Chemokines are a series of cytokines with small molecular weight whose main role is the recruitment of leukocyte subsets under homeostatic and pathological conditions. Chemokine receptors are cytokine receptors expressed on the cell surface as 7-transmembrane proteins that interact with a type of cytokine called a chemokine.
The chemokine signaling pathway is transduced by chemokine receptors (G-protein coupled receptors) expressed on the immune cells.
Chemokines are small chemoattractant peptides that provide directional cues for the cell trafficking and thus are vital for protective host response. In addition, chemokines regulate plethora of biological processes of hematopoietic cells to lead cellular activation, differentiation and survival.
Through interacting with chemokine receptors that are expressed on the cell surface as 7-transmembrane proteins coupled with G-protein to transmit cell signals following ligand binding. Activation of G proteins by chemokine receptors, causes the subsequent activation of an enzyme known as phospholipase C (PLC).
Then, PLC cleaves PIP2 into two second messenger molecules known as Inositol triphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG) that trigger intracellular signaling events. DAG activates another enzyme called protein kinase C (PKC), and IP3 triggers the release of calcium from intracellular stores.
These events promote many signaling cascades (such as the MAP kinase pathway) that generate responses like chemotaxis, degranulation, release of superoxide anions and changes in the avidity of cell adhesion molecules called integrins within the cell harboring the chemokine receptor. Through this mechanism chemokines can induce directed chemotaxis of responsive cells.
More information about chemokine that you may be interested in, you can read the article name The Overview of Chemokine. In this article, the writer introduced the chemokine from five parts, including function, types, signaling pathway, the relationship with inflammation and hot topics of chemokine.
Additionally, if you are more interested in chemokine receptors than chemokine, you can acquire more knowledge through viewing the article entitled Chemokine Receptors – One Kind of Powerful Seven Transmembrane Spanning G Protein-coupled Receptor. It won’t let you down.
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