Human apolipoprotein E (Apo-E) ELISA Kit

Instructions
Code CSB-E09748h
Size 96T,5×96T,10×96T
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Product Details

Target Name apolipoprotein E
Alternative Names AD2 ELISA Kit; Apo-E ELISA Kit; APOE ELISA Kit; APOE_HUMAN ELISA Kit; APOEA ELISA Kit; Apolipoprotein E ELISA Kit; Apolipoprotein E3 ELISA Kit; ApolipoproteinE ELISA Kit; Apoprotein ELISA Kit; LDLCQ5 ELISA Kit; LPG ELISA Kit
Abbreviation APOE
Uniprot No. P02649
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Sample Types serum, plasma, cell culture supernates, tissue homogenates
Detection Range 15.62 ng/mL-1000 ng/mL
Sensitivity 3.9 ng/mL
Assay Time 1-5h
Sample Volume 50-100ul
Detection Wavelength 450 nm
Research Area Cardiovascular
Assay Principle quantitative
Measurement Competitive
Precision
Intra-assay Precision (Precision within an assay): CV%<8%      
Three samples of known concentration were tested twenty times on one plate to assess.  
Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays): CV%<10%      
Three samples of known concentration were tested in twenty assays to assess.    
             
Linearity
To assess the linearity of the assay, samples were spiked with high concentrations of human Apo-E in various matrices and diluted with the Sample Diluent to produce samples with values within the dynamic range of the assay.
  Sample Serum(n=4)  
1:100 Average % 91  
Range % 86-95  
1:200 Average % 102  
Range % 97-107  
1:400 Average % 91  
Range % 85-97  
1:800 Average % 97  
Range % 91-103  
Recovery
The recovery of human Apo-E spiked to levels throughout the range of the assay in various matrices was evaluated. Samples were diluted prior to assay as directed in the Sample Preparation section.
Sample Type Average % Recovery Range  
Serum (n=5) 95 89-98  
EDTA plasma (n=4) 97 90-100  
             
             
Typical Data
These standard curves are provided for demonstration only. A standard curve should be generated for each set of samples assayed.
ng/ml OD1 OD2 Average    
1000 0.088 0.090 0.089    
500 0.135 0.142 0.139    
250 0.227 0.237 0.232    
125 0.324 0.341 0.333    
62.5 0.583 0.598 0.591    
31.25 0.847 0.864 0.856    
15.62 1.228 1.235 1.232    
0 2.155 2.199 2.177    
Troubleshooting
and FAQs
ELISA kit FAQs
Storage Store at 2-8°C. Please refer to protocol.
Lead Time 3-5 working days

Target Data

Function Mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles. It can serve as a ligand for the LDL (apo B/E) receptor and for the specific apo-E receptor (chylomicron remnant) of hepatic tissues.
Gene References into Functions
  1. Patients having Glutathione S-transferase M1 allele and Apolipoprotein E E2 allele are predisposed to oxidative stress-induced cardiac injury. PMID: 30095041
  2. the APOEepsilon4 alleles were significantly higher in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and there was a potential synergistic interaction between the CYP46A1 C allele and APOEepsilon4 allele in AD. PMID: 29516283
  3. familial hypercholesterolemia case-control study was associated with the E4 allele in the Saudi population. However, E4 allele was appeared as a reliable risk marker for lipid profiles, but not for ApoE alleles PMID: 30235358
  4. Significant interactions between APOE epsilon4 and mild cognitive impairment were found in general cognitive function (p = 0.001) and white matter connectivity network (clustering coefficient, p = 0.004, and local efficiency. PMID: 27785756
  5. data presented here could increase the knowledge of ApoE3 activity and be a starting point for the study of the impact of variations on APOE gene PMID: 28559539
  6. APOE-epsilon4 is associated with a subtly faster rate of memory decline from midlife to early old age PMID: 29317609
  7. This study aimed to assess the association between APOE genotype and saccade latency using a prosaccade and antisaccade task in young individuals (N=97, age: 17-35 years). Results showed that prosaccade latency was significantly delayed in a group of epsilon4 carriers in comparison to non-carriers, which was due to a lower rate of signal accumulation rather than a change in the criterion threshold. PMID: 30003976
  8. Higher plasma ApoE concentrations (> 5.9 mg/dL) are the independent risk factor for hemorrhage during endobronchial biopsy in patients with lung cancer. PMID: 30031394
  9. Apolipoprotein E Mutation is associated with Lipoprotein Glomerulopathy. PMID: 29398675
  10. these results suggest a susceptibility of E4+ carriers to metabolic and cognitive impairments brought on by a HFD, and may help guide development of novel therapeutic targets for AD and related dementias. PMID: 28272510
  11. A randomized trial and novel SPR technique identifies altered lipoprotein-LDL receptor binding as a mechanism underlying elevated LDL-cholesterol in APOE4s PMID: 28276521
  12. Site-directed mutagenesis of Akt at Cys224 revealed that S-nitrosylation at this site was pivotal for the reduced phosphorylation at Akt Ser473, which led to impaired Akt signaling. Furthermore, on HHcy challenge, as compared with GSNOR(+/+)ApoE(-/-) littermate controls, GSNOR(-/-)ApoE(-/-) double knockout mice showed reduced T-cell activation with concurrent reduction of atherosclerosis. PMID: 29860106
  13. U.S. military veterans who are APOE epsilon4 allele carriers and exposed to a high number of traumas may be at increased risk for developing PTSD symptoms than epsilon4 noncarriers. PMID: 29172227
  14. found that the ApoE genotype was significantly associated with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage risk, whereas its effect on certain ethnic populations differs PMID: 30010064
  15. APOE polymorphism might be associated with the incidence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in Chinese Fujian Han population. PMID: 29769126
  16. Reduced expression of miR-98 may relate to LOX-1 expression and foam cell formation and lipid accumulation in aortas of ApoE(-/-) mice. PMID: 29549823
  17. The epsilon4+ subjects exhibited lower inter- and intrahemispheric coherences than the epsilon4- individuals. CONCLUSION: epsilon4 carriers have lower corticocortical communication than noncarriers during an intelligence task, implying that carrying the epsilon4 allele may reduce brain networking in adolescence, several decades before the onset of Alzheimer disease. PMID: 28848214
  18. APOE-epsilon4 modified the association between central arterial stiffening and cognition. PMID: 29656011
  19. The rs7755 and rs3211956 loci polymorphisms of CD36 gene and genotype E2/E3, E3/E4, E4/E4 of ApoE gene, and E2 and E4 alleles were statistically related with Alzheimer disease. PMID: 30235742
  20. results show great changes in men carrying ApoE2, mainly in TG and TC concentrations after treatment with hypocaloric diet and controlled exercise PMID: 29756962
  21. ApoE genetic polymorphisms conferred susceptibility to steroid-induced ONFH in Chinese Han population. PMID: 29892926
  22. t results point out that APOE4 genotype influences healthy aged cognition, although factors such age or educational attainment seem to modulate its effects PMID: 29414814
  23. Reduced content of ApoE in blood serum of men with arterial hypertension was associated with APOE4 gene polymorphism. PMID: 29658078
  24. In summary, our findings from the two cohorts confirm that genetic variations at the APOE locus influence plasma total cholesterol concentrations, however, the gene-diet interactions on lipids require further investigation in larger cohorts. PMID: 29712557
  25. There is the association between ApoE polymorphism and hypertension. [meta-analysis] PMID: 30180966
  26. The authors propose that APOE4-driven hyperactivity may be a causative factor driving increased risk of Alzheimer's disease among APOE4 carriers. PMID: 29133888
  27. Our results showed that ApoE epsilon4 and PON1-55M alleles act synergistically to increase the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus by 1.47 times PMID: 29273831
  28. Study presents evidence that odor identification ability starts to decline already in middle-aged, and that carriers of varepsilon4/4, who are at highest risk of developing dementia, decline twice as fast. PMID: 28455505
  29. Findings suggest that the apolipoprotein E4 genotype selectively modulates the functional integration of brain networks in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, thus providing important insight into the gene-connectome interaction in this disease. PMID: 28341847
  30. Findings revealed that APOE epsilon4 allele has a detrimental effect on parietal and frontal white matter in cognitively normal elderly; and demonstrate that information processing speed deficits can be explained by parietal white matter hyperintensities volume, age and interaction between parietal white matter hyperintensities volume and age. PMID: 27444731
  31. The study demonstrated that the APOE epsilon3/epsilon3 and epsilon3/epsilon4 genotypes played a protective role against cerebral infarction in Chinese men, but not women. PMID: 29479056
  32. corroborating evidence that supports the fact that the presence of the APOE e4 polymorphism confers greater susceptibility to combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (meta-analysis)> PMID: 28430712
  33. Carriers of the 4 allele of the APOE genotype had significantly lower LDL particle size and LDL I proportion compared to 33 homozygotes ( P < .05 for both comparisons). Insulin resistance increased from patients with no OSA to those with mild-moderate and to those with severe OSA ( P < .001). In multivariate analysis, LDL size was independently predicted by APOE genotype. PMID: 26941371
  34. In het mice, RIF had no effect on plasma lipids composition, CYP27A1 activity, and atherosclerotic plaque development, despite a reduction in cholesterol absorption. In conclusion, the antiatherogenic effect of Cyp3a11 induction by RIF was also dependent on Cyp27a1 expression. PMID: 29191818
  35. Hypertension and the ApoEepsilon4/epsilon4 genotype may be associated with the occurrence of MCA stenosis in the ischemic stroke Chinese patients. PMID: 29494434
  36. In this study, detection of AD-related DNA oligonucleotide sequence associated with Apolipoprotein E4 gene sequence was achieved using localized-surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) on 2D-Photonic crystal (2D-PC) and Au-coated 2D-PC surfaces. PMID: 29291596
  37. APOE polymorphism has an influence on the risk of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID: 29213291
  38. Evidence for an interaction between APOE SNP rs1064725 and dietary fat intake on fasting total plasma cholesterol concentrations. PMID: 29169396
  39. APOE-epsilon4 carriers had elevated carotid intima media thickness independent of demographics and vascular risk factors. Diabetes was an effect modifier of the relationship between APOE-epsilon4 and cIMT. PMID: 29103864
  40. APOE is a risk gene for ischemic stroke (IS), but not independent, especially for large artery atherosclerosis IS. PMID: 29074556
  41. Among APOE4 carriers, race was not associated with risk of Alzheimer's disease. PMID: 28863046
  42. association of rare variants near the APOE region with CSF and neuroimaging biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease PMID: 28589856
  43. The APOE-epsilon4 allele may confer an increased risk of impairment of 6-month verbal memory for patients suffering mild traumatic brain injury. PMID: 28948085
  44. The APOE e4 allele is a risk factor for late onset Alzheimer's disease as well as for other types of dementia.Living arrangements, perceived social support, and loneliness were found to moderate the relationship between the APOE e4 allele and cognitive function. PMID: 28329797
  45. epsilon2 carriers perform better on cognitive tests as this group have a lower risk of Alzheimer's disease. PMID: 29032015
  46. Overnight hypoxemia and sleepiness were associated with cognition. The average effect estimates were small, similar to effect estimates for several other individual dementia risk factors. Associations were strongest in APOE-epsilon4 risk allele carriers. PMID: 28731362
  47. Downregulation of apoE and apoJ in CSF strongly suggests a critical role of lipid metabolism in the development and progression of Moyamoya disease. PMID: 28843803
  48. ApoE epsilon4 alleles are associated with dementia risk. PMID: 28657841
  49. Findings suggest a possible relationship between the epsilon4 allele and post-concussion impairment, as well as between the epsilon4 allele and neurocognitive performance variability, suggesting that the epsilon4 genotype may be a risk factor for less efficient cognitive processing in concussed athletes. PMID: 28541413
  50. APOE4 carriers and the CETP genotype were associated with a decreased response to simvastatin therapy PMID: 28851085
  51. Results of this study suggest that the process of preclinical Abeta pathology might start in early middle age in APOE epsilon4 carriers. Hypothesize that the APOE epsilon4 allele affects CSF Abeta42 concentrations by speeding up the process of preclinical Abeta accumulation and deposition in the brain. PMID: 29061195
  52. FNDC5 gene interactions with candidate genes FOXOA3 and APOE PMID: 29143599
  53. the role of APOE polymorphisms in retinal vein occlusion PMID: 26851238
  54. Study used eigenvector centrality mapping to analyze APOE epsilon4-related effects on whole-brain functional connectivity in healthy elderly populations, documented that presence of APOE epsilon4 allele is linked to decreased brain interconnectedness in brain regions susceptible to Alzheimer's disease-related pathology and observed a possible compensatory effect for epsilon4 allele in middle frontal gyrus. PMID: 27714554
  55. Blood samples were obtained from 30 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) along with 30 age and sex-matched healthy individuals, then peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated. The quantitative Real-Time PCR was carried out for Klotho mRNA derived from PBMCs. The results showed that klotho gene expression in the PBMCs of patients with RRMS is nearly 2.5-fold less than healthy individuals. PMID: 28991703
  56. The APOE genotyping revealed that epsilon4 allele frequency was significantly high in Alzheimer Disease in a North Indian Population. PMID: 28633142
  57. The epsilon2, epsilon3 and epsilon4 variants of ApoE causes a statistically significant increase in trigliseride levels. PMID: 29096742
  58. The data did not support a possible association between apolipoprotein E genotypes and allelic frequencies, and recurrent miscarriages PMID: 29778421
  59. that APOE and KIBRA have region-dependent additive and epistatic interactions on brain connectivity in healthy young adults PMID: 27620974
  60. Study demonstrated the different aging trajectories of hippocampal resting-state functional connectivity networks between ApoEepsilon4 carriers and non-carriers. The compensatory increases were accelerated in epsilon4 carriers with normal cognitive function, but were subsequently exhausted in the amnestic-type mild cognitive impairment stage (aMCI); the compensation in non-carriers was gradually displayed during the aM... PMID: 27734307
  61. this meta-analysis of 5,709 subjects suggested that ApoE epsilon4 allele was associated with an increased risk of mild cognitive impairment PMID: 29180857
  62. APOE genotype is related to beta-amyloid (Abeta) burden in brain regions preferentially affected by Alzheimer's disease. PMID: 29111487
  63. The authors show that lipoproteins including brain (apoE) and circulating (high-density lipoprotein, HDL) synergize to facilitate beta-amyloid transport across bioengineered human cerebral vessels. PMID: 28994390
  64. ApoAI modulates the cellular fate of Treg cells and thus influences the immune response during atherosclerosis. PMID: 29545616
  65. Results strongly suggests a role for human ApoE4 in cerebral ceramide and fatty acid (FA) homeostasis. The absence of mouse apoE resulted in low cerebral ceramide levels, which was not restored by human ApoE4. The APOE genotype affected brain FA profile when mice were fed a high fat/high cholesterol diet. PMID: 28035926
  66. Results indicate that the retinal arteriolar central reflex is strongly linked to APOE epsilon4 status and exhibits a weaker, independent trend with Alzheimer's disease diagnosis. The retina may be useful as a novel model for non-invasive monitoring of the effects of APOE epsilon4 on the central nervous system, particularly in cerebrovascular disease. PMID: 28290247
  67. This cross-sectional study suggests that both AD diagnosis and APOE4 genotype affect fasting insulin levels and insulin resistance. PMID: 28550261
  68. Multicenter study investigating a large spectrum of Diffusion Tensor Imaging indexes of white matter (WM) microstructure. Findings support previous evidence in monocentric studies indicating a modulatory role of APOE varepsilon4 allele on WM microstructure in elderly individuals at risk for Alzheimer's disease suggesting early vulnerability and/or reduced resilience of WM tracts involved in Alzheimer's disease. PMID: 28596117
  69. APOE4 role on inflammation and oxidation through the Notch signaling pathway could be crucial in elucidating the risk factors of Alzheimer's disease. PMID: 27585646
  70. This study demonstrated that APOE acts in a co-dominant fashion on Abeta levels, episodic memory, and hippocampal volume in cognitively normal older adults. PMID: 28550258
  71. The results of this study demonstrated that the female APOE-epsilon4 carriers appear at higher risk for AD after age 50. In contrast, men may experience a relatively higher rate of cerebrovascular injury in middle and early old age. PMID: 28673336
  72. This study show that apoE, especially apoE4, promotes Abeta42-alpha7nAChR interaction and Abeta42-induced alpha7nAChR-dependent tau phosphorylation via its apoE141-148 domain. PMID: 28750690
  73. ApoE4 differs from apoE3 by only a single amino acid at position 112, which is arginine in apoE4 and cysteine in apoE3. It remains unclear why apoE3 and apoE4 are functionally different. Described here is a proposal for understanding the functional differences between these two isoforms with respect to lipid binding. PMID: 28559318
  74. ApoE4 genotype did not predict post-operative delirium in an older elective arthroplasty population. PMID: 28383643
  75. APOE rs405509-epsilon2/epsilon3/epsilon4 haplotypes modulate the risk of concussion susceptibility PMID: 28645497
  76. The study of this results showed that the significantly higher fractions of subjects with pAbeta, APOE varepsilon4 allele carriers and MCI subjects in the group referred from memory clinic compared to self-referred subjects. PMID: 28826181
  77. The results of the analysis of covariance stratified by sex and serum insulin level showed that the serum triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were significantly associated with changes in the serum C-peptide levels, independent of the serum insulin level. PMID: 28869884
  78. The results show that in cognitively normal young adults carrying APOE epsilon4 mutations had different spontaneous brain activity patterns without cerebral structural differences. PMID: 28987665
  79. The positions, dynamics, and stabilities of the helical segments in ApoE3 and ApoE4, in their normal tetrameric state and in mutation-induced monomeric mutants were determined .Helix stabilities are relatively low. Secondary structure in the tetrameric apoE3 and E4 isoforms is similar except that some helical segments in apoE4 spanning residues 12-20 and 204-10 are unfolded, causing its higher lipid binding. PMID: 28096372
  80. This study provides evidence for neuronal-specific responses to ApoE4 that could affect neurogenesis and neuronal survival PMID: 28321820
  81. results demonstrate for the first time that ADAMTS4 contributes to diet induced atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) mice PMID: 27491335
  82. The results of this study suggested significant alterations in hippocampal dendritic structure and synaptic function in Apoe4 mice, even at an early age. PMID: 28786172
  83. Overall, these findings suggest that the ability of apoE fragments to promote Abeta42 intraneuronal accumulation is specific for both the apoE4 isoform and the particular structural and thermodynamic properties of the fragment. PMID: 27476701
  84. HtrA1 Proteolysis of ApoE In Vitro Is Allele Selective PMID: 27379525
  85. ApoE transcriptionally represses PPP2R5E and triggers demethylation of the catalytic subunit PP2AC. PMID: 28720530
  86. The results support the hypothesis that ApoE 4 predisposes to an early development of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis. PMID: 27875923
  87. This study demonstrated that theCalmodulin-like skin protein is downregulated in human cerebrospinal fluids of Alzheimer's disease patients with apolipoprotein E4. PMID: 28592211
  88. This study found that APOE3 and APOE4 targeted replacement mice demonstrate similar cognitive impairment following moderate TBI with differences reflecting the preexisting deficits in APOE4 mice at baseline. PMID: 28502803
  89. People with an APOEvarepsilon32 genotype have a reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease. It may be relevant that they have a higher level of post-synaptic proteins in the hippocampus even in earlier adulthood. PMID: 28731446
  90. The APOE epsilon4 allele has a female-specific effect in inducing psychosis in AD through the formation of Lewy bodies PMID: 28219318
  91. This study demonstrates an apoE isoform-dependent effect on ADAM10 function and AbetaPP processing which may describe the elevated amyloid levels in the brains of AD subjects carrying the APOE4 allele. PMID: 28164773
  92. Results show that the APOE epsilon4 carriers had lower platelet mitochondria COX and citrate synthase activities than the APOE epsilon4 non-carriers suggesting that mitochondria at least partly mediate the well-recognized association between APOE alleles and Alzheimer's disease risk. PMID: 28448944
  93. Regression analysis revealed significant risk for memory loss that are dependent on age and genetic variants APOE4. PMID: 28777751
  94. the rs405509 T/T allele of APOE causes an age-related cognitive decline in non-demented elderly people, possibly by modulating brain network communication efficiency PMID: 27636845
  95. APOE epsilon4 allele was associated with increased Abeta deposition, which may lead to the formation and progression of WMH, especially in frontal lobe. Besides, interaction between the increased frontal WMH burden and epsilon4 allele can exert long-term detrimental effects on individual's trajectory of cognition. PMID: 28574812
  96. Taken together, these results suggest that ApoE4 enhances Abeta inhibition of insulin-stimulated AMPA receptor function, which accelerates memory impairment in ApoE4xAPP mice. PMID: 27189808
  97. this meta-analysis demonstrated that APOE epsilon4 was a genetic risk factor for FTLD patients in Caucasian and Asian populations, thereby corroborating the role of APOE genetic variants in FTLD PMID: 28487499
  98. This study demonstrated that APOE genotype and obesity interact to promote Alzheimer disease pathogenesis. PMID: 28612048
  99. an ApoE2 or ApoE3 mediated positive regulation of BDNF may be protective while ApoE4 related defects in BDNF processing could lead to Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology. PMID: 28569173
  100. The findings in this study suggest that there is a poor concordance between apo E genotyping and lipoprotein electrophoresis in diagnosing dysbetalipoproteinemia. PMID: 28689531

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Involvement in disease Hyperlipoproteinemia 3 (HLPP3); Alzheimer disease 2 (AD2); Sea-blue histiocyte disease (SBHD); Lipoprotein glomerulopathy (LPG); Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH)
Subcellular Location Secreted
Protein Families Apolipoprotein A1/A4/E family
Tissue Specificity Occurs in all lipoprotein fractions in plasma. It constitutes 10-20% of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and 1-2% of high density lipoproteins (HDL). APOE is produced in most organs. Significant quantities are produced in liver, brain, spleen, lung, a
Database Links

HGNC: 613

OMIM: 104310

KEGG: hsa:348

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000252486

UniGene: Hs.654439

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