Human keratinocyte autocrine factor/Amphiregulin,KAF/AR ELISA Kit

Code CSB-E04496h
Size 96T,5×96T,10×96T
See More Details 24T ELISA kits trial application
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Product Details

Target Name amphiregulin
Alternative Names A REG ELISA Kit; Amphiregulin ELISA Kit; Amphiregulin B ELISA Kit; AR ELISA Kit; AREG ELISA Kit; AREG_HUMAN ELISA Kit; AREGB ELISA Kit; Colorectum cell derived growth factor ELISA Kit; Colorectum cell-derived growth factor ELISA Kit; CRDGF ELISA Kit; MGC13647 ELISA Kit; Schwannoma derived growth factor ELISA Kit; SDGF ELISA Kit
Abbreviation AREG
Uniprot No. P15514
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Sample Types serum, plasma
Detection Range 4.7 pg/mL-300 pg/mL
Sensitivity 1.1 pg/mL
Assay Time 1-5h
Sample Volume 50-100ul
Detection Wavelength 450 nm
Research Area Cancer
Assay Principle quantitative
Measurement Sandwich
Intra-assay Precision (Precision within an assay): CV%<8%      
Three samples of known concentration were tested twenty times on one plate to assess.  
Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays): CV%<10%      
Three samples of known concentration were tested in twenty assays to assess.    
To assess the linearity of the assay, samples were spiked with high concentrations of human KAF/AR in various matrices and diluted with the Sample Diluent to produce samples with values within the dynamic range of the assay.
  Sample Serum(n=4)  
1:1 Average % 93  
Range % 86-97  
1:2 Average % 83  
Range % 80-86  
1:4 Average % 91  
Range % 85-97  
1:8 Average % 98  
Range % 95-101  
The recovery of human KAF/AR spiked to levels throughout the range of the assay in various matrices was evaluated. Samples were diluted prior to assay as directed in the Sample Preparation section.
Sample Type Average % Recovery Range  
Serum (n=5) 89 85-93  
EDTA plasma (n=4) 104 100-108  
Typical Data
These standard curves are provided for demonstration only. A standard curve should be generated for each set of samples assayed.
pg/ml OD1 OD2 Average Corrected  
300 2.812 2.836 2.824 2.681  
150 1.971 1.965 1.968 1.825  
75 1.122 1.168 1.145 1.002  
37.5 0.590 0.571 0.581 0.438  
18.8 0.385 0.399 0.392 0.249  
9.4 0.293 0.273 0.283 0.140  
4.7 0.210 0.216 0.213 0.070  
0 0.142 0.144 0.143    
and FAQs
Storage Store at 2-8°C. Please refer to protocol.
Lead Time 3-5 working days

Target Data

Function Ligand of the EGF receptor/EGFR. Autocrine growth factor as well as a mitogen for a broad range of target cells including astrocytes, Schwann cells and fibroblasts.
Gene References into Functions
  1. Amphiregulin contained in non-small-cell lung carcinoma-derived exosomes induces osteoclast differentiation through the activation of EGFR pathway. PMID: 28600504
  2. The studies indicate that HIF2-alpha induces myocardial AREG expression in cardiac myocytes, which increases myocardial ischemia tolerance. PMID: 29483579
  3. AREG mediates hCG-induced StAR expression and progesterone production in human granulosa cells, providing novel evidence for the role of AREG in the regulation of steroidogenesis. PMID: 27113901
  4. Regulatory T-cell-intrinsic amphiregulin is dispensable for suppressive function. PMID: 27040371
  5. No significant correlations emerged for YAP or AREG expression and VIII CN schwannoma volume. PMID: 28430338
  6. Cullin 3 regulates ADAM17-mediated ectodomain shedding of AREG. PMID: 29550478
  7. over-expression of AREG could serve as a novel GC biomarker, and active surveillance of its expression could be a novel approach to GC diagnosis and monitoring. PMID: 27713123
  8. Sprouty2 inhibits amphiregulin-induced down-regulation of E-cadherin and cell invasion in human ovarian cancer cells. PMID: 27835572
  9. Results show that AREG expression is up-regulated in gastric tumor and its co-expression with TROP2 protein is associated with TNM stage, tumor size, lymph node metastases, and distant metastases. PMID: 28256068
  10. secretion of IL-13 and amphiregulin suggests Intrahepatic Innate lymphoid cells may be recruited to promote resolution and repair and thereby they may contribute to ongoing fibrogenesis in liver disease. PMID: 29261670
  11. EGF-AREG interplay in airway basal cell stem/progenitor cells is one of the mechanisms that mediates the interconnected pathogenesis of all major smoking-induced lesions in the human airway epithelium. PMID: 27709733
  12. AREG expression may be useful for identifying CRTC1-MAML2-positive mucoepidermoid carcinomas and as a marker for favorable prognosis. PMID: 27393417
  13. Amphiregulin enhances VEGF-A production in human chondrosarcoma cells and promotes angiogenesis by inhibiting miR-206 via FAK/c-Src/PKCdelta pathway. PMID: 27826039
  14. Amphiregulin plays an important role in lung neoplasm resistance to amrubicinol PMID: 28476786
  15. EREG and AREG are strongly regulated by methylation, and their expression is associated with CIMP status and primary tumour site. PMID: 27272216
  16. These findings demonstrate the posttranslational regulation of Foxp3 expression by AREG in cancer patients through AREG/EGFR/GSK-3beta signaling, which could lead to Foxp3 protein degradation in Treg cells and a potential therapeutic target for cancer treatment. PMID: 27432879
  17. blocking soluble amphiregulin with a neutralizing antibody also significantly increased apoptotic cell death of HepG2 cells due to treatment with methyl methanesulfonate, cisplatin, or a recombinant p53 adenovirus, suggesting that the function of amphiregulin involved in inhibiting apoptosis may be a common mechanism by which hepatoma cells escape from stimulus-induced apoptosis PMID: 28351301
  18. keratinocyte expression of hAREG elicits inflammatory epidermal hyperplasia PMID: 26519132
  19. Low AREG expression is associated with gastric cancer. PMID: 26884344
  20. RYR2, PTDSS1 and AREG are autism susceptibility genes that are implicated in a Lebanese population-based study of copy number variations in this disease. PMID: 26742492
  21. High Amphiregulin enhances intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression and promotes tumor metastasis in osteosarcoma. PMID: 26503469
  22. results demonstrate that AREG controls G2/M progression and cytokinesis in keratinocytes via activation of a FoxM1-dependent transcriptional program, suggesting new avenues for treatment of epithelial cancer PMID: 26234682
  23. High expression of amphiregulin is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID: 26451607
  24. Findings show the involvement of amphiregulin and semaphorin-3A in the improvement of skin innervations and penetration of nerve fibers into the epidermis. PMID: 26201903
  25. Altered AREG expression induced by diverse luteinizing hormone receptor reactivity in granulosa cells may provide a useful marker for oocyte developmental competency PMID: 25911599
  26. Amphiregulin enhances alpha6beta1 integrin expression and cell motility in human chondrosarcoma cells through Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK/AP-1 pathway. PMID: 25825984
  27. Our findings implicate amphiregulin as a critical mediator of the estrogen response in ERalpha-positive breast cancer PMID: 26527289
  28. AR induces hHSC fibrogenic activity via multiple mitogenic signaling pathways, and is upregulated in murine and human NASH, suggesting that AR antagonists may be clinically useful anti-fibrotics in NAFLD. PMID: 25744849
  29. Bradykinin (BK) stimulation of human airway smooth muscle cell increases amphiregulin secretion in a mechanism dependent on BK-induced COX-2 expression. PMID: 26047642
  30. The applied drugs showed remarkable suppression of mTOR expression, which might delay tumor progression. Interestingly, sorafenib and sunitinib increased AREG in HNSCC 11A and 14C PMID: 25862847
  31. Expression profiling demonstrated that AREG-activated EGFR regulates gene expression differently than EGF-activated EGFR PMID: 25454348
  32. This study shows that TGF-alpha uses common and divergent molecular mediators to regulate E-cadherin expression and cell invasion. PMID: 25869072
  33. AREG rs1615111, located in the AREG genomic region, can significantly define different prognostic cohorts in locally advanced GC PMID: 25203737
  34. AREG induces ovarian cancer cell invasion by down-regulating E-cadherin expression PMID: 25261255
  35. During high-pressure ventilation, Nrf2 becomes activated and induces AREG, leading to a positive feedback loop between Nrf2 and AREG, which involves the p38 MAPK and results in the expression of cytoprotective genes. PMID: 24921206
  36. AREG expression was significantly correlated with Edmondson stage and serum AFP level. PMID: 24860833
  37. AREG shedding occurs through a TNF-alpha-converting enzyme-dependent mechanism in diacetyl treated pulmonary epithelial cells. PMID: 24816162
  38. aberrantly activated AREG-EGFR signaling is required for CRTC1-MAML2-positive MEC cell growth and survival, suggesting that EGFR-targeted therapies will benefit patients with advanced, unresectable CRTC1-MAML2-positive MEC. PMID: 23975434
  39. Self-reinforcing loop of amphiregulin and Y-box binding protein-1 contributes to poor outcomes in ovarian cancer. PMID: 23851501
  40. IL-1beta-induced amphiregulin release may be involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID: 24196392
  41. These findings provide mechanistic insight into the regulation of YAP and AREG by RASSF1A in human multistep hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID: 23594797
  42. Data suggest that AREG (amphiregulin), BTC (betacellulin), and EREG (epiregulin) induced prostaglandin E2 production by induction of COX-2 (prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2) through MAP kinase signaling in granulosa cells. PMID: 24092824
  43. Exosome-bound WD repeat protein Monad inhibits breast cancer cell invasion by degrading amphiregulin mRNA. PMID: 23844004
  44. Promoter methylation of AREG is associated with glioblastoma. PMID: 23624749
  45. AREG plays pro-neoplastic roles in colorectal carcinogenesis PMID: 23263765
  46. EREG-AREG and NRG1, which are members of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family, seem to modulate Behcet's disease susceptibility through main effects and gene-gene interactions PMID: 23625463
  47. we did not find a correlation between the presence of a K-ras mutation and the presence of Epiregulin and Amphiregulin in colon cancer tissue. PMID: 23885463
  48. Regulation of amphiregulin gene expression by beta-catenin signaling in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. PMID: 23285165
  49. Human antigen R-mediated mRNA stabilization is required for ultraviolet B-induced autoinduction of amphiregulin in keratinocytes. PMID: 23430747
  50. Polycystin-1 regulates amphiregulin expression through CREB and AP1 signalling, which has implications in ADPKD cell proliferation PMID: 22570239
  51. AREG functions in a non-cell-autonomous manner to mediate EGF-independent growth and malignant behavior of mammary epithelial cells. PMID: 22825057
  52. Amphiregulin plays a crucial role in UV-induced EGFR activation and is overexpressed in skin cancer cell lines PMID: 19003995
  53. AP-1B is required for efficient recycling of amphiregulin to the basolateral surface PMID: 21917092
  54. Polarized transport of amphiregulin is dependent on a novel EEXXXL basolateral sorting motif in its cytoplasmic domain PMID: 21917092
  55. Low AREG is associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. PMID: 22395988
  56. concentrations in colostrum/milk were higher on days 1 and 2 and rapidly declined to below 1 ng/ml on day 5 PMID: 22581387
  57. Amphiregulin is cleaved at Lysine 187, a site homologous to the cleavage site reported in the mouse protein and distinct from the Lysine 184 site previously reported for the human protein. PMID: 22967896
  58. proAREG-annexins-ADAM17 complex needs to localize at the cell surface for shedding of proAREG to occur PMID: 22438584
  59. We conclude that the expression of Amphiregulin in a primary colorectal tumor is useful as an indicator of prognosis and as a predictor of recurrence. PMID: 22641668
  60. these data demonstrate a novel function mediated by the intracellular domain of proAREG and suggest a significant role for nuclear envelope-localized proAREG in driving human breast cancer progression. PMID: 22445895
  61. Data suggest that expression status of AR and EPI mRNAs might be evaluated as dynamic predictors of response in KRAS WT patients receiving any cetuximab-based therapy. PMID: 21161326
  62. These results suggested that pro-AREG monoubiquitination and the subsequent trafficking to intracellular organelles is a novel shedding regulatory mechanism that contributes to the secretion of EGFR ligands in growth factor signaling. PMID: 22425981
  63. estrogen and progeterone increased cell proliferation in normal gland and mammary cancers through the increased production of amphiregulin PMID: 21258428
  64. AREG expression is essential for efficient hepatitis C virus assembly and virion release. PMID: 21653755
  65. AREG functions in regulating the invasive breast cancer phenotype, perhaps through altered signaling that occurs when AREG activates plasma membrane localized epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). PMID: 21302279
  66. Lung tumor-associated dendritic cell-derived amphiregulin increased cancer progression. PMID: 21742971
  67. Amphiregulin exosomes increase cancer cell invasion. PMID: 21514161
  68. may play a significant role in the proliferation of human bone marrow stromal cells PMID: 21439861
  69. the infection of N. gonorrhoeae causes an alternative amphiregulin processing, subcellular distribution and release in human epithelial cervical cells that likely contribute to the predisposition cellular abnormalitiesof N. gonorrhoeae infections. PMID: 21298020
  70. AGR2 induction of AREG is mediated by activation of the Hippo signaling pathway co-activator, YAP1. PMID: 21454516
  71. Oocyte competence is linked to granulosa cell AR secretion. PMID: 21377153
  72. AREG and GDF15 produced in response to UVB exposure can affect the growth and protein synthesis of lens epithelial cells PMID: 21245963
  73. is not essential for the induction of contact hypersensitivity PMID: 20567134
  74. Data suggest that PHD2/HIF-2/amphiregulin signaling has a critical role in the regulation of breast tumor progression and propose PHD2 as a potential tumor suppressor in breast cancer. PMID: 20856199
  75. human subjects with asthma contained significantly higher numbers of amphiregulin-producing basophils PMID: 21036386
  76. Amphiregulin expression was found to be increased in salivary glands of Sjogren's syndrome patients. PMID: 20811902
  77. AREG accumulation is a useful marker of gonadotrophin stimulation and oocyte competence. PMID: 20719813
  78. ATP released from tumor cells might exert a tumorigenic action by stimulating the secretion of AREG from dendritic cells. PMID: 20651071
  79. the inhibition of amphiregulin expression, which impairs EGFR response to its exogenously available ligands, may represent an alternative anti-EGFR therapeutic strategy in breast cancer. PMID: 20651357
  80. autocrine human KC growth is highly dependent on the AREG transmembrane precursor protein and strongly suggest a previously unreported function of the metalloproteinase-processed carboxy (C)-terminal domain of AREG PMID: 20428186
  81. The expression of amphiregulin was increased in the secretory phase of human endometrium, and may play an important role in human implantation. PMID: 18560449
  82. data build the connection between BRCA1 loss of function and AREG upregulation-a change in gene expression often observed in breast cancer. PMID: 20103632
  83. Results describe the role of amphiregulin in an experimental model of bleomycin-induced pneumopathy in mice. PMID: 19915156
  84. Taken together, we provide evidence that AREG stimulation of EGFR results in high levels of PTHrP gene expression, contributing to cancer-associated bone pathology. PMID: 19825997
  85. Use of AREG as a biomarker in non-small cell lung cancershould be encouraged since AREG is correlated with a poor prognosis, resistance to treatments and to apoptosis. PMID: 19070973
  86. lentivirus-mediated expression of soluble HB-EGF, but not soluble AREG, strongly enhanced keratinocyte migration, even in the presence of metalloproteinase inhibitors PMID: 19609315
  87. (TARP) expression in prostate cancer cells leads to an increased growth rate and induction of caveolins and amphiregulin. PMID: 11719440
  88. mRNA expression in atrophic gastritis before and after Helicobacter pylori eradication PMID: 11859273
  89. H358 cells secrete a high level of amphiregulin that, in combination with IGF1, prevents serum deprivation apoptosis PMID: 12356750
  90. Review. The activation of EGFR in response to smoke involves cleavage of amphiregulin by ADAM 17. PMID: 12568494
  91. amphiregulin binds to EGF receptor and has a role in stimulation of lung epithelial cells upon exposure to tobacco smoke PMID: 12711607
  92. Data show that in squamous cell carcinoma cells, stimulation with G protein-coupled receptor agonists specifically results in cleavage and release of amphiregulin (AR) by TACE. PMID: 12743035
  93. Amphiregulin(AR) overexpressing cells (HaCaT-AR) displayed autonomous proliferation in serum-free media. HaCaT-AR cells formed rapidly growing tumors with AR expression similar to keratoacanthoma. PMID: 14633617
  94. epidermal AR expression as a possible mediator of innate cutaneous immunity and epidermal proliferation and also as a potential trigger of both cutaneous psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. PMID: 15186320
  95. amphiregulin- and ErbB1-dependent mechanism by which autocrine ERK activation is maintained in normal keratinocytes PMID: 15254267
  96. AR is under strong regulation by the cAMP pathway in various cell types PMID: 15284208
  97. upregulation of the epiregulin and amphiregulin expression is part of the signal transduction pathway which leads to ovulation and luteinization in the human ovary PMID: 15474502
  98. an early-response growth factor that may contribute to the initial phases of liver regeneration. PMID: 15685553
  99. Amphiregulin was secreted by human mast cells after aggregation of FcepsilonRI. Amphiregulin may be new target molecule for treatment of overproduction of sputum in bronchial asthma. PMID: 15696081
  100. Mast cells secreted amphiregulin on IgE cross-linking, and amphiregulin induced proliferation of lung fibroblasts. Local release of amphiregulin by mast cells could play role in lung fibrosis by promoting proliferation of lung fibroblasts. PMID: 15696083

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Subcellular Location Membrane, Single-pass membrane protein
Protein Families Amphiregulin family
Database Links

HGNC: 651

OMIM: 104640

KEGG: hsa:374

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000370227

UniGene: Hs.270833

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