Recombinant Human Fractalkine protein (CX3CL1), partial (Active)

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Code CSB-AP000801HU
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Product Details

>97% as determined by SDS-PAGE.
Less than 1.0 EU/μg as determined by LAL method.
Fully biologically active when compared to standard. The biological activity determined by a chemotaxis bioassay using human T-lymphocytes is in a concentration of 5.0-10 ng/ml.
Target Names
Uniprot No.
Research Area
Alternative Names
A 152E5.2; AB030188; ABCD 3; ABCD3; AI848747; C-X3-C motif chemokine 1; C3Xkine; Chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1; Chemokine C X3 C motif ligand 1; Chemokine CX3C Motif Ligand 1; CX3C membrane anchored chemokine; CX3C membrane-anchored chemokine; Cx3cl1; CXC 3; CXC3; CXC3C; D8Bwg0439e; FKN; Fractalkine; Neurotactin; NTN; NTT; Processed fractalkine; SCYD 1; SCYD1; Small inducible cytokine D1; Small inducible cytokine subfamily D (Cys X3 Cys) member 1; small inducible cytokine subfamily D (Cys-X3-Cys), member 1 (fractalkine, neurotactin); Small inducible cytokine subfamily D member 1; Small-inducible cytokine D1; X3CL1_HUMAN
Homo sapiens (Human)
Expression Region
Complete Sequence
Mol. Weight
8.6 kDa
Protein Length
Tag Info
Liquid or Lyophilized powder
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered concentrated solution in 20 mM PB, pH 7.4, 50 mM NaCl
Troubleshooting and FAQs
Storage Condition
Store at -20°C/-80°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life
The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time
5-10 business days
Datasheet & COA
Please contact us to get it.

Recombinant Human CX3CL1, also known as Fractalkine, is a multifunctional chemokine involved in immune responses and plays a critical role in the recruitment and activation of leukocytes[1]. Our recombinant human CX3CL1 is a partial protein, comprising amino acids 25-100, with a molecular weight of 8.6 kDa. Expressed in E. coli, this tag-free recombinant protein is available in liquid or lyophilized powder form, making it suitable for various research applications in the field of immunology.

Our Recombinant Human CX3CL1 features a purity greater than 97% as determined by SDS-PAGE and HPLC, ensuring high quality for your research needs. The endotoxin level is less than 1.0 EU/ug, as determined by the LAL method. The biological activity of our CX3CL1 has been verified by a chemotaxis bioassay using human T-lymphocytes, demonstrating activity within a concentration range of 5.0-10 ng/ml.

Studies have shown that CX3CL1 is implicated in a wide range of immune-mediated disorders, such as atherosclerosis, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease[2]. Additionally, CX3CL1 has been linked to the regulation of tumor progression and metastasis in certain types of cancer[3].

1. Bazan JF, et al. A new class of membrane-bound chemokine with a CX3C motif. Nature. 1997;385(6617): 640-4.
2. Jones BA, et al. Fractalkine/CX3CL1: A potential new target for inflammatory diseases. Mol Interv. 2010;10(5): 263-70.
3. Park MH, et al. Serum fractalkine levels are elevated in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Korean J Intern Med. 2010;25(2): 146-52.

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Target Background

Chemokine that acts as a ligand for both CX3CR1 and integrins ITGAV:ITGB3 and ITGA4:ITGB1. The CX3CR1-CX3CL1 signaling exerts distinct functions in different tissue compartments, such as immune response, inflammation, cell adhesion and chemotaxis. Regulates leukocyte adhesion and migration processes at the endothelium. Can activate integrins in both a CX3CR1-dependent and CX3CR1-independent manner. In the presence of CX3CR1, activates integrins by binding to the classical ligand-binding site (site 1) in integrins. In the absence of CX3CR1, binds to a second site (site 2) in integrins which is distinct from site 1 and enhances the binding of other integrin ligands to site 1.; The soluble form is chemotactic for T-cells and monocytes, but not for neutrophils.; The membrane-bound form promotes adhesion of those leukocytes to endothelial cells.
Gene References into Functions
  1. this study shows that allergenic proteases cleave the chemokine CX3CL1 directly from the surface of airway epithelium and augment the effect of rhinovirus PMID: 28677664
  2. Study demonstrated that CX3CL1/CX3CR1 was overexpressed in prostate cancer tissues with spinal metastasis compared with primary tumors. Overexpression of CX3CR1 increased cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Also, study observed that EGFR/Src/FAK pathway was activated by CX3CL1/CX3CR1. PMID: 30066854
  3. The chemokine CX3CL1 was established as a central NF-kappaB target gene mediating therapy resistance. While no direct impact of CX3CL1 expression on cancer cell apoptosis was identified in co-culture assays it became apparent that CX3CL1 is acting in a paracrine fashion, leading to an increased recruitment of inflammatory cells. PMID: 29867042
  4. TRAF1, CTGF, and CX3CL1 genes are hypomethylated in osteoarthritis PMID: 28470428
  5. Low shear stress ( approximately 4.58 dyne/cm) for more than 1 h promoted Fractalkine expression and activated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, p38, and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling pathways by their phosphorylation. PMID: 29406386
  6. The results strongly suggest that glutaminyl cyclase-catalysed N-terminal pyroglutamate formation of CX3CL1 is important for the stability or the interaction with its receptor and opens new insights into the function of glutaminyl cyclase in inflammation. PMID: 28739588
  7. Serum fractalkine levels were significantly higher in the impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes groups compared to the normal glucose tolerance group. PMID: 29455547
  8. Reduced fractalkine levels were found in follicular fluid and granulosa cells, accompanied by decreased progesterone production and reduced steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression in the granulosa cells of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Administration of fractalkine reversed the inhibition of progesterone and StAR expression. PMID: 27386819
  9. The US28 gene product has maintained the function of the ancestral gene and has the ability to bind and signal in response to human CX3CL1, the natural ligand for CX3CR1. PMID: 28315475
  10. we conclude that fractalkine may be involved in vulnerability of human carotid plaque PMID: 28677375
  11. FKN concentrations are attenuated in girls with anorexia nervosa compared with healthy adolescents and are positively related to nutritional status. PMID: 27658415
  12. CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis plays a key role in the development of ischemia-induced oligodendrocyte injury via p38MAPK signaling pathway. PMID: 26189830
  13. miR-223 controls the expression of CX3CL1 by targeting HDAC2 in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and mouse models of the disease. PMID: 26864305
  14. high levels of fractalkine in ectopic endometrium taken from patients with endometriosis promoted proliferation and invasion of endometrial stromal cells through activating AKT and p38 signal pathways PMID: 27553970
  15. Amendment of the cytokine profile in macrophages subsequent to their interaction with smooth muscle cells: Differential modulation by fractalkine and resistin. PMID: 27180200
  16. Soluble FKN that was efficiently shed from the surface of LPS-activated ECs in response to binding of CD16(+) monocytes to ECs, diminished monocyte adhesion in down-regulating CX3CR1 expression on the surface of CD16(+) monocytes resulting in decreased TNF-secretion. PMID: 27031442
  17. Data indicate that patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) displayed higher serum levels of VEGF, endothelin-1 and s-Fractalkine, and that the s-Fractalkine levels positively correlated with CD34(+)CD45(-) endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) numbers. PMID: 28320472
  18. FKN and CX3CR1 expression was significantly increased in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tissues, especially in the metastatic samples, and was highly-correlated with severity of PDAC. Ectopic expression of FKN promoted the proliferation and migration of PDAC, while knockdown of CX3CR1 reversed the function of FKN. PMID: 28986258
  19. Fractalkine may be involved in both immunopathological and anti-viral immune responses to rhinovirus infection in asthma. PMID: 28859129
  20. High CX3CL1 expression is associated with spinal metastases. PMID: 28122354
  21. High expression of CX3CR1 correlates with significantly shorter survival, specifically in post-menopausal patients with advanced and terminal stages of the disease. Taken together, this support a key regulatory role for the fractalkine axis in advanced and relapsed peritoneal metastasis in epithelial ovarian carcinoma. PMID: 27941884
  22. changes in GSK-3beta activity and/or levels regulate the production and subsequent secretion of fractalkine, a chemokine involved in the immune response that has been linked to AD and to other different neurological disorders. PMID: 27832289
  23. In conclusion, leukoplakia-associated fibroblasts produced and secreted less CX3CL1 by inhibiting the ERK signaling pathway, thereby contributing to impaired cell resistance to Candida albicans. PMID: 27891323
  24. Fractalkine-CX3CR1 signaling has been shown to protect neurons. PMID: 27814376
  25. CX3CL1 exerts numerous effects on pathophysiological conditions that have both negative and positive consequences on pathogenesis and outcome [review] PMID: 27098399
  26. XCL2 and CX3CL1 expression in lung cancers and adjacent non-cancerous tissues was detected by quantitative PCR and ELISA. The expression of XCL2 and CX3CL1 increases with increasing degree of malignancy, indicating that both chemokines might be important targets in gene therapy for lung cancer. PMID: 27156946
  27. Recent works show that, in allergic diseases, there is an increased expression of fractalkine/CX3CL1 and its unique receptor CX3CR1 and that this chemokine does not act as chemoattractant. In allergic asthma, CX3CR1 expression regulates Th2 and Th1 cell survival in the inflammatory lung, while, in atopic dermatitis, it regulate Th2 and Th1 cell retention into the inflammatory site. [review] PMID: 27011244
  28. Serum FKN may serve as a novel biomarker for assessing disease progression and a new potential therapeutic target for anti-resorptive treatment in osteoporosis patients. PMID: 27476376
  29. FKN may serve as a reliable biomarker for evaluating disease severity in atopic dermatitis patients. PMID: 27098623
  30. Post-transcriptional suppression of KSRP destabilizes CX3CL1 mRNA in liver epithelial cells. PMID: 26631623
  31. CX3CL1 increased the migration and invasiveness of DU145 and PC-3, causing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. TACE/TGF-alpha/EGFR pathway activation and Slug upregulation were responsible for this. PMID: 26718770
  32. Cell proliferation enhancing and anti-apoptosis activity requires the intracellular domain and apparently the dimerization of the transmembrane chemokine ligand. PMID: 26796342
  33. CX3CL1 was expressed only by the normal and cancer adjacent normal fallopian tube epithelium; its expression was largely lost in the malignant fallopian epithelium. PMID: 26633537
  34. Skin and serum CX3CL1 elevated expression was associated with psoriasis severity. PMID: 26586708
  35. FKN enhances cell proliferation by promoting cell cycle progression in hypoxic prostate cancer cells. PMID: 26496926
  36. CX3CL1(+) apo-MPs released by apoptotic cells mediate the chemotactic transmigration of alveolar macrophages. PMID: 24603149
  37. Suggest that CX3CL1 participates in cross-talk mechanisms between endothelium and other muscle tissue cells and may promote a shift in the microenvironment toward a more regenerative milieu after exercise. PMID: 26632602
  38. Report increased circulating fractalkine in STEMI patients, which was rapidly decreased after PCI. PMID: 26049921
  39. This study found that CX3CL1 and TREM2, two genes related to neuroinflammation, were expressed at higher levels in brain regions with pronounced vulnerability to Alzheimer disease-related changes. PMID: 25596843
  40. The interactions of CX3CL1, LEPR and IL-6 genes might increase the risk of coronary artery disease in Chinese Han population. PMID: 26191329
  41. Fractalkine in synovial fluid and serum is reflective of symptomatic severity in knee osteoarthritis. PMID: 25692263
  42. CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 may contribute to the formation of coronary atherosclerotic plaque in coronary artery disease PMID: 25845619
  43. Forskolin-induced differentiation and syncytialization of the trophoblast cell line BeWo was accompanied with a substantial upregulation in fractalkine expression and led to increased adhesion of the monocyte cell line THP-1, which bound to syncytia. PMID: 25566740
  44. Fractalkine signaling regulates macrophage recruitment into the cochlea and promotes survival of spiral ganglion neurons. PMID: 26558776
  45. the results from the present study support the concept of the CX3CL1-mediated activation of the progression of the multiple myeloma via CX3CR1. PMID: 25962684
  46. we suggest that increased maternal TNF-alpha may up-regulate the expression and release of placental fractalkine, which, in turn, may contribute to an exaggerated systemic inflammatory response in preeclampsia PMID: 25769431
  47. Data show that US28 receptor binds with high selectivity and improved binding for the CX3C chemokine, CX3CL1. PMID: 26080445
  48. data suggest that fractalkine contributes to lymphocyte shifts, which may influence development of MVO through the action of effector T cells. PMID: 26168217
  49. In a CKD cohort, CX3CL1 levels were associated positively with several CVD risk factors and metabolic traits, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate, and higher levels of inflammatory cytokines, as well as prevalent CVD and diabetes. PMID: 25795074
  50. Fractalkine levels are elevated the first 12 h after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute myocardial infarction, however, not correlated to infarct size. PMID: 24930044

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Subcellular Location
Cell membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein.; [Processed fractalkine]: Secreted.
Protein Families
Intercrine delta family
Tissue Specificity
Expressed in the seminal plasma, endometrial fluid and follicular fluid (at protein level). Small intestine, colon, testis, prostate, heart, brain, lung, skeletal muscle, kidney and pancreas. Most abundant in the brain and heart.
Database Links

HGNC: 10647

OMIM: 601880

KEGG: hsa:6376

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000006053

UniGene: Hs.531668

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