Recombinant Rat Fractalkine protein (Cx3cl1), partial (Active)

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Code CSB-AP001511RA
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Product Details

>95% as determined by SDS-PAGE.
Less than 1.0 EU/μg as determined by LAL method.
Fully biologically active when compared to standard. The biological activity determined by a chemotaxis bioassay using human monocytes is in a concentration of 5.0-10 ng/ml.
Target Names
Uniprot No.
Research Area
Alternative Names
Cx3cl1; Acc1; Fkn; Scyd1; Fractalkine; C-X3-C motif chemokine 1; CX3C membrane-anchored chemokine; Neurotactin; Small-inducible cytokine D1
Rattus norvegicus (Rat)
Expression Region
Complete Sequence
Mol. Weight
8.8 kDa
Protein Length
Tag Info
Lyophilized powder
Lyophilized from a 0.2 µm filtered PBS, pH 7.4
We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
Troubleshooting and FAQs
Storage Condition
Store at -20°C/-80°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life
The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time
5-10 business days
Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA
Please contact us to get it.

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Target Background

Chemokine that acts as a ligand for both CX3CR1 and integrins ITGAV:ITGB3 and ITGA4:ITGB1. The CX3CR1-CX3CL1 signaling exerts distinct functions in different tissue compartments, such as immune response, inflammation, cell adhesion and chemotaxis. Regulates leukocyte adhesion and migration processes at the endothelium. Can activate integrins in both a CX3CR1-dependent and CX3CR1-independent manner. In the presence of CX3CR1, activates integrins by binding to the classical ligand-binding site (site 1) in integrins. In the absence of CX3CR1, binds to a second site (site 2) in integrins which is distinct from site 1 and enhances the binding of other integrin ligands to site 1.; The soluble form is chemotactic for T-cells and monocytes, but not for neutrophils.; The membrane-bound form promotes adhesion of those leukocytes to endothelial cells.
Gene References into Functions
  1. that activation of STAT3 after /muscle incision and retraction mediates the up-regulation of CX3CL1 PMID: 29313211
  2. basal fractalkine signalling within the trigeminal ganglion plays an important role in mechanical sensitivity of masticatory muscle sensory afferent fibers and that inhibition of CX3CR1 signaling within the trigeminal ganglia may induce analgesia through a peripheral mechanism. PMID: 27209190
  3. Study demonstrates that noradrenaline (NA) induces the production of CX3CL1 in neurons and that the activation of beta2-adrenergic receptors is involved in the process. The increased mRNA levels and the accumulation of this protein in the cells indicate that NA treatment stimulates neuronal expression and synthesis of CX3CL1. PMID: 27923568
  4. CX3CL1(+) apo-MPs released by apoptotic cells mediate the chemotactic transmigration of alveolar macrophages. PMID: 24603149
  5. CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling is involved in LTP of C-fiber-evoked field potentials in the rodent spinal dorsal horn PMID: 25768734
  6. up-regulation of CX3CL1 via NF-kappaB-dependent H4 acetylation might be critical for paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia PMID: 25494456
  7. CX3CL1 activates Jak2-Stat5alpha-ERK1/2 signaling through CX3CR1, thereby triggering integrin-dependent machinery reorganization to allow chemotactic migration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells towards an ischemic cerebral lesion. PMID: 25559502
  8. CX3CR1 modulate cardiovascular function. PMID: 24036597
  9. This is the first study to identify CX3CL1 signaling through CX3CR1 via the DRG/SC anatomical connection that represents a critical pathway involved in NPP induction in an EAE model of MS. PMID: 24175290
  10. Anti-T-lymphocyte globulin depleted fractalkine, inhibiting migration of dendritic cells and macrophages into the kidney, reducing ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID: 23953563
  11. Neurotrophic factors expression in host retina that received CX3CL1-MSCs was stronger than in the retina that received normal MSCs. Conversely, the expression of proinflammatory factors was downregulated. PMID: 23718544
  12. Astrocytes are required for the neuroprotective activity of CX3CL1 against glucose-induced excitotoxicity. PMID: 23968561
  13. During peripheral inflammation, fractalkine is released in the dorsal root ganglion and contributes to the genesis of inflammatory hypernociception. PMID: 23776243
  14. The present study suggests that the fractalkine expressed on endothelial cells and astrocytes are responsible for the recruitment of brain Iba1(+) /NG2(+) cells progenitors during the acute phase of stroke. PMID: 23400803
  15. Our study suggests that CX3CL1/CX3CR1 regulates nerve injury-induced pain hypersensitivity through the ERK5 signaling pathway. PMID: 23361876
  16. Studied effects of cytokines,pathogen-associated molecular patterns,and ethanol on CX3CL1 secretion by PSCs.Showed ethanol increased CX3CL1 release from PSCs at least in part through activation of ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase and ADAM17. PMID: 23147224
  17. results showed fractalkine (FKN) and CX3CR1 were involved inflammatory response in cerulein-stimulated AR42J cells; FKN upregulates inflammation through CX3CR1 and the Jak/Stat pathway in severe acute pancreatitis rat models PMID: 22213034
  18. The fractalkine/CX3CR1 interaction may play an important role in the photoreceptor-microglia cross-talk in light-induced photoreceptor degeneration. PMID: 22536384
  19. fractalkine, and its receptor, CX3CR1, may modulate cardiovascular responses in the solitary nucleus of normal healthy rats via the phosphoinositide 3-kinase intracellular signaling pathway. PMID: 22387113
  20. FKN involves in the progression of severe acute pancreatitis and might be a valuable marker for the assessment of the pancreatitis. PMID: 22435508
  21. Autologous implantation of nucleus pulposus induces hyperalgesia and allodynia, leading to upregulation of fractalkine and its receptor in spinal neurons and glia, implicating fractalkine in association with radicular pain. PMID: 21224760
  22. Fractalkine promotes myocardial injury and accelerates the progress of heart failure, which is associated with the activation of MAPKs. PMID: 21840883
  23. The results suggest that fractalkine/CX(3)CR1 signaling has a regulatory role in modulating hippocampal neurogenesis via mechanisms that involve indirect modification of the niche environment. PMID: 20018408
  24. Chronic hypoxia stimulates the synthesis and release of fractalkine. PMID: 17953351
  25. A transitory increased expression of fractalkine and its receptor CX3CR1 occurred at the crest time of endotoxin-induced uveitis, and this change in expression may play a role in the turnover of lipopolysaccharide-induced acute retina inflammation. PMID: 19648777
  26. TNF-alpha activation of PKCzeta/iota, p42/44 MAPK, c-Jun/AP-1, and p65/NF-kappaB are involved in TNF-alpha-stimulated monocyte fractalkine expression, with soluble fractalkine mediating in part TNF-alpha-induced monocyte transmigration. PMID: 12631113
  27. Data show that Leydig cell expression of fractalkine may be involved in inflammation whereas fractalkine expressed by germ cells may participate in the cellular interactions between germ cells and other seminiferous tubule cell types. PMID: 12837921
  28. Our data demonstrate that activated mesangial cells are a source for the augmented glomerular CX3CL1/fractalkine expression during the proliferative phase of acute anti-Thy1 glomerulonephritis. PMID: 14605272
  29. fractalkine expression is induced by TNFalpha in arterial endothelial cells PMID: 15111313
  30. Fractalkine and CX3CR1 upregulation were demonstrated in an early stage of diabetic kidney; findings suggest fractalkine expression and CX3CR1-positive cell infiltration in diabetic kidneys might play a role for progression of diabetic nephropathy PMID: 15153757
  31. Production by human aairway smooth muscle cells in vitro is regulated by inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors. PMID: 15321787
  32. Cellular distribution of fractalkine and its receptor in the spinal circuit associated with nociceptive transmission supports a potential role in the mechanisms that contribute to the exaggerated pain state in models of neuropathy. PMID: 15341587
  33. Taken together, these initial investigations of spinal fractalkine effects suggest that exogenous and endogenous fractalkine are involved in spinal sensitization, including that induced by peripheral neuropathy. PMID: 15525271
  34. This selective regulation of CX3CL1 and its receptor, CX3CR1, suggests that these chemokines may represent new targets for the treatment of neuropathic pain. PMID: 15993821
  35. Reduces excitotoxicity through activation of the ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways; reduces Glu-activated whole-cell current through mechanisms dependent on intracellular Ca2+; is released from hippocampus after excitotoxic insult. PMID: 16019082
  36. The sequential expression of fractalkine may direct distinct CX3CR1 receptor expressing mononuclear cell subsets to inflammatory sites. Fractalkine expression is modulated, at least in part, through the NF-kappaB signaling pathway. PMID: 16030495
  37. High glucose levels, AGE formation and cytokine activation in diabetes may induce fractalkine upregulation in the kidneys and lead to progression of diabetic nephropathy. PMID: 16234287
  38. ALA, which inhibits the NF-kappaB/fractalkine pathway, may be used to prevent neointimal hyperplasia after angioplasty or stenting. PMID: 16413026
  39. Assessment of expression in chronic allograft nephropathy. PMID: 16980051
  40. Data suggest that fractalkine cleavage (release) after nerve injury may play an important role in neural-glial interaction, and microglial CX3CR1/p38 MAPK pathway is critical for the development of neuropathic pain. PMID: 17174525
  41. genome-wide screen implicates WT1 in the transcriptional regulation of the EGF-family of growth factors as well as the CX3CL1 chemokine during nephrogenesis. PMID: 17430890
  42. Rat hindlimb ischaemia, which rapidly stimulated fractalkine expression, was significantly alleviated by the injection of whole-length Fkn protein. PMID: 18006432
  43. The fractalkine/CX3CR1 signaling system plays a potential paracrine/autocrine role in preovulatory follicles. PMID: 18292196
  44. There is greater fractalkine expression in mesenteric arteries of female spontaneously hypertensive rats compared with males. PMID: 19201996
  45. In an experimental model of atrial inflammation, macrophages infiltrated the myocardium mainly through the atrial endocardium with the contribution of fractalkine. PMID: 19282612
  46. Gene expression profiling of Cx3cl1 in bone marrow mesenchymal cells by osteogenic induction is reported. PMID: 19422292
  47. Both soluble and membrane-bound fractalkine attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial activation. PMID: 19627440

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Subcellular Location
Cell membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein.; [Processed fractalkine]: Secreted.
Protein Families
Intercrine delta family
Tissue Specificity
Highest levels in brain (neurons). Significant levels in kidney, heart, lung and adrenal gland.
Database Links
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