Recombinant Human Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2(HAVCR2),partial (Active)

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Code CSB-AP005291HU
Size US$3267Purchase it in Cusabio online store
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  • (Tris-Glycine gel) Discontinuous SDS-PAGE (reduced) with 5% enrichment gel and 15% separation gel.
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Product Details

Purity Greater than 90% as determined by SDS-PAGE.
Endotoxin Less than 1.0 EU/μg as determined by LAL method.
Activity The ED50 as determined by its ability to bind Human Galectin-9 in functional ELISA is less than 20 ug/ml.
Target Names HAVCR2
Uniprot No. Q8TDQ0
Research Area Immunology
Alternative Names CD366; FLJ14428; HAVcr-2; Havcr2; HAVR2_HUMAN; Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2; Kidney injury molecule 3 ; KIM 3; KIM3; T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain containing 3; T cell immunoglobulin mucin 3; T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 3; T-cell immunoglobulin mucin family member 3; T-cell immunoglobulin mucin receptor 3; T-cell membrane protein 3; Tim 3; TIM-3; TIM3; TIMD-3; TIMD3
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Source Mammalian cell
Expression Region 22-200aa
Mol. Weight 47.7 kDa
Protein Length Partial
Tag Info C-terminal 6xHis-FC-tagged
Form Lyophilized powder
Buffer Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered 1xPBS, pH 7.4
Reconstitution We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
and FAQs
Protein FAQs
Storage Condition Store at -20°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time Basically, we can dispatch the products out in 5-10 working days after receiving your orders. Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Notes Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA Please contact us to get it.

Target Data

Function Cell surface receptor implicated in modulating innate and adaptive immune responses. Generally accepted to have an inhibiting function. Reports on stimulating functions suggest that the activity may be influenced by the cellular context and/or the respective ligand
Gene References into Functions
  1. TIM-3 expression was predominantly localized to myeloid cells in both human and murine tumors PMID: 29316433
  2. TIM-3 and IL-37 may be used as potential biomarkers of active rheumatoid arthritis. PMID: 30106887
  3. High TIM3 expression is associated with gastric cancer. PMID: 30106451
  4. miR-498 can effectively suppress TIM-3 expression in the acute myeloid leukemia cell line PMID: 30107988
  5. These results indicate that TIM-3 may be involved in the pathogenesis of immune thrombocytopenia which subsequently can represent an opportunity for new therapeutic plan, moreover. This may have a prognostic value for disease severity. PMID: 28974109
  6. Within many tumors, PD-1/Tim-3 coexpressing CD8-T cells lose their ability to secrete cytokines and their intratumoral infiltration correlates with a bad prognosis. Tim-3 appeared as a potential biomarker of anti-PD-1 resistance. Combined blockade of PD-1 and Tim-3 axis demonstrated potent clinical efficacy in preclinical models and reinforced the rationale of using an anti-Tim-3 to override tumor resistance.[review] PMID: 29547109
  7. this study shows that TIM-3 expression identifies a distinctive PD-1(+) follicular helper T cell subset, with reduced interleukin 21 production and B cell help function in ovarian cancer patients PMID: 29482158
  8. TIM-3 high expression rate was an independent prognostic factor for extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type PMID: 28901003
  9. sTim-3 is a promising biomarker for allograft dysfunction, but unable to differentiate allograft rejection from other causes of renal dysfunction in kidney transplantation recipients PMID: 29310109
  10. The expression of Tim-3 on CD14+ monocytes is involved in systemic inflammatory reaction after intracerebral hemorrhage. PMID: 29310959
  11. TIM-3 gene may play an important role as a genetic risk factor for the progression and prognosis of invasive breast cancer. PMID: 29263040
  12. Tim-3(+) NK cells had decreased capability of IFN-r secretion, while Tim-3(+) monocytes showed a M2-like phenotype. Importantly, Tim-3 level on both NK cells and monocytes positively correlated with the ratio of Ki-67(+) tumor cells. PMID: 29174343
  13. T-cell immunoglobulin mucin-3/galectin-9 (Tim-3/Gal-9) binding signaling can also engage other binding partners to induce distinct cellular responses [Review]. PMID: 29027155
  14. Polymorphism +4259A>C in exon 3 of the TIM-3 gene is associated with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis but polymorphism -1637C>T in the promoter region of TIM-1 is not. PMID: 29141799
  15. The interaction between Gal-9/TIM-3 pathway and follicular helper cells contributed to viral persistent in chronic hepatitis C virus infection. PMID: 28772217
  16. Exosomal total protein, Tim-3 and Galectin-9 were up-regulated in non-small cell lung cancer plasma. PMID: 29452091
  17. the monitoring of sTim3 in urine may be a novel and promising noninvasive approach for the detection of AR. Furthermore, measurement of sTim3 in urine may contribute to predict the response to antirejection therapy and a poor outcome following AR. PMID: 28586044
  18. the CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells from RA patients demonstrated a reduction of Tim3 and were less functional than Treg cells from healthy controls in a Tim3-related manner. PMID: 28478516
  19. our study highlights the role of TIM-3 as a potential prognostic marker and a promising therapeutic target in solid tumors. PMID: 28423646
  20. HAVCR2 regulates cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins and cell adhesion molecules in the presence of viral infection, which suggests a potential for HAVCR2 activators as therapeutics for the management of preterm birth associated with viral infections. PMID: 28466996
  21. serum levels may be increased in patients with early phase diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis and associated with cardiac involvement and renal crisis PMID: 27651303
  22. Preoperative Tim3 expression on peripheral NK cells is correlated with differential staging in colorectal cancer, and may be useful as a serum biomarker. PMID: 28440449
  23. TIM-3 polymorphism is associated with response to therapy in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID: 27034168
  24. BMI-1, TIM-3 and CLL-1 have roles in acute myeloid leukemia prognosis and therapy PMID: 27506934
  25. Quantification of TIM-3 and KIM-1 mRNA expressions, along with KIM-1 protein measurements in urine and blood could be employed as promising tools for noninvasive diagnosis of allograft dysfunction. PMID: 28757398
  26. Results show that human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells possess a secretory pathway which leads to the production and release of soluble Tim-3 and galectin-9. Both proteins prevent the activation of NK cells and impair their AML cell-killing activity. PMID: 28750861
  27. after 14 days of glucocorticoid therapy, clinical findings (serum bilirubin, skin GVHD) and plasma biomarkers (TIM3, ST2, sTNFR1) can predict failure of GVHD treatment and nonrelapse mortality. PMID: 28478120
  28. These findings suggested that rs10053538 in TIM-3 might increase susceptibility to and promote the progression of breast cancer in Chinese women PMID: 27248321
  29. Results indicate that T cell Ig and mucin domain 3 protein (TIM-3) polymorphisms (-1516G/T, -574G/T, and +4259T/G) were associated with the increased risk of cancer in Chinese Han population. PMID: 27008699
  30. In cultured MART1-specific CD8 T cells stimulated with peptide-loaded artificial antigen-presenting cells, anti-TIM-3 antibody treatment promotes generation of effector T cells, with acquisition of an activated phenotype, increased cytokine production, enhanced proliferation, and a transcription program associated with T cell differentiation. Anti-TIM-3 drives CD8 T cell differentiation through activation of mTORC1. PMID: 29127145
  31. Our results show that Tim-3 is a critical negative regulator of NLRP3 inflammasome and provides a potential target for intervention of diseases with uncontrolled inflammasome activation. PMID: 28799242
  32. soluble Tim-3 might play inhibitory roles in impaired Tim-3-mediated clearance of apoptotic cells in systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID: 28754800
  33. We found a novel mechanism through which Tim-3 could suppress antitumor immunity by utilizing the suppression of CD4(+) follicular helper cells (Tfh) function and provide new insight in the regulation of Tfh cells in breast cancer patients PMID: 27156907
  34. Tim3/Gal-9 alleviates the inflammation of TAO patients via suppressing Akt/NF-kappaB signaling pathway. PMID: 28756232
  35. this study shows that severe aplastic anemia untreated patients have lower TIM-3 expression on NK cells and CD56dim NK subsets compared with normal controls, and are correlated with the severity of pancytopenia of SAA PMID: 28637584
  36. We conclude that Tim-3 is a biomarker of dysfunctional plasmacytoid dendritic cells PMID: 28264968
  37. The present study defines the minimal TIM-3 promoter region and demonstrates its interaction with c-Jun during TIM-3 transcription in CD4(+) T cells. PMID: 27243212
  38. Our findings establish intratumoral Tim-3(+)PD1(+)CD8(+) T cells as critical mediators of an aggressive phenotype in RCC. PMID: 27872087
  39. Osteosarcoma patients with higher Tim-3 had relatively lower survival. Multivariate analyses for overall survival revealed that high serum soluble Tim-3 level was an independent prognostic factor for osteosarcoma PMID: 28671022
  40. urther analyses revealed that the levels of Tim-3 on CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells exhibited different expression patterns in terms of localization depending on pathological category of prostate cancer and metastasis. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that positive staining of Tim-3 in prostate cancer but little or no staining of Tim-3 was observed in benign prostate hyperplasia epithelium. PMID: 28681697
  41. this review discusses the recent findings on Tim-3, the role it plays in regulating immune responses in different cell types and the rationale for targeting Tim-3 for effective cancer immunotherapy PMID: 28258697
  42. The -1516G > T, -574G > T and +4259T > G SNPs within TIM-3 gene might play an important role as a genetic risk factor in the pathogenesis of ET. PMID: 27990849
  43. this study shows that that Tim-3 expression defines a subpopulation of PD-1+ exhausted NY-ESO-1-specific CD8+ T cell and PD-1+Tim-3+ CD8+ T cells represented the largest subset of NY-ESO-1-specific CD8+ T cells in gastric cancer patients PMID: 28110884
  44. Increased TIM3+CD8+T cells with lower perforin and granzyme B expression and higher CD95 expression in MDS patients had been observed. These findings suggested that TIM3 might be related to CD8+T cells defect. PMID: 27846431
  45. our results suggested that PD-1 and TIM-3 blockade might be necessary in developing effective immunotherapeutic strategies in malignant Schwannoma, in which TIM-3 may play a more important role. PMID: 28475007
  46. these data suggest that the high Tim-3 expression in monocytes could be utilized by tumor-promoting Gal-9 expression on CD4(+) T cells PMID: 28466780
  47. In conclusion, Tim-3 on immune cells negatively regulates cell-mediated immunity against Plasmodium infection, and blocking Tim-3 signaling enhances sterile immunity and may play a protective role during malarial parasite infections. PMID: 27638944
  48. this study shows that the transcription factor T-bet controls Tim-3-mediated inhibition of monocyte/macrophage function during chronic hepatitis C virus infection PMID: 27809352
  49. this study shows that TIM-3 expressed on myeloid leukaemia cells may facilitate functional exhaustion in T helper cells PMID: 27565576
  50. this study shows that in osteosarcoma patients, Tim3 expression did not directly mediate immune suppression, but the interaction between Tim3+ T cells and monocytes, naive CD4+ T cells, and Gal9-expressing CD4+ CD25+ Tregs could resulting in progressive suppression of Th1 responses PMID: 28103502
  51. the present study demonstrated that interference with Tim-3 expression using siRNA may attenuate ccRCC invasion by aggravating anoikis following cell detachment. PMID: 28112366
  52. Elevated frequencies of CD8 T cells expressing PD-1, CTLA-4 and Tim-3 were found within tumor from perineural squamous cell carcinoma patients. PMID: 28423034
  53. Tim-3 blockade in combination with TLR activation induces the expression of antiviral molecules without a significant increase in TNF-alpha or SOCS1. PMID: 27329385
  54. this study shows that the expression of TIM-3 is correlated with advanced stage and could be independent risk factors for colorectal cancer PMID: 28038383
  55. Immune checkpoint proteins are co-inhibitory factors that can diminish the antigen-specific immune responses by attenuating the regulatory role of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4, programmed cell death-1, lymphocyte-activation gene 3, and T-cell immunoglobulin mucin-3. PMID: 28349816
  56. TLR2, Tim1, Tim3, TNF-alpha, IgE and EOS play a role in Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia-related wheezing in children. PMID: 27185658
  57. The results of our study showed that there is no significant association between TIM-1 5383-5397ins/del and Multiple sclerosis (MS) (P = 0.38); however, the frequency of CT genotype of TIM-3 -1541C>T in patient group was significantly higher than the control group, and there was a significant association between CT genotype and MS PMID: 27091308
  58. this study shoes that Tim-3 level is significantly upregulated in monocytes from gastric cancer patients compared with those from healthy controls PMID: 27911104
  59. these results suggest that TIM3 is a novel therapeutic target and prognostic biomarker for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and promotes metastasis of ESCC by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition via, at least partially, the Akt/GSK-3beta/Snail signaling pathway. PMID: 27430162
  60. Tim-3 facilitates osteosarcoma proliferation and metastasis through the NF-kappaB pathway and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. PMID: 27706678
  61. Studied the associations of T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-3 (Tim-3) polymorphisms and the alternate reading frame protein (F protein) with the outcomes of HCV infection; findings suggest that the rs12186731 CT and rs13170556 TC/CC genotypes of Tim-3 provide potential protective effects with the F protein in the outcomes of HCV infection and that these effects are related to sex and age. PMID: 27230511
  62. this study shows that the levels of expression of TIM-3 on CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD56+ T cells and in serum in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus are significantly higher than those of healthy controls PMID: 27394439
  63. ovarian tumor-infiltrating Treg cells were more immunosuppressive than their peripheral blood counterparts in a TIM3-dependent fashion. PMID: 26482613
  64. T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing molecule 3 might participate in the progression of type 2 diabetes by its negative regulation on immune cells, and Tim-3 on CD14(+) monocytes serves as a novel biological marker for diabetes duration in type 2 diabetes patients. PMID: 27182056
  65. Increased Tim3 expression is associated with renal cell carcinoma. PMID: 26715281
  66. Hepatitis B virus surface antigen stimulation of human, monocyte-derived dendritic cells increases expression of Tim-3. PMID: 26820685
  67. miR-330-5p has a strong inhibitory effect on TIM-3 expression in acute myeloma leukaemia cell line PMID: 27341144
  68. Data show there was a negative correlation between soluble T cell immunoglobulin mucin molecule 3 (sTim-3) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) as well as between IFN-gamma and interleukin-4 (IL-4), while sTim-3 and IL-4 were positively correlated. PMID: 27363280
  69. Data suggest that PD-1/PDCD1 (programmed cell death protein 1) and Tim-3/HAVCR2 (hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2) operate within the functional immune-modulatory network to promote Th2-(type-2 helper T cell-)mediated immunity at the maternal-fetal interface. PMID: 26908841
  70. Reduction of Tim-3(+) Treg cells (Tregs) in osteoarthritis patients resulted in less IL-10-producing Tregs. PMID: 27044824
  71. findings support the use of Tim-3-Tim-3L blockade together with PD-1-PD-L1 blockade to reverse tumor-induced T-cell exhaustion/dysfunction in patients with colorectal cancer. PMID: 27070448
  72. Tim-3 may be used as a novel target for increasing immune responses in RCC tumor microenvironment. PMID: 26253654
  73. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients have high expression level of PD-1 and TIM-3, which are related to DLBCL staging. PD-1 and TIM-3 expression levels are also related to the efficiency of chemotherapy. PMID: 26463635
  74. The Gal-9/Tim-3 signal is important for the regulation of decidua NK cells function, which is beneficial for the maintenance of a normal pregnancy. PMID: 25578313
  75. These data indicate that Tim-3 expression in NK cells can function as a prognostic biomarker in human lung adenocarcinoma and support that Tim-3 could be a new target for an immunotherapeutic strategy. PMID: 26428847
  76. Tim-3 in primary leukocytes, both healthy and malignant AML cells, displays moderate properties of an inflammatory receptor with additional growth factor (mTOR activation) and pro-angiogenic (VEGF release) activities PMID: 26413815
  77. Tim-3 played an important role in the development and progression of gastric cancer, and it could be used as an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients. PMID: 26464703
  78. an abnormal Tim-3/Gal-9 pathway was able to facilitate the development of preeclampsia. PMID: 26342682
  79. sTim-3 was involved in the development of sepsis. The homeostasis-promoting role of the Tim-3 on the monocytes was disrupted, while the inhibitory role of sTim-3 emerged during sepsis-induced immunosuppression. PMID: 26373631
  80. decreased serum TIM-1 and TIM-3 levels and association of TIM-3 with nephritis suggest their possible role in the development and pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID: 27049082
  81. Results indicate that upregulation of the inhibitory receptor Tim-3 may restrict T cell responses in CRC patients. PMID: 26008981
  82. TIM-3 is a negative regulator of TCR-function by attenuating activation signals mediated by CD3/CD28 co-stimulation. PMID: 26492563
  83. Tim-3 might participate in the tumorgenesis of colon cancer and Tim-3 expression might be a potential independent prognostic factor for patients with colorectal cancer. PMID: 26339368
  84. TIM-3 polymorphism is associated with increased susceptibility to osteoarthritis. PMID: 25937557
  85. TIM-3 and its ligand, galectin-9 (Gal-9), constitute an autocrine loop critical for leukemic stem cells self-renewal and development of human acute myeloid leukemia. PMID: 26279267
  86. Study found that LGALS9 was expressed in 68.4% of the human gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) and Tim-3 in the infiltrated NK cells of 68.4% of GISTs and suggest that Tim-3/LGALS9 pathway may be involved in the immune checkpoint mechanism of GISTs. PMID: 26239720
  87. Our data indicate that Tim-3 expression on NK cells is regulated by T-bet, and that Tim-3 levels correlate with advanced stages of gastric cancer PMID: 26214042
  88. Studied the effects of altered Tim-3 expression in vivo in mice and in vitro in human endothelial cells, on day 3 after Rickettsia heilongjiangensis infection. PMID: 26401029
  89. Data show that T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain protein 3 (Tim-3) on peripheral blood CD4+ T cells is increased in advanced schistosomiasis patients. PMID: 26930930
  90. there was no significant differ-ence in TIM-1 mRNA expression between the patients and the healthy controls. Our results suggest that insufficient expression of TIM-3 mRNA may be involved in the pathogenesis of nephropathy PMID: 26125859
  91. Expression of Tim-3 and co-expression of Tim-3 and Fas on certain peripheral T subsets are associated with disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. PMID: 26076826
  92. Findings underline the important roles of Tim-3 and PD-1 pathways in regulating decidual CD8+ T-cell function and maintaining normal pregnancy. PMID: 25950468
  93. Participation of TIM-3 and its ligand (galectin-9) in the pathogenesis of active generalized vitiligo PMID: 25784621
  94. The functional decline of invariant natural killer T cells was closely related to the decrease in CD28 expression and the increases of Tim-3 and PD-1. PMID: 26215444
  95. Tim-3 over-expression is associated with bladder urothelial carcinoma. PMID: 26265374
  96. Tim-3 levels were significantly decreased in CD4+ T cells and CD8+ cells from intracranial aneurysm patients compared to controls. PMID: 25342285
  97. TIM-3, as a key negative regulator in the anti-tumor immunity, contributes to the tumor immune evasion PMID: 26062425
  98. The elevation of differential Tim-3 and PD-1 expression patterns on T cells represents a state of T cell exhaustion and can be induced by common gamma-chain cytokines PMID: 25685816
  99. IL-15 induces strong but short-lived tumor-infiltrating CD8 T cell responses through the regulation of Tim-3 in breast cancer. PMID: 26141233
  100. Tim-3 triggers growth factor type responses in acute myeloid leukaemia cells by activating a phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. PMID: 25483439

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Involvement in disease May be involved in T-cell exhaustion associated with chronic viral infections such as with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitic C virus (HCV).
Subcellular Location Membrane, Single-pass type I membrane protein, Cell junction
Protein Families Immunoglobulin superfamily, TIM family
Tissue Specificity Expressed in T-helper type 1 (Th1) lymphocytes. Expressed on regulatory T (Treg) cells after TCR stimulation. Expressed in dendritic cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Expressed in epithelial tissues. Expression is increased on CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in
Database Links

HGNC: 18437

OMIM: 606652

KEGG: hsa:84868

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000312002

UniGene: Hs.710500

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