Recombinant Human Platelet factor 4 protein(PF4) (Active)

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Code CSB-AP000661HU
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Product Details

Purity >97% as determined by SDS-PAGE and HPLC.
Endotoxin Less than 1.0 EU/μg as determined by LAL method.
Activity Fully biologically active when compared to standard. The biological activity determined by a chemotaxis bioassay using human fibroblasts is in a concentration of 1.0-10 ng/ml.
Target Names PF4
Uniprot No. P02776
Research Area Immunology
Alternative Names C-X-C motif chemokine 4; Chemokine (C X C motif) ligand 4; Chemokine (CXC motif) ligand 4; chemokine ligand 4; CXCL 4; CXCL4; Iroplact; MGC138298; Oncostatin A; Oncostatin-A; OncostatinA; PF 4; PF-4; PF4; Pf4a; Platelet factor 4; PLF4_HUMAN; SCYB 4; SCYB4; short form; Small inducible cytokine subfamily B; Small inducible cytokine subfamily member 4
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Source E.coli
Expression Region 32-101aa
Complete Sequence EAEEDGDLQC LCVKTTSQVR PRHITSLEVI KAGPHCPTAQ LIATLKNGRK ICLDLQAPLY KKIIKKLLES
Mol. Weight 7.8 kDa
Protein Length Full Length of Mature Protein
Tag Info Tag-Free
Form Lyophilized powder
Buffer Lyophilized from a 0.2 µm filtered PBS, pH 7.4
Reconstitution We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
Troubleshooting
and FAQs
Protein FAQs
Storage Condition Store at -20°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time Basically, we can dispatch the products out in 5-10 working days after receiving your orders. Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Notes Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA Please contact us to get it.

Target Data

Function Released during platelet aggregation. Neutralizes the anticoagulant effect of heparin because it binds more strongly to heparin than to the chondroitin-4-sulfate chains of the carrier molecule. Chemotactic for neutrophils and monocytes. Inhibits endothelial cell proliferation, the short form is a more potent inhibitor than the longer form.
Gene References into Functions
  1. CXCL4 boosts pro-inflammatory cytokine production especially IL-17 by CD4(+) T cells, either by acting directly or indirectly via myeloid antigen presenting cells, implicating a role for CXCL4 in psoriatic arthritis pathology. PMID: 29193036
  2. The data show that antibodies magnify immune responses induced in PBMCs by PF4 alone or in complex with heparin or LMWH. Authors propose that following induction of HIT antibodies by heparin-PF4 complexes, binding of the antibodies to PF4 is sufficient to induce a local pro-inflammatory response which may play a role in the progression of HIT. PMID: 28968537
  3. Report anti-PF4/H monoclonal antibody with a human Fc fragment, which induces similar cellular activation as heparin-induced thrombocytopenia antibodies. PMID: 28771917
  4. PF4 was produced by Ly6G+CD11b+ immature myeloid cells in the early stage premetastatic lungs, and decreased during metastatic progression. PMID: 27223426
  5. The CXCL4 monomer acts as the minimal active unit for interacting with CXCR3 N-Terminal Sulfated Peptide, and sulfation of N-terminal tyrosine residues on the receptor is important for binding. PMID: 28945356
  6. These findings support PF4 as a cancer-enhancing endocrine signal that controls discrete aspects of bone marrow hematopoiesis and tumor microenvironment. PMID: 27829148
  7. data support that increased levels of circulating CXCL4 may contribute to immune dysregulation through the modulation of dendritic cell differentiation PMID: 28515281
  8. Endometrial CXCL4 mRNA concentrations were significantly increased during menstruation. In women with heavy menstrual bleeding, CXCL4 was reduced in endothelial cells during the menstrual phase compared with women with normal menstrual bleeding. These data implicate CXCL4 in endometrial repair after menses. PMID: 28323919
  9. Two haplotype blocks, one upstream to the coding region of UGT2A1 (rs146712414, P = 9.1 x 10(-5); odds ratio [OR], 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-1.56) and one downstream of the genes PF4/PPBP/CXCL5 (rs1595009, P = 1.3 x 10(-4); OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.15-1.52), were associated with AgP. PMID: 28467728
  10. These data demonstrate that the CXCR2 network and CXCL4 play a role in the maintenance of normal HSC/HPC cell fates, including survival and self-renewal. PMID: 27222476
  11. The major aim of this review article was to evaluate the role of CXCL4 in hematological malignancies, promotion of HSC quiescence as well as BM niche cells. PMID: 26803701
  12. binding of PF4 to perlecan was found to inhibit both FGF2 signaling and platelet activation PMID: 28115521
  13. CXCL4 plays an important role in pancreatic inflammation PMID: 27183218
  14. The hitherto unknown association of increased serum CXCL4 with features of microvascular impairment in primary Sjogren's syndrome, along with the negative association with features of lymphocytic response suggest clarifying the possible implication of this chemokine in primary Sjogren's syndrome pathogenesis in larger studies. PMID: 27562035
  15. serum concentration of CXCL4 was significantly increased in patients with Chronic Liver Allograft Dysfunction (CLAD); CXCL4 mRNA was significantly increased in subjects with CLAD versus individuals without CLAD PMID: 28053995
  16. Plasma levels of CXCL4 are associated with tumour vascularity. PMID: 27098116
  17. Data suggest that, in patients with hypothyroid autoimmune thyroiditis, PF4/CXCL4 serum levels are significantly lower in those with subclinical hypothyroidism than in euthyroid control subjects. PMID: 26142741
  18. Expression of CXCL4 and aquaporin 3 and 10 mRNAs in middle ear effusion is associated with the pathophysiology of otitis media with effusion. PMID: 26810286
  19. PF4 changed its structure upon binding to polyP in a similar way as seen in PF4/heparin complexes. PF4/polyP complexes exposed neoepitopes to which human anti-PF4/heparin antibodies bound. PMID: 26225544
  20. PF4 has a complex intramedullary life cycle with important implications in megakaryopoiesis and hematopoietic stem cell replication not seen with other tested alpha granule proteins. PMID: 26256688
  21. A subset of heparin-treated patients produce subthreshold levels of platelet-activating anti-PF4/heparin antibodies that do not cause heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. PMID: 26291604
  22. Synovial Cxcl4 mRNA and protein were increased in early rheumatoid arthritis compared to uninflamed controls and resolving arthritis. PMID: 25858640
  23. Results found that CXCL4 plasma levels did not differ between patients with and without coronary artery disease. Also, no association between CXCL4 levels and plaque characteristics including plaque volume, calcium score, or vascular remodeling. PMID: 26524462
  24. Heparin enhances antigen uptake and activation of the initial steps in the cellular immune response to PF4-containing complexes. PMID: 25960020
  25. PF4-heparin complexes can elicit a TLR4-mediated response, suggesting that these complexes can mimic a pathogen-associated molecular pattern, and supporting the suggestion that the HIT immune response represents a misdirected host defense mechanism. PMID: 25604035
  26. CXCL4 insufficiency may be involved in specific inflammatory microenvironment of ovarian cancers arising in endometriosis. PMID: 22555803
  27. effective for prediction of the risk of thrombosis in hemodialysis patients PMID: 24665827
  28. although all HIT antibodies recognize PF4 in a complex with heparin, only a subset of these antibodies recognize more subtle epitopes induced in PF4 when it binds to CS, the major platelet glycosaminoglycan PMID: 25342714
  29. The interaction of PF4 with unfractionated heparin (UFH), its 16-, 8-, and 6-mer subfractions, low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), and the pentasaccharide fondaparinux, was characterized. PMID: 25150299
  30. CXCL4 and CXCL4L1 activated p38 MAPK, as well as Src kinase within 30 and 5 min, respectively. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation occurred in activated lymphocytes. PMID: 24469069
  31. eutopic endometrial stromal cells from deep infiltrating endometriosis patients are attracted into the peritoneal cavity through the interaction between CXCR4 expressed on their membrane and CXCL12 produced in the peritoneal cavity. PMID: 24534089
  32. Data suggest that healthy adult stem cells exposed to vitreous/aqueous humors of subjects with proliferative diabetic retinopathy results in increased expression of CXCL4, serpin F1, and endothelin-1 (aqueous only). PMID: 25159325
  33. Platelet factor 4 exhibits antimicrobial activity against Plasmodium falciparum. PMID: 23245326
  34. Plasma VEGF was significantly reduced in low birth weight (LBW) neonates while that of sVEGFR-1 and PF4 were significantly higher. VEGF/sVEGF/PF4 pathway seems to be involved in the endothelial progenitor cell dysfunction in LBW neonates. PMID: 23701307
  35. Platelet factor 4 has significant crosstalk with vascular endothelial growth factor by modulating cell migration and signal transduction pathways. PMID: 24023389
  36. Baseline PF4 and beta-TG plasma levels were found remarkably higher and no significant reduction was observed at the endpoint in patients with residual major depression PMID: 23611535
  37. RUNX1, but not its mutants, strongly and synergistically activates PF4 expression along with ETS family proteins PMID: 23848403
  38. certain genotypes of ACP1 associated with high phosphatase activity may increase the T-cell response to PF4-heparin complexes, with higher levels of circulating antibodies PMID: 23621699
  39. Histones regulate activated protein C formation in a manner similar to PF4 and suggest heparinoids may be benificial in sepsis. PMID: 24177324
  40. physical relationship between the PF4-positive thrombi and the heparin-coated surface suggests that onset of HIT II could be influenced by the immobilized heparin coating PMID: 23769097
  41. Distinct specificity and single-molecule kinetics characterize the interaction of pathogenic and non-pathogenic antibodies against platelet factor 4-heparin complexes with platelet factor 4. PMID: 24097975
  42. Release of CXCL4 by activated platelets inhibits HIV-1 infection of adjacent T cells at the stage of virus entry. PMID: 23634812
  43. Anti-PF4/heparin IgG antibodies generated after coronary artery bypass grafting are associated with early venous graft occlusion. PMID: 23216710
  44. Report ability of enoxaparin-derived oligosaccharides to induce platelet activation and exposure of platelet-factor 4 epitopes recognized by antibodies developed in heparin induced thrombocytopenia. PMID: 22235911
  45. This study aimed at examining the presence and role of chemokines (angiogenic CCL2/MCP-1 and angiostatic CXCL4/PF-4, CXCL9/Mig, CXCL10/IP-10) in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. PMID: 23352833
  46. This study highlights the importance of PF4 variants in the regulation of platelet activation (PF4) and systemic inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-alpha) serum biomarkers. PMID: 22763266
  47. platelet molecule platelet factor 4 (PF4 or CXCL4) and the erythrocyte Duffy-antigen receptor (Fy) are necessary for platelet-mediated killing of Plasmodium falciparum parasites. PMID: 23224555
  48. The present review describes the role of CXCL4-PF4 in cancer, the immunobiology, clinical presentation and diagnosis of HIT, and the specific problems faced in cancer patients. PMID: 22682144
  49. Differences in the properties of anti-PF4 antibodies that cause thrombocytopenia not revealed by ELISA that correlate with oligomerization of PF4 and sustained high-avidity interactions that may simulate transient antibody-antigen interactions in vivo. PMID: 22577175
  50. Examined the prognostic values of SARS-associated proteome, and deciphered the identities of those with prognostic values.The associations of decreased serum PF4 and increased serum beta-TG levels with poor prognosis were confirmed by Western blot. PMID: 22740477
  51. blockade of HIV-1 infection occurs at the level of virus attachment and entry via a unique mechanism that involves direct interaction of CXCL4 with the major viral envelope glycoprotein, gp120 PMID: 22645343
  52. VEGF, PF4 and PDGF are elevated in platelets of colorectal cancer patients PMID: 22402885
  53. ODSH can be used concurrently with UFH to disrupt PF4/H charge interactions PMID: 22318669
  54. In conclusion, measurements of HIT-IgG -specific antibodies can facilitate an appropriate estimation in hemodialysis patients of whether the clinical features of an acute systemic reaction are caused by HIT or dialytic complications. PMID: 22088491
  55. these results stress a co-ordinating role for CXCL4 in the cross-talk between platelets and monocytes during early inflammation. PMID: 21088050
  56. Expression of FLI-1, ELF-1, and GABP activated the PF4 promoter in HepG2 cells. PMID: 21931859
  57. Our findings indicate that PF4 or p17-70 could be valuable in combating multiple myeloma by disrupting tumor angiogenesis. PMID: 21693026
  58. CXCL4 and CXCL10 play a prominent role in pathogenesis of cerebral malaria (CM) associated death and may be used as functional or surrogate biomarkers for predicting CM severity PMID: 21508508
  59. Current knowledge on the role of CXCL4/PF-4 and CXCL4L1/PF-4var in physiological and pathological processes. PMID: 21111666
  60. results provide the first evidence that PF4 is regulated by RUNX1 and that impaired transcriptional regulation leads to the PF4 deficiency associated with RUNX1 haplodeficiency PMID: 21129147
  61. CXCL4L1 may act angiostatically causing random endothelial cell locomotion, disturbing directed migration towards angiogenic chemokines, serving as a homeostatic chemokine with moderate structural distinction yet different functional profile from CXCL4. PMID: 20961394
  62. analysis of platelet factor 4/heparin antigen in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia PMID: 20626620
  63. PF4 is shown to inhibit activation of TAFI by thrombin-thrombomodulin PMID: 21041299
  64. The study determines the binding parameters of CXCL4 and CXCL4L1 for heparin, heparan sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate B. PMID: 20688960
  65. Letter: Report that hemodialysis is not a risk factor for developing heparin-induced thrombocytopenia or antiheparin-PF4 antibodies. PMID: 20979952
  66. Evaluation of a new automated panel of assays for the detection of anti-PF4/heparin antibodies in patients suspected of having heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. PMID: 20539902
  67. Heparin-PF4 antibodies are present in 10.8% of medical, neurotrauma, or shock-trauma intensive care patients at admission and increase significantly to 29.2% within 7 days. PMID: 19911252
  68. In hemodialysis patients who have type 2 diabetes and are treated with acetylsalicylic acid, PF4-heparin complex antibodies are associated with sudden and all-cause death. PMID: 20185595
  69. Type/circumstances of surgery, timing of first anticoagulant dose and BMI influence risk of anti-PF4/heparin antibody formation, consistent with a stoichiometry-based immunization model of PF4 and anticoagulant ratios during early peri-operative period. PMID: 20050998
  70. facilitates macrophage infection with HIV-1 and potentiates virus replication PMID: 19773294
  71. CXCL4 induces SphK1 enzyme activity as well as its translocation to the cell membrane. PMID: 20104488
  72. the platelet content of VEGF-A in cancer patients was significantly increased compared to healthy controls, while thrombospondin-1, CXCL12 and CXCL4 were significantly decreased PMID: 20182908
  73. PF4 had an inhibitory activity on megakaryocytopoiesis in vitro and in vivo in mice. PMID: 15622770
  74. Intracellular PF4 content in myeloid DCs and plasmocytoid DCs was significantly elevated in trauma patients compared with healthy controls. HLA-DR on MDCs was significantly elevated on d 1 and d 4 after trauma in patients compared with controls. PMID: 19750196
  75. Beta2GPI forms stable complexes with PF4, leading to the stabilization of beta2GPI dimeric structure that facilitates the antibody recognition. PMID: 19805618
  76. CXCL4 may promote atherogenesis by suppressing CD163 in macrophages, which are then unable to upregulate the atheroprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 in response to hemoglobin. PMID: 19910578
  77. a second epitope for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia/thrombosis antibodies is defined by epitope mapping PMID: 11830470
  78. Signaling transduction induced by PF4 in erythroleukemia cells was compared with that induced by TGFB1, which is also a potent inhibitor of HEL growth. PMID: 12041672
  79. PF4 inhibits T cell function by down-modulating cell proliferation and cytokine release and therefore has a potential role as a mediator of long-term effects in the regulation of inflammatory processes in vivo. PMID: 12097379
  80. CXCL4 at substimulatory dosages modulates CTAP-III- as well as CXCL7-induced adhesion of neutrophils to vascular endothelium. PMID: 12193731
  81. Platelet factor 4 induces human natural killer cells to synthesize and release interleukin-8. PMID: 12223528
  82. Platelet factor 4 inhibits FGF2-induced endothelial cell proliferation via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway but not by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. PMID: 12384403
  83. PF4 may modulate the hematopoietic milieu both by promoting progenitor adhesion and by binding to or interfering with signaling caused by hematopoietically active chemokines, such as IL-8 PMID: 12586630
  84. physiologically relevant concentrations of PF4 stimulate thrombin-dependent activated protein C generation in cultured vascular endothelial cells PMID: 12609838
  85. PREP1 regulates PF4 gene expression. PMID: 12732210
  86. Gene profiling identified PF4 from peripheral blood cells in coronary artery disease. PMID: 12878486
  87. results suggested a model by which PF4 bound to proximal (but distinct) sites to antithrombin (AT) resulting in steric interference of factor Xa binding to both polysaccharide and AT PMID: 14575696
  88. PF4 neutrophil adhesion is controlled by src-kinases and PF-4-mediated exocytosis requires activation of p38 MAP kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase PMID: 14592823
  89. correlation between PF4 deposition, lesion severity and symptomatic atherosclerosis; PF4 was commonly found in macrophages of early lesions PMID: 14652645
  90. Review: PF-4 isinteracts directly with angiogenesis growth factors and inhibits their interaction with cell surface receptors, perhaps playing a role as an endogenous angiogenesis regulator; role in cancer pathology PMID: 15034805
  91. PF4 promoters are transactivated by USF1 and 2 which may play an important role in megakaryocytic gene expression PMID: 15187018
  92. PF-4 acts on macrophages in a dual manner. PF-4 may play a crucial role in the induction and maintenance of an unspecific immune response. PMID: 15265941
  93. PF-4 strongly inhibited the VEGF(165)- and VEGF(121)-induced mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signalling pathways PMID: 15291808
  94. The capacity of PF4 to form ultralarge complexes composed of multiple PF4 tetramers arrayed in a lattice with several molecules of unfractionated heparin may play a fundamental role in autoantibody formation, antibody-dependent platelet activation. PMID: 15304392
  95. Interactions with PF4 require structural motifs important in RANTES oligomerization and amplify RANTES-triggered effects on monocyte adhesion. PMID: 15459010
  96. Induction of E-selectin RNA in umbilical vein endothelial cells exposed to PF4 is time and dose dependent; PF4 induces E-selectin expression by activation of transcriptional activity PMID: 15591119
  97. Human platelet factor 4 stimulates proliferation of naturally anergic human CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells while inhibiting proliferation of CD4+CD25- T nonregulatory cells. PMID: 15728475
  98. Expression of PF4 is up-regulated at the mRNA and protein level by thrombin and mediated by proteinase-activated receptors (PARs), resulting in a 32- to 128-fold higher mRNA level and leading to an up-to-sixfold increase of the peptide concentration. PMID: 15788441
  99. analysis of granule targeting sequence within platelet factor 4 PMID: 15964840
  100. PTEN expression negatively regulates CXCR4-meidated chemotaxis of lymphoid mammalian cells via its lipid phosphatase activity PMID: 15994292

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Subcellular Location Secreted
Protein Families Intercrine alpha (chemokine CxC) family
Database Links

HGNC: 8861

OMIM: 173460

KEGG: hsa:5196

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000296029

UniGene: Hs.81564

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