Recombinant Mouse Perforin-1(PRF1)

Code CSB-YP018668MO
Size US$1916
  • (Tris-Glycine gel) Discontinuous SDS-PAGE (reduced) with 5% enrichment gel and 15% separation gel.

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Product Details

Purity Greater than 90% as determined by SDS-PAGE.
Target Names Prf1
Uniprot No. P10820
Research Area Immunology
Alternative Names Prf1; Pfp; Perforin-1; P1; Cytolysin; Lymphocyte pore-forming protein
Species Mus musculus (Mouse)
Source Yeast
Expression Region 21-554aa
Note: The complete sequence including tag sequence, target protein sequence and linker sequence could be provided upon request.
Mol. Weight 61.2kDa
Protein Length Full Length of Mature Protein
Tag Info N-terminal 6xHis-tagged
Form Liquid or Lyophilized powder
Note: We will preferentially ship the format that we have in stock, however, if you have any special requirement for the format, please remark your requirement when placing the order, we will prepare according to your demand.
Buffer If the delivery form is liquid, the default storage buffer is Tris/PBS-based buffer, 5%-50% glycerol.
Note: If you have any special requirement for the glycerol content, please remark when you place the order.
If the delivery form is lyophilized powder, the buffer before lyophilization is Tris/PBS-based buffer, 6% Trehalose, pH 8.0.
Reconstitution We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
and FAQs
Protein FAQs
Storage Condition Store at -20°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Notes Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA Please contact us to get it.

Target Data

Function Plays a key role in secretory granule-dependent cell death, and in defense against virus-infected or neoplastic cells. Can insert into the membrane of target cells in its calcium-bound form, oligomerize and form large pores. Promotes cytolysis and apoptosis of target cells by facilitating the uptake of cytotoxic granzymes.
Gene References into Functions
  1. Study in mice models shows that perforin from antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes is required for Nlrp3 inflammasome activation in antigen-presenting cells. Furthermore, such activation of NLRP3 inflammasome contributes to the induction of antigen-specific antitumour immunity and pathogenesis of graft-versus-host diseases. PMID: 28537251
  2. levetiracetam can still protect neurons with perforin knockout mice. PMID: 26454821
  3. These studies indicate that CD8+ T cells against a single antigen can restrict Y. pseudotuberculosis colonization in a perforin-dependent manner, but ultimately are insufficient in their ability to provide sterilizing immunity and protect against death. PMID: 27268148
  4. Furthermore, perforin production specifically by CD8 T cells was required to cause fatal edema during experimental cerebral malaria. PMID: 28264905
  5. Our study suggests that perforin plays a role in dopaminergic neuron loss in PD. PMID: 28137589
  6. study shows that perforin is essential to facilitate beta cell destruction in mouse models of type 1 diabetes PMID: 26446877
  7. Released granzyme B induces DNA fragmentation in intraepithelial lymphocytes independently of Perforin PMID: 25750028
  8. serglycin plays a critical role in the maturation of dense-core cytotoxic granules in cytotoxic lymphocytes and the trafficking and storage of perforin and granzyme B, whereas granzyme A is unaffected PMID: 26756195
  9. This suggests that LPS alters UNK cell migration and activates cytotoxic granule release. PMID: 26066976
  10. it is proposed that Ca(2+) binding at the weakest affinity site triggers changes in the perforin C2 domain that facilitate its interaction with lipid membranes PMID: 26306037
  11. a lack of perforin and absence of the specific activation of NK cells during acute MCMV infection lead to an unleashed CD8(+) T cell response that is detrimental for the host. PMID: 25809566
  12. CD8 T cells are sufficient as a sole perforin-expressing cell type to cause BBB disruption in the PIFS model. PMID: 25337791
  13. The rate and proportion of donor lymphoid cell engraftment and expansion of effector memory donor T cells were significantly increased within 5 to 7 days post-bone marrow transplantation in perforin-deficient recipients, compared with wild-type. PMID: 25459639
  14. Regulatory effects of perforin on glucose tolerance are mechanistically linked to the control of T-cell proliferation and cytokine production in inflamed visceral adipose tissue. PMID: 25048196
  15. Perforin (and granzyme B)-dependent apoptosis increases postapoptotic necrosis and inflammation in atherosclerosis. PMID: 25398236
  16. Perforin has a role in atherosclerotic plaque development. PMID: 24205352
  17. Defining the interaction of perforin with calcium and the phospholipid membrane. PMID: 24070258
  18. miR-150 is a common post-transcriptional regulator for Prf1 in mouse and human NK cells that represses NK cell lytic activity. PMID: 24698324
  19. Perforin and granzymes have complementary roles mediating epithelial injury by NK and CD8 T cells. The prevention of experimental biliary atresia can only be achieved by inhibiting both granules. PMID: 24096050
  20. Multiple roles of perforin in hampering ERBB-2 (Her-2/neu) carcinogenesis in transgenic male mice. PMID: 24790144
  21. perforin preferentially delivers cationic molecules while anionic and neutral cargoes are delivered inefficiently PMID: 24558045
  22. perforin's contribution to bacterial clearance in vivo is not though enhancing CD4 T cell termination of Chlamydia replication in epithelial cells PMID: 23691028
  23. These findings demonstrate that perforin-mediated immunoregulation functions in trans and are consistent with a feedback model in which cytotoxic T cells control immune activation by killing dendritic cells. PMID: 23974195
  24. These data suggest that perforin expression is not required for normal immune regulation. PMID: 23883515
  25. Distinct severity of HLH in both human and murine mutants with complete loss of cytotoxic effector PRF1, RAB27A, and STX11. PMID: 23160464
  26. Perforin facilitates viral antigen uptake by pulmonary dendritic cells by inducing apoptosis in mice with influenza infection. PMID: 22869906
  27. Perforin/FasL-independent functions of hapten-primed CD8 T cells in a contact hypersensitivity model identify new functions for neutrophils in regulating effector CD8 T cell recruitment and immune responses in the skin. PMID: 22815291
  28. deficiency of T-cells, NKT-cells, perforin, Fas-ligand, TNF-alpha-receptor failed to reveal significant differences in tumor development. PMID: 22212899
  29. CD8+ T-cells expressing interferon gamma or perforin play antagonistic roles in heart injury in experimental Trypanosoma cruzi-elicited cardiomyopathy PMID: 22532799
  30. CD4 cells expressing gamma interferon and perforin mediate protection against lethal influenza virus infection. PMID: 22491469
  31. A perforin-dependent pathwy plays a role to mediate contraction of antigen-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells during prolonged Listeria monocytogenes infection. PMID: 22161269
  32. Data show that transitional stage 1, 2 and splenic marginal zone B cells were clearly reduced after transfer of CD4+ T cells from TNFalpha-/-, IFNgamma-/-, perforin-/-, or FasLgld mice. PMID: 21966366
  33. Structures that PFN oligomers form in the membrane bilayer may include arcs previously observed by electron microscopy and these unusual structures represent an incomplete mixture of plasma membrane lipid. PMID: 21931672
  34. We conclude that perforin-dependent cytotoxicity has an immunoregulatory role that is distinguishable from its pathogen clearance function and limits T-cell activation in the physiologic context by suppressing antigen presentation. PMID: 21606480
  35. intact C terminus and N-linked glycosylation provide accurate and efficient export of perforin from the endoplasmic reticulum to the secretory granules and are critical for cytotoxic lymphocyte survival PMID: 21658975
  36. Data suggest that an interdependent relationship between parasite burden and CD8(+) T cells dictates the onset of perforin/GzmB-mediated ECM. PMID: 21525386
  37. Transcription and translation products of the cytolysin gene psm-mec on the mobile genetic element SCCmec regulate Staphylococcus aureus virulence. PMID: 21304931
  38. At the Prf1 locus, clear areas of reduced nucleosomal density are detected in effector CD8-positive T cells surrounding the transcription start site but not in downstream areas of the genes, during lymphocytic choriomeningitis viral infection. PMID: 21278341
  39. Perforin was dispensable for efficient clearance of antigen-bearing cells from immunized mice, but only if CD95/CD95L was functional; however, there was a delay in target cell clearance in the absence of perforin. PMID: 20309009
  40. Granule-bound cathepsins are essential for processing perforin to its active form, and that CatL is an important, but not exclusive, participant in this process. PMID: 20497254
  41. elucidation of the mechanism of perforin pore formation by determining the X-ray crystal structure of monomeric murine perforin, together with a cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of the entire perforin pore PMID: 21037563
  42. Perforin-mediated cytotoxicity by CD8 T cells is definitively responsible for muscle injury in C protein-induced myositis (CIM) PMID: 20583106
  43. Perforin deficiency attenuates inflammation and tumor growth in colitis-associated cancer. PMID: 19785028
  44. Pathogenetically relevant immune reactions in proteolipid protein-overexpressing mice are TCR-dependent and mediated by the classical components of CD8+ T-cell cytotoxicity, perforin, and Gzmb. PMID: 20042681
  45. role for perforin-, Fas/FasL-, and TNFR1-mediated cytotoxic pathways in down-regulation of antigen-specific T cells during persistent viral infection PMID: 11752172
  46. Using perforin-knockout (PKO) mice, we have seen that the granule exocytosis pathway can play a major role in NK cell-mediated rejection of allogeneic and MHC class I-deficient BMC, depending upon the genetics of the recipient and housing conditions. PMID: 11870623
  47. An intronic silencer of the mouse perforin gene. PMID: 11911476
  48. the genes for perforin, the three major T cell granzymes (A-C) and IFN-gamma are differentially expressed during primary activation of naive CD8(+) T cells, kinetically and at the single-cell level PMID: 12039912
  49. The immunodominance hierarchy of influenza virus-specific T(CD8+) was not greatly perturbed by the absence of either perforin or T-helper cells or by interference with B7 (CD80)-mediated signaling. PMID: 12239309
  50. Perforin protein expression is severely impaired in MEF-deficient NK cells PMID: 12387738
  51. Perforin-mediated CTL cytolysis is critical for protective immunity to Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) capable of cell-cell spread, while protective immunity against spread-defective Lm is largely independent of perforin-based CTL cytolysis. PMID: 12391238
  52. Although perforin is not required for acute rejection, it is essential for the induction of long-term allograft survival. PMID: 12574320
  53. The development of T cell-mediated experimental cerebral malaria after Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection is dependent on perforin gene expression. PMID: 12574396
  54. Concerted action of perforin and granzymes is critical for the elimination of Trypanosoma cruzi from mouse tissues, but prevention of early host death is in addition dependent on the FasL/Fas pathway PMID: 12594834
  55. some cytolytic T lymphocytes mature into perforin/granzyme-expressing effector cells in the mediastinal lymph node and are detectable when they accumulate in lung infection PMID: 12601154
  56. results provide the first evidence that the loss of the perforin cytotoxic pathway predisposes to murine cytomegalovirus retinitis PMID: 12610115
  57. perforin-dependent early activation-induced cell death appears to require activation of caspase 3, but not caspases 8 or 9. PMID: 12616497
  58. Perforin, but not IFN-gamma or other major Th1 and Th2 cytokines (IL-12, IL-4, or IL-10), is required for genetically engineered IL-21-mediated antitumor responses. PMID: 12847225
  59. Perforin-dependent cytotoxicity constitutes the major means by which CD8+ T cells protect against Listeria monocytogenes. PMID: 14530349
  60. Besides interferon-gamma and FasL, perforin is required for liver cell destruction by self-reactive cytotoxic CD8 T cells. PMID: 14734739
  61. mediates control of JHMV (Mouse hepatitis virus) replication by CD8+ T cells in the absence of CD4+ T cells in central nervous system infections in SCID mice PMID: 14747539
  62. Perforin mediates endothelial cell death and resultant transplant vascular disease in cardiac allografts. PMID: 15215168
  63. IFN-gamma production, but not perforin-mediated cytotoxic activity, by T cells is required for the prevention of Toxoplasmic encephalitis in genetically resistant BALB/c mice. PMID: 15271900
  64. Perforin expression was significantly upregulated in the epidermis of lichen planus lesions. PMID: 15452725
  65. donor perforin- and Fas ligand-deficient CD8+ T cells expand continuously and cause lethal GVHD, and that both perforin and FasL are required for the contraction of allo-reactive CD8+ T cells PMID: 15466930
  66. Expression of perforin-positive cells in the intestine of Balb/c mice was induced by OK-432. PMID: 15492848
  67. utilized by natural killer cells to control Muromegalovirus infection in the spleen and liver. PMID: 15596864
  68. Knockout mice devoid of natural killer cells show increased accumulation of neutrophils in human dermal microvessels in skin transplantation. PMID: 15599322
  69. a systematic functional analysis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis-associated missense mutations and the two most common perforin polymorphisms PMID: 15755897
  70. the clearance of Ebola virus is perforin-dependent PMID: 15778381
  71. perforin can contribute to a successful pregnancy by inhibiting the excessive growth of the junctional zone induced by interleukin-2 PMID: 15969448
  72. Perforin (pfp)-mediated cytotoxicity is involved in the initiation of tissue damage in arthritis, but pfp-independent cytotoxic death pathways might also contribute to collagen-induced arthritis. PMID: 15987490
  73. polymorphonuclear leukocytes from mice and humans lack the 3 cytotoxic effector molecules, granzyme A, granzyme B, and perforin, generally associated with natural killer and cytotoxic T lymphocytes PMID: 15998831
  74. The mRNA transcripts for perforin were significantly decreased in foot-shocked mice. PMID: 16019602
  75. results show an obligatory role for NK cells, through perforin, for induction of tolerance to islet allografts PMID: 16155578
  76. suppression of natural killer cell activity induced by whole body hyperthermia could be mediated through the perforin/granzyme pathway PMID: 16236268
  77. IL-2 increased the expression of perforin and granzyme A, B, and C mRNA; induction of granzyme A, B, and C mRNA required exogenous IL-2, whereas induction of perforin and IFN-gamma expression did not. PMID: 16339537
  78. Perforin-dependent elimination of dendritic cells regulates the expansion of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in vivo. PMID: 16373503
  79. role of perforin in determining the outcome of i.c. infection with LCMV PMID: 16414999
  80. absence of either perforin or granzyme B resulted in cell survival in alloreactive CTL-induced pancreatic beta cells PMID: 16436955
  81. cathepsin B is not essential for protection of cytotoxic lymphocytes from the toxic effects of their secreted perforin PMID: 16914553
  82. Pfn-mediated cytotoxicity early in the response promoted survival independently of antibody(Ab) production, whereas CD4-driven B cell responses resulted in high titer Abs that neutralized remaining virus PMID: 16920924
  83. Inhibition of perforin was responsible for myeloid suppressor cells-mediated inhibition of NK cytotoxicity. PMID: 17244679
  84. Perforin release from natural killer (NK)-like YT tumor cells activates a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent MAP kinase (ERK1/2) pathway required for the NK-cell-mediated killing of Cryptococcus neoformans. PMID: 17475875
  85. Skin-, but not lung-associated primary mast cells as well as in vitro-differentiated bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) express granzyme (gzm) B, but not gzmA or perforin (perf). PMID: 17599099
  86. Semliki Forest virus replication in perforin and FasL deficient mice is remarkably restricted. PMID: 18632965
  87. Donor engraftment in B6.prf-/- recipients was higher when compared with B6.gld, particularly when assessed by in vivo killing, demonstrating the importance of the perforin pathway over the Fas-FasL pathway in bone marrow transplantation. PMID: 19005414
  88. Although several cytolytic pathways are available, adoptively transferred Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD8 T cells require perforin-mediated cytolysis to protect animals from infection. PMID: 19050279
  89. MCMV or LCMV infection in mice deficient for perforin results in symptoms resembling the hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis syndrome in humans PMID: 19120481
  90. Results indicate that protein disulfide isomerases, in the endoplasmic reticulum or elsewhere, may protect T cells from their own perforin. PMID: 19147124
  91. studied the effects of beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)m) and perforin on proliferation and differentiation of uNK cells in pregnancy, using beta(2)-microglobulin-deficient (beta(2)m(-/-)) mice and perforin-deficient (P(-/-)) mice. PMID: 19262044
  92. Report role of the perforin/granzyme cell death pathway in D-Gal/LPS-induced inflammatory liver injury. PMID: 19264954
  93. The perforin is a negative modulator of the signaling pathways that control Interleukin-2 synthesis and CD4+ T cells activation upon T cell receptor stimulation. PMID: 19290021
  94. perforin is a key mediator of axon injury PMID: 19680139

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Subcellular Location Cytoplasmic granule lumen, Secreted, Cell membrane, Multi-pass membrane protein, Endosome lumen
Protein Families Complement C6/C7/C8/C9 family
Tissue Specificity Detected in cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and natural killer cells.
Database Links

KEGG: mmu:18646

STRING: 10090.ENSMUSP00000041483

UniGene: Mm.240313

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