Human Platelet Factor 4,PF-4 ELISA Kit

Code CSB-E07882h
Size 96T,5×96T,10×96T
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Product Details

Target Name
platelet factor 4
Alternative Names
C-X-C motif chemokine 4 ELISA Kit; Chemokine (C X C motif) ligand 4 ELISA Kit; Chemokine (CXC motif) ligand 4 ELISA Kit; chemokine ligand 4 ELISA Kit; CXCL 4 ELISA Kit; CXCL4 ELISA Kit; Iroplact ELISA Kit; MGC138298 ELISA Kit; Oncostatin A ELISA Kit; Oncostatin-A ELISA Kit; OncostatinA ELISA Kit; PF 4 ELISA Kit; PF-4 ELISA Kit; PF4 ELISA Kit; Pf4a ELISA Kit; Platelet factor 4 ELISA Kit; PLF4_HUMAN ELISA Kit; SCYB 4 ELISA Kit; SCYB4 ELISA Kit; short form ELISA Kit; Small inducible cytokine subfamily B ELISA Kit; Small inducible cytokine subfamily member 4 ELISA Kit
Uniprot No.
Homo sapiens (Human)
Sample Types
serum, plasma, tissue homogenates
Detection Range
6.25 ng/mL-400 ng/mL
1.56 ng/mL
Assay Time
Sample Volume
Detection Wavelength
450 nm
Research Area
Assay Principle
Intra-assay Precision (Precision within an assay): CV%<8%      
Three samples of known concentration were tested twenty times on one plate to assess.  
Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays): CV%<10%      
Three samples of known concentration were tested in twenty assays to assess.    
To assess the linearity of the assay, samples were spiked with high concentrations of human PF-4 in various matrices and diluted with the Sample Diluent to produce samples with values within the dynamic range of the assay.
  Sample Serum(n=4)  
1:20 Average % 95  
Range % 92-101  
1:40 Average % 93  
Range % 83-99  
1:80 Average % 95  
Range % 90-100  
The recovery of human PF-4 spiked to levels throughout the range of the assay in various matrices was evaluated. Samples were diluted prior to assay as directed in the Sample Preparation section.
Sample Type Average % Recovery Range  
Serum (n=5) 93 86-97  
EDTA plasma (n=4) 96 90-101  
Typical Data
These standard curves are provided for demonstration only. A standard curve should be generated for each set of samples assayed.
ng/ml OD1 OD2 Average Corrected  
400 2.548 2.452 2.500 2.294  
200 2.196 2.076 2.136 1.930  
100 1.632 1.593 1.613 1.407  
50 1.082 1.122 1.102 0.896  
25 0.675 0.645 0.660 0.454  
12.5 0.441 0.436 0.439 0.233  
6.25 0.320 0.315 0.318 0.112  
0 0.205 0.207 0.206    
and FAQs
Store at 2-8°C. Please refer to protocol.
Lead Time
3-5 working days after you place the order, and it takes another 3-5 days for delivery via DHL or FedEx

The human PF4 ELISA kit (CSB-E07882h) is designed for the quantitative measurement of human PF4 protein in serum, plasma, or tissue homogenates. It quantitates human PF4 with 1.56 ng/ml sensitivity and shows excellent specificity for human PF4. It uses the bi-antibody sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique. This assay employs a biotin-conjugated PF4 antibody that recognizes the analyte bound by the immobilized PF4 antibody, forming an antibody-analyte-antibody complex. The immune complex is further detected by avidin-conjugated HRP. The TMB solution is added into the wells and turns blue and finally turns yellow after the addition of the stop solution. Solution color develops in proportion to the amount of PF4 in the sample. The O.D. value is measured using a microplate reader at 450 nm and is used to determine the concentration of the human PF4 in the sample.

Human PF4 is a positively charged tetramer that is stored within platelet α-granules and is released upon platelet activation. PF4 suppresses local antithrombin III activity by binding with high affinity to heparin-like molecules thus promoting coagulation. Additionally, Pf4 participates in many other biological processes including promoting the survival of hematopoietic stem cells and inhibiting the proliferation of endothelial cells and fibroblasts. PF4 also plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. As a pleiotropic inflammatory chemokine, PF4 is involved in various inflammatory diseases including liver fibrosis. PF4 regulates the immune system by promoting recruitment, survival and differentiation of innate and adaptive immune cells, such as monocytes/macrophages.

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Target Background

(From Uniprot)
Released during platelet aggregation. Neutralizes the anticoagulant effect of heparin because it binds more strongly to heparin than to the chondroitin-4-sulfate chains of the carrier molecule. Chemotactic for neutrophils and monocytes. Inhibits endothelial cell proliferation, the short form is a more potent inhibitor than the longer form.
Gene References into Functions
  1. CXCL4 boosts pro-inflammatory cytokine production especially IL-17 by CD4(+) T cells, either by acting directly or indirectly via myeloid antigen presenting cells, implicating a role for CXCL4 in psoriatic arthritis pathology. PMID: 29193036
  2. The data show that antibodies magnify immune responses induced in PBMCs by PF4 alone or in complex with heparin or LMWH. Authors propose that following induction of HIT antibodies by heparin-PF4 complexes, binding of the antibodies to PF4 is sufficient to induce a local pro-inflammatory response which may play a role in the progression of HIT. PMID: 28968537
  3. Report anti-PF4/H monoclonal antibody with a human Fc fragment, which induces similar cellular activation as heparin-induced thrombocytopenia antibodies. PMID: 28771917
  4. PF4 was produced by Ly6G+CD11b+ immature myeloid cells in the early stage premetastatic lungs, and decreased during metastatic progression. PMID: 27223426
  5. The CXCL4 monomer acts as the minimal active unit for interacting with CXCR3 N-Terminal Sulfated Peptide, and sulfation of N-terminal tyrosine residues on the receptor is important for binding. PMID: 28945356
  6. These findings support PF4 as a cancer-enhancing endocrine signal that controls discrete aspects of bone marrow hematopoiesis and tumor microenvironment. PMID: 27829148
  7. data support that increased levels of circulating CXCL4 may contribute to immune dysregulation through the modulation of dendritic cell differentiation PMID: 28515281
  8. Endometrial CXCL4 mRNA concentrations were significantly increased during menstruation. In women with heavy menstrual bleeding, CXCL4 was reduced in endothelial cells during the menstrual phase compared with women with normal menstrual bleeding. These data implicate CXCL4 in endometrial repair after menses. PMID: 28323919
  9. Two haplotype blocks, one upstream to the coding region of UGT2A1 (rs146712414, P = 9.1 x 10(-5); odds ratio [OR], 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-1.56) and one downstream of the genes PF4/PPBP/CXCL5 (rs1595009, P = 1.3 x 10(-4); OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.15-1.52), were associated with AgP. PMID: 28467728
  10. These data demonstrate that the CXCR2 network and CXCL4 play a role in the maintenance of normal HSC/HPC cell fates, including survival and self-renewal. PMID: 27222476
  11. The major aim of this review article was to evaluate the role of CXCL4 in hematological malignancies, promotion of HSC quiescence as well as BM niche cells. PMID: 26803701
  12. binding of PF4 to perlecan was found to inhibit both FGF2 signaling and platelet activation PMID: 28115521
  13. CXCL4 plays an important role in pancreatic inflammation PMID: 27183218
  14. The hitherto unknown association of increased serum CXCL4 with features of microvascular impairment in primary Sjogren's syndrome, along with the negative association with features of lymphocytic response suggest clarifying the possible implication of this chemokine in primary Sjogren's syndrome pathogenesis in larger studies. PMID: 27562035
  15. serum concentration of CXCL4 was significantly increased in patients with Chronic Liver Allograft Dysfunction (CLAD); CXCL4 mRNA was significantly increased in subjects with CLAD versus individuals without CLAD PMID: 28053995
  16. Plasma levels of CXCL4 are associated with tumour vascularity. PMID: 27098116
  17. Data suggest that, in patients with hypothyroid autoimmune thyroiditis, PF4/CXCL4 serum levels are significantly lower in those with subclinical hypothyroidism than in euthyroid control subjects. PMID: 26142741
  18. Expression of CXCL4 and aquaporin 3 and 10 mRNAs in middle ear effusion is associated with the pathophysiology of otitis media with effusion. PMID: 26810286
  19. PF4 changed its structure upon binding to polyP in a similar way as seen in PF4/heparin complexes. PF4/polyP complexes exposed neoepitopes to which human anti-PF4/heparin antibodies bound. PMID: 26225544
  20. PF4 has a complex intramedullary life cycle with important implications in megakaryopoiesis and hematopoietic stem cell replication not seen with other tested alpha granule proteins. PMID: 26256688
  21. A subset of heparin-treated patients produce subthreshold levels of platelet-activating anti-PF4/heparin antibodies that do not cause heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. PMID: 26291604
  22. Synovial Cxcl4 mRNA and protein were increased in early rheumatoid arthritis compared to uninflamed controls and resolving arthritis. PMID: 25858640
  23. Results found that CXCL4 plasma levels did not differ between patients with and without coronary artery disease. Also, no association between CXCL4 levels and plaque characteristics including plaque volume, calcium score, or vascular remodeling. PMID: 26524462
  24. Heparin enhances antigen uptake and activation of the initial steps in the cellular immune response to PF4-containing complexes. PMID: 25960020
  25. PF4-heparin complexes can elicit a TLR4-mediated response, suggesting that these complexes can mimic a pathogen-associated molecular pattern, and supporting the suggestion that the HIT immune response represents a misdirected host defense mechanism. PMID: 25604035
  26. CXCL4 insufficiency may be involved in specific inflammatory microenvironment of ovarian cancers arising in endometriosis. PMID: 22555803
  27. effective for prediction of the risk of thrombosis in hemodialysis patients PMID: 24665827
  28. although all HIT antibodies recognize PF4 in a complex with heparin, only a subset of these antibodies recognize more subtle epitopes induced in PF4 when it binds to CS, the major platelet glycosaminoglycan PMID: 25342714
  29. The interaction of PF4 with unfractionated heparin (UFH), its 16-, 8-, and 6-mer subfractions, low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), and the pentasaccharide fondaparinux, was characterized. PMID: 25150299
  30. CXCL4 and CXCL4L1 activated p38 MAPK, as well as Src kinase within 30 and 5 min, respectively. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation occurred in activated lymphocytes. PMID: 24469069
  31. eutopic endometrial stromal cells from deep infiltrating endometriosis patients are attracted into the peritoneal cavity through the interaction between CXCR4 expressed on their membrane and CXCL12 produced in the peritoneal cavity. PMID: 24534089
  32. Data suggest that healthy adult stem cells exposed to vitreous/aqueous humors of subjects with proliferative diabetic retinopathy results in increased expression of CXCL4, serpin F1, and endothelin-1 (aqueous only). PMID: 25159325
  33. Platelet factor 4 exhibits antimicrobial activity against Plasmodium falciparum. PMID: 23245326
  34. Plasma VEGF was significantly reduced in low birth weight (LBW) neonates while that of sVEGFR-1 and PF4 were significantly higher. VEGF/sVEGF/PF4 pathway seems to be involved in the endothelial progenitor cell dysfunction in LBW neonates. PMID: 23701307
  35. Platelet factor 4 has significant crosstalk with vascular endothelial growth factor by modulating cell migration and signal transduction pathways. PMID: 24023389
  36. Baseline PF4 and beta-TG plasma levels were found remarkably higher and no significant reduction was observed at the endpoint in patients with residual major depression PMID: 23611535
  37. RUNX1, but not its mutants, strongly and synergistically activates PF4 expression along with ETS family proteins PMID: 23848403
  38. certain genotypes of ACP1 associated with high phosphatase activity may increase the T-cell response to PF4-heparin complexes, with higher levels of circulating antibodies PMID: 23621699
  39. Histones regulate activated protein C formation in a manner similar to PF4 and suggest heparinoids may be benificial in sepsis. PMID: 24177324
  40. physical relationship between the PF4-positive thrombi and the heparin-coated surface suggests that onset of HIT II could be influenced by the immobilized heparin coating PMID: 23769097
  41. Distinct specificity and single-molecule kinetics characterize the interaction of pathogenic and non-pathogenic antibodies against platelet factor 4-heparin complexes with platelet factor 4. PMID: 24097975
  42. Release of CXCL4 by activated platelets inhibits HIV-1 infection of adjacent T cells at the stage of virus entry. PMID: 23634812
  43. Anti-PF4/heparin IgG antibodies generated after coronary artery bypass grafting are associated with early venous graft occlusion. PMID: 23216710
  44. Report ability of enoxaparin-derived oligosaccharides to induce platelet activation and exposure of platelet-factor 4 epitopes recognized by antibodies developed in heparin induced thrombocytopenia. PMID: 22235911
  45. This study aimed at examining the presence and role of chemokines (angiogenic CCL2/MCP-1 and angiostatic CXCL4/PF-4, CXCL9/Mig, CXCL10/IP-10) in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. PMID: 23352833
  46. This study highlights the importance of PF4 variants in the regulation of platelet activation (PF4) and systemic inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-alpha) serum biomarkers. PMID: 22763266
  47. platelet molecule platelet factor 4 (PF4 or CXCL4) and the erythrocyte Duffy-antigen receptor (Fy) are necessary for platelet-mediated killing of Plasmodium falciparum parasites. PMID: 23224555
  48. The present review describes the role of CXCL4-PF4 in cancer, the immunobiology, clinical presentation and diagnosis of HIT, and the specific problems faced in cancer patients. PMID: 22682144
  49. Differences in the properties of anti-PF4 antibodies that cause thrombocytopenia not revealed by ELISA that correlate with oligomerization of PF4 and sustained high-avidity interactions that may simulate transient antibody-antigen interactions in vivo. PMID: 22577175
  50. Examined the prognostic values of SARS-associated proteome, and deciphered the identities of those with prognostic values.The associations of decreased serum PF4 and increased serum beta-TG levels with poor prognosis were confirmed by Western blot. PMID: 22740477

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Subcellular Location
Protein Families
Intercrine alpha (chemokine CxC) family
Database Links

HGNC: 8861

OMIM: 173460

KEGG: hsa:5196

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000296029

UniGene: Hs.81564

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