Recombinant Human Fractalkine protein(CX3CL1) (Active)

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Code CSB-AP000801HU
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Product Details

Purity >97% as determined by SDS-PAGE and HPLC.
Endotoxin Less than 1.0 EU/μg as determined by LAL method.
Activity Fully biologically active when compared to standard. The biological activity determined by a chemotaxis bioassay using human T-lymphocytes is in a concentration of 5.0-10 ng/ml.
Target Names CX3CL1
Uniprot No. P78423
Research Area Immunology
Alternative Names A 152E5.2; AB030188; ABCD 3; ABCD3; AI848747; C-X3-C motif chemokine 1; C3Xkine; Chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1; Chemokine C X3 C motif ligand 1; Chemokine CX3C Motif Ligand 1; CX3C membrane anchored chemokine; CX3C membrane-anchored chemokine; Cx3cl1; CXC 3; CXC3; CXC3C; D8Bwg0439e; FKN; Fractalkine; Neurotactin; NTN; NTT; Processed fractalkine; SCYD 1; SCYD1; Small inducible cytokine D1; Small inducible cytokine subfamily D (Cys X3 Cys) member 1; small inducible cytokine subfamily D (Cys-X3-Cys), member 1 (fractalkine, neurotactin); Small inducible cytokine subfamily D member 1; Small-inducible cytokine D1; X3CL1_HUMAN
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Source E.coli
Expression Region 25-100aa
Mol. Weight 8.6 kDa
Protein Length Partial
Tag Info Tag-Free
Form Lyophilized powder
Buffer Lyophilized from a 0.2 µm filtered PBS, pH 7.4
Reconstitution We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
and FAQs
Protein FAQs
Storage Condition Store at -20°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time Basically, we can dispatch the products out in 5-10 working days after receiving your orders. Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Notes Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA Please contact us to get it.

Target Data

Function Acts as a ligand for both CX3CR1 and integrins. Binds to CX3CR1
Gene References into Functions
  1. this study shows that allergenic proteases cleave the chemokine CX3CL1 directly from the surface of airway epithelium and augment the effect of rhinovirus PMID: 28677664
  2. Study demonstrated that CX3CL1/CX3CR1 was overexpressed in prostate cancer tissues with spinal metastasis compared with primary tumors. Overexpression of CX3CR1 increased cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Also, study observed that EGFR/Src/FAK pathway was activated by CX3CL1/CX3CR1. PMID: 30066854
  3. The chemokine CX3CL1 was established as a central NF-kappaB target gene mediating therapy resistance. While no direct impact of CX3CL1 expression on cancer cell apoptosis was identified in co-culture assays it became apparent that CX3CL1 is acting in a paracrine fashion, leading to an increased recruitment of inflammatory cells. PMID: 29867042
  4. TRAF1, CTGF, and CX3CL1 genes are hypomethylated in osteoarthritis PMID: 28470428
  5. Low shear stress ( approximately 4.58 dyne/cm) for more than 1 h promoted Fractalkine expression and activated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, p38, and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling pathways by their phosphorylation. PMID: 29406386
  6. The results strongly suggest that glutaminyl cyclase-catalysed N-terminal pyroglutamate formation of CX3CL1 is important for the stability or the interaction with its receptor and opens new insights into the function of glutaminyl cyclase in inflammation. PMID: 28739588
  7. Serum fractalkine levels were significantly higher in the impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes groups compared to the normal glucose tolerance group. PMID: 29455547
  8. Reduced fractalkine levels were found in follicular fluid and granulosa cells, accompanied by decreased progesterone production and reduced steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression in the granulosa cells of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Administration of fractalkine reversed the inhibition of progesterone and StAR expression. PMID: 27386819
  9. The US28 gene product has maintained the function of the ancestral gene and has the ability to bind and signal in response to human CX3CL1, the natural ligand for CX3CR1. PMID: 28315475
  10. we conclude that fractalkine may be involved in vulnerability of human carotid plaque PMID: 28677375
  11. FKN concentrations are attenuated in girls with anorexia nervosa compared with healthy adolescents and are positively related to nutritional status. PMID: 27658415
  12. CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis plays a key role in the development of ischemia-induced oligodendrocyte injury via p38MAPK signaling pathway. PMID: 26189830
  13. miR-223 controls the expression of CX3CL1 by targeting HDAC2 in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and mouse models of the disease. PMID: 26864305
  14. high levels of fractalkine in ectopic endometrium taken from patients with endometriosis promoted proliferation and invasion of endometrial stromal cells through activating AKT and p38 signal pathways PMID: 27553970
  15. Amendment of the cytokine profile in macrophages subsequent to their interaction with smooth muscle cells: Differential modulation by fractalkine and resistin. PMID: 27180200
  16. Soluble FKN that was efficiently shed from the surface of LPS-activated ECs in response to binding of CD16(+) monocytes to ECs, diminished monocyte adhesion in down-regulating CX3CR1 expression on the surface of CD16(+) monocytes resulting in decreased TNF-secretion. PMID: 27031442
  17. Data indicate that patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) displayed higher serum levels of VEGF, endothelin-1 and s-Fractalkine, and that the s-Fractalkine levels positively correlated with CD34(+)CD45(-) endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) numbers. PMID: 28320472
  18. FKN and CX3CR1 expression was significantly increased in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tissues, especially in the metastatic samples, and was highly-correlated with severity of PDAC. Ectopic expression of FKN promoted the proliferation and migration of PDAC, while knockdown of CX3CR1 reversed the function of FKN. PMID: 28986258
  19. Fractalkine may be involved in both immunopathological and anti-viral immune responses to rhinovirus infection in asthma. PMID: 28859129
  20. High CX3CL1 expression is associated with spinal metastases. PMID: 28122354
  21. High expression of CX3CR1 correlates with significantly shorter survival, specifically in post-menopausal patients with advanced and terminal stages of the disease. Taken together, this support a key regulatory role for the fractalkine axis in advanced and relapsed peritoneal metastasis in epithelial ovarian carcinoma. PMID: 27941884
  22. changes in GSK-3beta activity and/or levels regulate the production and subsequent secretion of fractalkine, a chemokine involved in the immune response that has been linked to AD and to other different neurological disorders. PMID: 27832289
  23. In conclusion, leukoplakia-associated fibroblasts produced and secreted less CX3CL1 by inhibiting the ERK signaling pathway, thereby contributing to impaired cell resistance to Candida albicans. PMID: 27891323
  24. Fractalkine-CX3CR1 signaling has been shown to protect neurons. PMID: 27814376
  25. CX3CL1 exerts numerous effects on pathophysiological conditions that have both negative and positive consequences on pathogenesis and outcome [review] PMID: 27098399
  26. XCL2 and CX3CL1 expression in lung cancers and adjacent non-cancerous tissues was detected by quantitative PCR and ELISA. The expression of XCL2 and CX3CL1 increases with increasing degree of malignancy, indicating that both chemokines might be important targets in gene therapy for lung cancer. PMID: 27156946
  27. Recent works show that, in allergic diseases, there is an increased expression of fractalkine/CX3CL1 and its unique receptor CX3CR1 and that this chemokine does not act as chemoattractant. In allergic asthma, CX3CR1 expression regulates Th2 and Th1 cell survival in the inflammatory lung, while, in atopic dermatitis, it regulate Th2 and Th1 cell retention into the inflammatory site. [review] PMID: 27011244
  28. Serum FKN may serve as a novel biomarker for assessing disease progression and a new potential therapeutic target for anti-resorptive treatment in osteoporosis patients. PMID: 27476376
  29. FKN may serve as a reliable biomarker for evaluating disease severity in atopic dermatitis patients. PMID: 27098623
  30. Post-transcriptional suppression of KSRP destabilizes CX3CL1 mRNA in liver epithelial cells. PMID: 26631623
  31. CX3CL1 increased the migration and invasiveness of DU145 and PC-3, causing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. TACE/TGF-alpha/EGFR pathway activation and Slug upregulation were responsible for this. PMID: 26718770
  32. Cell proliferation enhancing and anti-apoptosis activity requires the intracellular domain and apparently the dimerization of the transmembrane chemokine ligand. PMID: 26796342
  33. CX3CL1 was expressed only by the normal and cancer adjacent normal fallopian tube epithelium; its expression was largely lost in the malignant fallopian epithelium. PMID: 26633537
  34. Skin and serum CX3CL1 elevated expression was associated with psoriasis severity. PMID: 26586708
  35. FKN enhances cell proliferation by promoting cell cycle progression in hypoxic prostate cancer cells. PMID: 26496926
  36. CX3CL1(+) apo-MPs released by apoptotic cells mediate the chemotactic transmigration of alveolar macrophages. PMID: 24603149
  37. Suggest that CX3CL1 participates in cross-talk mechanisms between endothelium and other muscle tissue cells and may promote a shift in the microenvironment toward a more regenerative milieu after exercise. PMID: 26632602
  38. Report increased circulating fractalkine in STEMI patients, which was rapidly decreased after PCI. PMID: 26049921
  39. This study found that CX3CL1 and TREM2, two genes related to neuroinflammation, were expressed at higher levels in brain regions with pronounced vulnerability to Alzheimer disease-related changes. PMID: 25596843
  40. The interactions of CX3CL1, LEPR and IL-6 genes might increase the risk of coronary artery disease in Chinese Han population. PMID: 26191329
  41. Fractalkine in synovial fluid and serum is reflective of symptomatic severity in knee osteoarthritis. PMID: 25692263
  42. CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 may contribute to the formation of coronary atherosclerotic plaque in coronary artery disease PMID: 25845619
  43. Forskolin-induced differentiation and syncytialization of the trophoblast cell line BeWo was accompanied with a substantial upregulation in fractalkine expression and led to increased adhesion of the monocyte cell line THP-1, which bound to syncytia. PMID: 25566740
  44. Fractalkine signaling regulates macrophage recruitment into the cochlea and promotes survival of spiral ganglion neurons. PMID: 26558776
  45. the results from the present study support the concept of the CX3CL1-mediated activation of the progression of the multiple myeloma via CX3CR1. PMID: 25962684
  46. we suggest that increased maternal TNF-alpha may up-regulate the expression and release of placental fractalkine, which, in turn, may contribute to an exaggerated systemic inflammatory response in preeclampsia PMID: 25769431
  47. Data show that US28 receptor binds with high selectivity and improved binding for the CX3C chemokine, CX3CL1. PMID: 26080445
  48. data suggest that fractalkine contributes to lymphocyte shifts, which may influence development of MVO through the action of effector T cells. PMID: 26168217
  49. In a CKD cohort, CX3CL1 levels were associated positively with several CVD risk factors and metabolic traits, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate, and higher levels of inflammatory cytokines, as well as prevalent CVD and diabetes. PMID: 25795074
  50. Fractalkine levels are elevated the first 12 h after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute myocardial infarction, however, not correlated to infarct size. PMID: 24930044
  51. Fractalkine and CX3CR1 may play a role in the pathogenesis of pSS, including extraglandular manifestations. PMID: 25320221
  52. The findings of elevated serum Fkn and Fkn gene expression in both vaso-occlusive crisis and stable forms of SCD suggest that this chemokine may be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation observed in SCD. PMID: 25480631
  53. Data indicate that metalloprotease ADAM10 has limited interaction with CX3CL1 chemokine on the surface of umbilical vein endothelial cell. PMID: 25253723
  54. CX3CL1 induces recruitment of CX3CR1(+)ICAM-1(+)CD4(+) T-cells into the central nervous system (CNS) during the early inflammatory response in multiple sclerosis. PMID: 25596452
  55. Data show that chemokine domain of fractalkine (FKN-CD) can activate alphavbeta3 integrin in the absence of fractalkine receptor CX3CR1, but that this activation requires the direct binding of FKN-CD to alphavbeta3. PMID: 24789099
  56. Insulin resistance increases plaque vulnerability by augmenting the CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis, which is mechanistically linked to reduced vascular smooth muscle cell survival PMID: 24788416
  57. CX3CL1, but not other chemokines tested, promoted monocyte survival in a dose-dependent manner with full-length CX3CL1 (including the mucin stalk) having a more potent antiapoptotic effect than chemokine-domain CX3CL1. PMID: 25359863
  58. elevated plasma levels promote platelet hyperreactivity and vascular dysfunction in congestive heart failure PMID: 24336891
  59. CX3CL1/CX3CR1 expression may be associated with the occurrence and development of gastric carcinoma as well as gastric carcinoma perineural invasion PMID: 24764683
  60. this study reports the crystal structure at 2.9 angstrom resolution of the human cytomegalovirus GPCR US28 in complex with the chemokine domain of human CX3CL1 (fractalkine). PMID: 25745166
  61. Data suggest that serum levels of fractalkine are not different between women with gestational diabetes and control subjects, but are associated with markers of insulin resistance and progranulin in normal pregnancy. PMID: 24673545
  62. These findings strongly suggest the implication of the CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis in the pathogenesis of aGVHD. PMID: 25420917
  63. Measuring serum levels of fractalkine, IP-10, and their receptors (especially the fractalkine/IP-10 combination) may serve as a noninvasive approach for the early diagnosis of renal allograft rejection PMID: 24935307
  64. A significant and persistent decrease in circulating fractalkine was observed after orthopedic and coronary bypass surgery despite a marked inflammatory response. PMID: 24632971
  65. molecular cloning and expression analysis of fractalkine (Fk); findings indicate NF-kappaB and STAT1/STAT3 contribute to Fk promoter activity in smooth muscle cells, and that this takes place through functional NF-kappaB and interferon-gamma-activated sites PMID: 25040843
  66. Low expression of CX3CL1 is gender-specifically associated with soft tissue sarcoma. PMID: 24676787
  67. The modulatory influence of TNFalpha on CX3CR1 expression in hypoxia and CX3CL1/CX3CR1 interaction may serve as a compensatory mechanism to preserve or augment the pro-inflammatory course of intercellular interactions in placental endothelium PMID: 24270813
  68. higher levels of FKN secreted by eutopic endometrial stromal cells facilitate the onset and progression of endometriosis PMID: 24427339
  69. miR-195 plays important roles in regulating the functions of endometrial stromal cells by targeting fractalkine. PMID: 24294368
  70. Results show that FKN appears to prevent excess microglial activation in the absence of injury while promoting activation of microglia and astrocytes during inflammatory episodes. PMID: 24352739
  71. This study identified for the first time that increases in CX3CL1 and CX3CR1-expressing cells are significantly related to ligamentum flavum hypertrophy. PMID: 24060055
  72. we show that deletion of the CX3CL1 receptor in Cx3cr1(-/-) DCs results in markedly delayed lymphatic trafficking in vivo and impaired translymphatic migration in vitro. PMID: 24006262
  73. Unlike IL-18 and FKN, plasma GZB may have a role in severity of acute coronary syndrome PMID: 24307760
  74. These observations suggest a crosstalk between monocytes and human renal mesangial cells via the interaction of MMP2 and fractalkine. PMID: 24068281
  75. Increased serum levels of CX3CL1 protein were observed in Sjogren's patients and in RA patients compared with controls, but no difference was found between Sicca patients and controls. mRNA was upregulated in Sjogren's patients' salivary glands. PMID: 24324211
  76. CXCL12 and CX3CL1 and their respective receptors are expressed in benign and malignant human nerve sheath tumors PMID: 23645563
  77. CX3CL1 expression is associated with poor outcome in breast cancer patients. PMID: 23912959
  78. CX3CL1 produced by senescent biliary epithelial cells may promote infiltration of corresponding CX3CR1-expressing cells and further aggravate inflammation in bile duct lesion in primary biliary cirrhosis. PMID: 24185682
  79. CX3CL1/CX3CR1 reprograms glucose metabolism through HIF-1 pathway in pancreatic cancer cells. PMID: 23857671
  80. Interactions between CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 may contribute to the development of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. PMID: 23470165
  81. studies support an important pathogenic role of CX3CL1/CX3CR1 in atherogenesis and plaque destabilization PMID: 23974513
  82. CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 signaling may have a role in the pathomechanism of placental microvasculature remodeling in diabetes class C PMID: 23956503
  83. HDACs and NF-kB signaling coordinate epithelial expression of CX3CL1 to promote mucosal antimicrobial defense through suppression of the mir-424-503 gene. PMID: 23724129
  84. Our results provide new understanding of the role of ADAM-17, p38 MAPK, cathepsins, and the proteasome pathway in FKN expression and shedding. PMID: 23897050
  85. Soluble fractalkine overexpression significantly reduced tau pathology in transgenic mouse model of tauopathy. PMID: 23332170
  86. The CX3CR1 antagonist F1 (N-terminal modified CX3CL1) is a potent inhibitor of the progression of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID: 23887641
  87. fat mass alone is not responsible for elevation of fractalkine seen in obese individuals PMID: 23477808
  88. Results suggest that putative genetic factors (heritability) explained 43.6+/-3% of the total variation of plasma fractalkine (CX3CL1) levels. PMID: 23261412
  89. The TLR3/IRF3/Fkn signaling pathway may, at least in part, mediate immune and inflammatory responses against viral infection in mesangial cells. PMID: 23168573
  90. Fractalkine and its receptor CX3CR1 are expressed in the human brain after traumatic brain injury and intracranial hemorrhage and may be involved in the limitation of tissue damage. PMID: 23584220
  91. In contrast to CX3CR1, which promotes efficient cell capture upon binding to anchored CX3CL1, US28 acts to increase the migration of cells upon binding to the same ligand. PMID: 23303826
  92. CX3CL1 was found to be abundantly expressed in human meningioma samples of different malignant grades. PMID: 23229614
  93. resistin contributes to the pro-inflammatory state of SMC by the up-regulation of CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 expression via a mechanism involving NF-kB, AP-1, and STAT1/3 transcription factors, (2) resistin employs TLR4 and Gi-protein signaling. PMID: 23086480
  94. Serum CX3CL1 level could be a surrogate marker of polymyositis and dermatomyositis activity. PMID: 22394569
  95. Fractalkine was a significant predictor of all-cause mortality in patients with advanced heart failure. Fractalkine improves risk prediction beyond NT-proBNP and might therefore help to identify high risk patients who need special care. PMID: 23014777
  96. In the present coronary artery disease population, no differences in circulating levels of fractalkine or expression levels of CX3CR1 were observed between patients with and without T2DM, or with and without metabolic syndrome. PMID: 22897138
  97. CX3CL1 expression in the conjunctiva is increased in immune cell trafficking during toxic ocular surface inflammation. PMID: 22692452
  98. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 activation leads to induction of CX3CL1 in a tumor setting. PMID: 23029290
  99. Chemokine fractalkine receptor (CX3CL1) binds directly to integrins alpha4beta1 and alphav4beta3 at a very high affinity. PMID: 23125415
  100. Fractalkine is a potential local inflammatory mediator which influences platelet activation in the setting of atherosclerosis. Review. PMID: 22739755

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Subcellular Location Cell membrane, Single-pass type I membrane protein, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Processed fractalkine: Secreted
Protein Families Intercrine delta family
Tissue Specificity Expressed in the seminal plasma, endometrial fluid and follicular fluid (at protein level). Small intestine, colon, testis, prostate, heart, brain, lung, skeletal muscle, kidney and pancreas. Most abundant in the brain and heart.
Database Links

HGNC: 10647

OMIM: 601880

KEGG: hsa:6376

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000006053

UniGene: Hs.531668

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