production process. If you have specified tag type, please tell us and we will develop the specified tag preferentially.
Lyophilized powder
Note: We will preferentially ship the format that we have in stock, however, if you have any special requirement for the format, please remark your requirement when placing the order, we will prepare according to your demand.
Buffer before Lyophilization
Tris/PBS-based buffer, 6% Trehalose, pH 8.0
We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20℃/-80℃. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
Troubleshooting and FAQs
Storage Condition
Store at -20°C/-80°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life
The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time
Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Note: All of our proteins are default shipped with normal blue ice packs, if you request to ship with dry ice, please communicate with us in advance and extra fees will be charged.
Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Please contact us to get it.

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Target Background

Glutamine synthetase that catalyzes the ATP-dependent conversion of glutamate and ammonia to glutamine. Its role depends on tissue localization: in the brain, it regulates the levels of toxic ammonia and converts neurotoxic glutamate to harmless glutamine, whereas in the liver, it is one of the enzymes responsible for the removal of ammonia. Essential for proliferation of fetal skin fibroblasts. Independently of its glutamine synthetase activity, required for endothelial cell migration during vascular development: acts by regulating membrane localization and activation of the GTPase RHOJ, possibly by promoting RHOJ palmitoylation. May act as a palmitoyltransferase for RHOJ: able to autopalmitoylate and then transfer the palmitoyl group to RHOJ. Plays a role in ribosomal 40S subunit biogenesis.
Gene References into Functions
  1. findings reveal that, in addition to the known formation of glutamine, the enzyme glutamine synthetase shows unknown activity in endothelial cell migration during pathological angiogenesis through RHOJ palmitoylation PMID: 30158707
  2. In silico analysis potentially links GLUL SNPs with major depression disorder. PMID: 29441491
  3. The SNP rs10911021 near glutamate-ammonia ligase is associated with oxidative stress in coronary heart disease patients from Pakistan. PMID: 29304826
  4. ASCT2 was significantly overexpressed in the gastric cancer (GC) samples compared with adjacent non-cancerous gastric mucosa, in contrast, a significantly higher level of glutamine synthetase (GS) expression was observed in normal tissues than in GC samples compared with adjacent non-cancerous gastric mucosa. PMID: 29435734
  5. The data identify GS activity as mediator of the proangiogenic, immunosuppressive, and pro-metastatic function of M2-like macrophages and highlight the possibility of targeting this enzyme in the treatment of cancer metastasis. PMID: 28813676
  6. Data show that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) downregulation of glutamine synthetase (GLUL; GS)) was sufficient to reduce abundance and enzyme activity of GS. PMID: 29029014
  7. genome-wide association study to identify genetic factors for familial hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma; results identified 2 large effect susceptible haplotypes located at GLUL and SLC13A2/FOXN1 PMID: 28662289
  8. GLUL knockdown markedly inhibited the p38 MAPK and ERK1/ERK2 signaling pathways in cultured breast cancer cells and reduces their proliferation. PMID: 27791265
  9. co-targeting glutamine synthetase in stroma and glutaminase in cancer cells reduces tumor weight, nodules, and metastasis. PMID: 27829138
  10. This study demonstrated that Influence of glutamine synthetase gene polymorphisms on the development of hyperammonemia during valproic acid-based therapy. PMID: 26599579
  11. GS is acetylated at lysines 11 and 14, yielding a degron that is necessary and sufficient for binding and ubiquitylation by CRL4(CRBN) and degradation by the proteasome. PMID: 26990986
  12. Studied molecular mechanisms of glutamine synthetase mutations that lead to clinically relevant pathologies. PMID: 26836257
  13. GLUL rs10911021 is associated prospectively with adjudicated cardiovascular composite end points among overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. PMID: 26395743
  14. Data show that glutamine synthetase (GS) produces glutamine (Gln) from tricarboxylic acid (TCA)-cycle-derived carbons. PMID: 26595383
  15. findings point to SNP rs10911021 of GLULas an independent modulator of mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes PMID: 25677913
  16. Results highlight the diagnostic errors that can be caused by variant patterns of staining with glutamine synthetase and serum amyloid-associated protein in inflammatory hepatocellular adenoma and focal nodular hyperplasia. PMID: 23807780
  17. High Glutamine synthetase expression is associated with epilepsy in newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme. PMID: 23410662
  18. Glutamine synthetase expression is increased in regenerating hepatocytes and in early hepatocyte progenitor cells prior to morphological evidence of hepatocellular differentiation. PMID: 23362937
  19. through a 3-stage genome-wide association study in 4188 type 2 diabetic patients, identified a novel susceptibility locus for coronary heart disease in the region of the GLUL gene PMID: 23982368
  20. these results suggest that GLUL contributes to pancreatic regeneration. PMID: 22930410
  21. The presence of GS in the post-acrosomal region of the perinuclear theca suggests that human sperm can carry out in glutamine synthesis. PMID: 22777743
  22. Data show that the acidification followed by neutralisation (AFBN) pre-treatment protocol for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) significantly enhances the measurement of glutamine synthetase (GS) and myelin basic protein (MBP) in CSF. PMID: 22542401
  23. This study suggests that serum glutamine synthetase levels have no diagnostic value for Alzheimer's disease. PMID: 21597934
  24. glutamine synthetase expression can be used to distinguish astrocytic from oligodendroglial tumors and may play a role in the pathogenesis of astrocytomas. PMID: 21682567
  25. The Glul can serve as novel target in diabetes mellitus genetic therapy. PMID: 20536387
  26. Glutamine synthetase was up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and may be a novel marker for early diagnosis. PMID: 20525558
  27. Standard histology and glutamine synthase status identify a hepatocellular carcinoma subset with distinct clinical and pathologic features. PMID: 20233882
  28. 2D fingerprinting & mass spectrometry reveal specific targets of protein oxidation in Alzheimer's disease brain, including glutamine synthase, suggesting involvement of oxidatively modified proteins in neurodegeneration. PMID: 12160938
  29. The detection of a significantly reduced enzymatic activity in the epileptic amygdala supports the assumption that the enzyme defect is localized to the epileptic mesial temporal lobe of corresponding patients. PMID: 16095760
  30. Liver tissue samples from HCV-HCC cancerous tissues and corresponding non-cancerous tissues from patients showed three protein spots of the same molecular mass (42 kDa), whose expression increased in well-differentiated cancerous tissues. PMID: 16609938
  31. In myocytes and hepatomas, but not in adipocytes, glutamine acts to moderate glutamine synthetase induction by glucocorticoids. PMID: 17197094
  32. We confirmed the induction of GS expression by dexamethasone published previously. Components of the glutamatergic system may play a role in bone pathophysiology PMID: 17627080
  33. Crystal structure of GLUL illustrates substrate-induced conformational change and provides opportunities for drug and herbicide design. PMID: 18005987
  34. in solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas glutamine synthetase expression is highly correlated with Wnt/beta-catenin activation, demonstrating its faithfulness as a Wnt target gene PMID: 18192886
  35. glutamine synthetase has a role in control of glutamate signalling through Wnt3A and steroid pathways in osteoblastic cells PMID: 18555765
  36. Glutamine synthetase can be found during early human fetal stages when it displays a significant effect on cell proliferation PMID: 18662667
  37. This study suggests that seizures in GBM are coupled with a highly localized glutamine synthetase deficiency. PMID: 19183851
  38. GS localization was investigated using immunohistochemistry and double-labeling of young and adult human and rat skin sections as well as skin cells in culture. PMID: 19204801
  39. GS mRNA and protein expression was not different between normal and fetal growth restriction pregnancy PMID: 19500843

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Involvement in disease
Congenital systemic glutamine deficiency (CSGD)
Subcellular Location
Cytoplasm, cytosol. Microsome. Mitochondrion. Cell membrane; Lipid-anchor.
Protein Families
Glutamine synthetase family
Tissue Specificity
Expressed in endothelial cells.
Database Links

HGNC: 4341

OMIM: 138290

KEGG: hsa:2752

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000307900

UniGene: Hs.132016

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