Rat High mobility group protein B1,HMGB-1 ELISA Kit

Code CSB-E08224r
Size 96T
See More Details 24T ELISA kits trial application
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Product Details

Target Name high-mobility group box 1
Alternative Names Hmgb1 ELISA Kit; Hmg-1 ELISA Kit; Hmg1 ELISA Kit; High mobility group protein B1 ELISA Kit; Amphoterin ELISA Kit; Heparin-binding protein p30 ELISA Kit; High mobility group protein 1 ELISA Kit; HMG-1 ELISA Kit
Abbreviation HMGB1
Uniprot No. P63159
Species Rattus norvegicus (Rat)
Sample Types serum, plasma, tissue homogenates
Detection Range
Assay Time 1-5h
Sample Volume 50-100ul
Detection Wavelength 450 nm
Research Area Epigenetics and Nuclear Signaling

Typical Data  
and FAQs
Storage Store at 2-8°C. Please refer to protocol.
Lead Time 3-5 working days

Target Data

Function Multifunctional redox sensitive protein with various roles in different cellular compartments. In the nucleus is one of the major chromatin-associated non-histone proteins and acts as a DNA chaperone involved in replication, transcription, chromatin remodeling, V(D)J recombination, DNA repair and genome stability. Proposed to be an universal biosensor for nucleic acids. Promotes host inflammatory response to sterile and infectious signals and is involved in the coordination and integration of innate and adaptive immune responses. In the cytoplasm functions as sensor and/or chaperone for immunogenic nucleic acids implicating the activation of TLR9-mediated immune responses, and mediates autophagy. Acts as danger associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule that amplifies immune responses during tissue injury. Released to the extracellular environment can bind DNA, nucleosomes, IL-1 beta, CXCL12, AGER isoform 2/sRAGE, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and activates cells through engagement of multiple surface receptors. In the extracellular compartment fully reduced HMGB1 (released by necrosis) acts as a chemokine, disulfide HMGB1 (actively secreted) as a cytokine, and sulfonyl HMGB1 (released from apoptotic cells) promotes immunological tolerance
Gene References into Functions
  1. miR-381could inhibit neuropathic pain development through targeting HMGB1 and CXCR4. PMID: 30142543
  2. Ketamine delays the progression of oxidative and damaged cataract by regulating HMGB-1/NF-kappaB expression, inhibiting TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and apoptosis, and promoting cell proliferation. PMID: 30111205
  3. High HMGB1 expression is associated with sepsis-induced kidney injury. PMID: 30130540
  4. Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) promotes significant morphological changes and causes robust upregulation of HMGB1 messenger RNA in enriched hippocampal microglia and robust and persistent upregulation of RAGE messenger RNA. CUS increased surface expression of RAGE protein on hippocampal microglia and anhedonic behavior. HMGB1 infusion into the hippocampus was sufficient to cause anhedonic behavior. PMID: 28882317
  5. Autophagy was the leading cause of adriamycin-induced cardiotoxicity, and HMGB1 played a vital role in the process of up-regulating autophagy. PMID: 29715512
  6. concluded that in mild oxidative stress, HMGB1 is cytoprotective, whereas in intense oxidative stress, HMGB1 actions promote cell death and liver damage PMID: 28695466
  7. Findings suggested that overexpression of Pgp during seizures may be regulated by HMGB1 via the RAGE/NFkappaB signaling pathway. PMID: 28627626
  8. Up-regulation of miR-129-5p might suppress the HMGB1-RAGE signaling pathway to restrain the revascularization of rats with ICH. PMID: 28645008
  9. Investigation identified that HMGB1 promotes neurovascular recovery via Rage and may act in the oxidized state in the late stage of SAH. PMID: 28606778
  10. our findings demonstrated an elevation of HMGB1 in pulmonary fibrosis; HMGB1 promoted the increment of proliferation, extracellular matrix production and aerobic glycolysis of embryonic lung fibroblast PMID: 28571757
  11. the HMGB1-TLR9 signaling pathway may be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. PMID: 28647749
  12. In conclusion, the results suggested that GL attenuated TBI by inhibiting M1 phenotype while inducing M2 phenotype activation of microglia/macrophages, at least partly through inhibiting HMGB1. Also, targeting HMGB1 to modulate the microglia/macrophage polarization should be one potential therapeutic approach for TBI. PMID: 29448108
  13. The neuroimmune activation induced by chronic alcohol may involve the danger signaling molecule high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), which binds Toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4). PMID: 26857094
  14. Glycyrrhizin may protect rats against sepsis by blocking the interaction of HMGB1 with cell surface receptors and HMGB1-mediated inflammatory responses PMID: 28484719
  15. These results suggest that HMGB1-modulated TLR5 signaling is responsible for pain hypersensitivity. PMID: 27760316
  16. HMGB1 modulation may lengthen the therapeutic window for stroke treatments. PMID: 27544687
  17. this study provides the first evidence showing that HMGB1 plays a critical role in regulating VSMC phenotypic modulation, suggesting that HMGB1 may be a potential therapeutic target to prevent vascular occlusive diseases. PMID: 27579780
  18. HMGB1 and its signaling transduction have critical roles in the pathogenesis of septic brain injury. PMID: 27889435
  19. Anti-proliferative effect of terameprocol in pulmonary hypertension seems to be explained, at least in part, by the down-regulation of the transcription factor HMGB1. PMID: 28036116
  20. Oxidative stress during epileptogenesis was associated with de novo brain and blood generation of disulfide high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a neuroinflammatory molecule implicated in seizure mechanisms. PMID: 28575153
  21. Results suggest that electroacupuncture pretreatment could alleviate spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury. These protective effects of electroacupuncture pretreatment may relate to the block of pro-inflammatory cytokines release and attenuation of apoptosis via inhibition of HMGB1 release in a LXA4 receptor-dependent manner. PMID: 28089662
  22. Further, HMGB1 antagonism prevented prolonged infection-induced neuroinflammatory and sickness responses in aged rats. Overall, blocking HMGB1 "desensitized" microglia in the aged brain, thereby preventing pathological infection-elicited neuroinflammatory responses. PMID: 27466339
  23. HMGB1 plays a key pathophysiological role in the onset of epilepsy-related hyperexcitability. PMID: 28222432
  24. Suggest that HMGB1 may not be a major player in cerebral vascular dilating dysfunction after subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID: 27997923
  25. study suggests that HMGB1 can positively influence the survival of spiral ganglion neurons following ototoxic exposure via both its extracellular and intranuclear functions PMID: 27704212
  26. binding proteins of cytoplasmic HMGB1 during hepatic Ischemia/reperfusion injury were identified. PMID: 28275217
  27. These findings suggested that the cytoplasmic translocation of HMGB1 may be caused by diabetes and high glucose in retinal pericytes, and that the pathogenic role of HMGB1 may be dependent on the expression of RAGE and activation of NFkappaB. PMID: 27599553
  28. The present study confirmed that Cerebral ischemic postconditioning inhibited autophagy and HMGB1 secretion, autophagy inhibition induced a decrease in HMGB1 secretion, and HMGB1 secretion attenuation caused autophagy inhibition in return, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence and western blot analyses. PMID: 27666823
  29. in an ANP model, HMGB1 was initially increased in the nuclei to initiate autophagy. Subsequently, it moved into the cytoplasm, where it interacted with Beclin 1 to enhance autophagy, and HMGB1 was released into the blood, leading to the deterioration of ANP. PMID: 27878276
  30. Regnase-1 can be induced by HMGB1 in microglia and negatively regulates HMGB1-mediated neuroinflammation and neuronal toxicity PMID: 27044405
  31. HMGB1 contributes significantly to cardiac arrest-induced brain dysfunction PMID: 27363991
  32. the present study suggested that upregulation of miR451 could protect against A/Rinduced cardiomyocyte injury by inhibiting HMGB1 expression. PMID: 27121079
  33. Hypoxia enhanced the expression of HMGB1 in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells with influences on apoptosis and adhesion. PMID: 28050559
  34. Bone marrow stromal cell-treated type 2 diabetic rats inhibited inflammation and improved functional outcome after stroke; data suggest that BMSCs-induced reduction of HMGB1 and RAGE in type 2 diabetic-middle cerebral artery occlusion rats contributed to attenuated inflammatory response in the ischemic brain, which may lead to the beneficial effects of bone marrow stromal cells treatment. PMID: 26946264
  35. Hemorrhagic shock elicited significant increases in the mRNA and protein expressions of HMGB1 and RAGE in the kidney. PMID: 26513053
  36. Results suggest that high mobility group box-1 mediates, in part, the neuroinflammatory effects of methamphetamine and thus may alert central nervous system innate immune cells to the toxic effects of methamphetamine. PMID: 26254235
  37. ketamine protects rats against HMGB1-RAGE activation in a rat model of sepsis-induced acute lung injury PMID: 26945830
  38. Extracellular high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) was identified as the likely endogenous regulator of IL1 expression after injury PMID: 26899371
  39. Polygonum cuspidatum extract prevents diabetes-induced vascular permeability by inhibiting HMGB1/RAGE/NFkappaB activation in diabetic retinas. PMID: 26950148
  40. bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation improves liver function/pathology in acute liver failure rats and decreases the serum/liver HMGB1. PMID: 26884873
  41. HMGB1 is increasingly expressed in parallel to the development of cerebral vasospasm in this rat experimental model of subarachnoid hemorrhage PMID: 26765765
  42. These findings indicate that administration of 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 might provide a favorable microenvironment for orthodontic tooth movement by downregulating expression of HMGB1 in periodontal ligament cells. PMID: 26956363
  43. These results suggest that intravenous pre-treatment with HMGB1 may exert its cardioprotective effects via the upregulation of the myocardial expression of HIF-1alpha, which may be regulated by the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, in rats following acute myocardial I/R. PMID: 26648172
  44. Results indicate that HMGB1 is a critical regulator of autophagy and HMGB1-induced autophagy plays a protective role in spinal neurons against injuries PMID: 26705737
  45. determined that the plasma levels and hepatic tissue levels of HMGB1 were significant increased in acute liver failure PMID: 26722388
  46. Increased levels of PKR and HMGB1 in synovium or blood appear to be involved in the occurrence and development ofrheumatoid arthritis (RA )in a rat model. Selective inhibition of PKR improves the symptoms of RA perhaps by inhibiting the release of HMGB1 PMID: 26782432
  47. HMGB1 or Beclin1 upregulate alpha-synuclein degradation, ameliorating alpha-synuclein-mediated autophagy reduction in PC12 cells. PMID: 26822891
  48. The data indicate that HMGB1 accumulates in renal tissue and enters the urine, and the interaction between HMGB1 and TLR4 turns renal tubular epithelial cells into inflammatory promoters during sepsis. PMID: 26312770
  49. Overexpression of miR141 alleviates neuropathic pain development via targeting and inhibiting HMGB1. PMID: 26398163
  50. findings demonstrate an important role of HMGB1 in mediating inflammasome activation in the development of liver injury PMID: 25931416
  51. HMGB1 plays important roles in signaling for both autophagy and apoptosis in neurodegeneration induced by mitochondrial dysfunction PMID: 26565401
  52. This study demonstrated that methamphetamine-mediated activation and migration of astrocytes involved HMGB1 up-regulation through an autocrine mechanism. PMID: 26337661
  53. Expression of HMGB1 in acute pancreatitis occurred later than the early inflammatory factors IL-1, TNF-alpha and IL-6. PMID: 26261580
  54. Study shows that oxidization of cysteine residues 22 and 44 of HMGB1 inhibits the ability of the protein to bend or unwind DNA. Also, the linker histone H1 (via its highly basic C-terminus) can suppress the DNA bending potential of HMGB1. PMID: 26406975
  55. The equipotent P2Y2R agonists ATP and UTP enhanced proliferation, RAGE expression and HMGB1 secretion in IL-1beta-pretreated VSMCs. PMID: 25956731
  56. HMGB1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy by binding with RAGE receptor to accelerate rat retinal cells apoptosis. PMID: 26261566
  57. the crystal structure of HMGB1 box A bound to an AT-rich DNA fragment is reported at a resolution of 2 A. PMID: 26143914
  58. HMGB1 plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of epilepsy, by altering its quantity and distribution. PMID: 26241550
  59. Exposure of developing brain to chlorpyrifos might induce the activation of neuroinflammation mediated by HMGB1/TLR4/NF-kappaB pathway in the amygdala. PMID: 26524701
  60. Dioscin is an efficient neuroprotective agent because of its inhibiting effects on HMGB-1/TLR4 signaling and subsequent suppression of inflammation. PMID: 25772012
  61. cardiac HMGB1 increases HSPB1 expression and attenuates cardiomyocyte apoptosis associated with doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. PMID: 25736854
  62. The results identify extracellular HMGB1 as a promoting factor for monocrotaline-induced Pulmonary arterial hypertension. PMID: 25032709
  63. Glycyrrhizin, an inhibitor of HMGB1, attenuates pulmonary hypertension progression and pulmonary vascular remodeling in the MCT-induced pulmonary hypertension rat model. PMID: 25420924
  64. HMGB1 activation through RAGE may be responsible for sensory neuron sensitization and mechanical hyperalgesia associated with chronic neuropathic pain states. PMID: 25014009
  65. HMGB1 can be considered a potentially useful biomarker in adenine induced chronic renal failure and its treatment. PMID: 25194125
  66. High concentration of insulin, which mimics insulin resistance model, promoted apoptosis in primary cultured rat ovarian granulosa cells via its effect on the increase in extracellular HMGB1. PMID: 25228632
  67. A key role for HMGB1-TLR4 signaling in AngII-mediated inflammation in renal epithelial cells. PMID: 26033363
  68. HMGB1 facilitates repair of mitochondrial DNA damage of mutant ataxin-1 knock-in mice. PMID: 25510912
  69. HMGB1 protein and mRNA were up-regulated in arterial tissue subjected to ischemia/reperfusion. PMID: 25062563
  70. HMGB1 acts via the receptor for advanced glycation end-products to promote neurogenesis in intracerebral hemorrhage. PMID: 25538203
  71. HMGB1 impaired cardiac excitation-contraction coupling by enhancing the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) leak through TLR4-ROS signaling in cardiomyocytes. PMID: 24937603
  72. HMGB-1 and PLA2 involved in retinal pericyte and endothelial injury and cell death in diabetic retinopathy. PMID: 25292258
  73. Expression of HMGB1 and NF-kappaB proteins in the hyperbaric oxygen treatment groups was lower than in the ischemia reperfusion groups. PMID: 23884820
  74. HMGB1 was released from neurons early after SAH onset and might trigger inflammation as an upstream inflammatory mediator. PMID: 24924349
  75. Reactive astrocyte-derived HMGB1 plays an important role in the repair of the central nervous system following brain injury. PMID: 24970310
  76. nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HMGB1 is induced by secondhand smoke in a rat premature skin aging model PMID: 25446104
  77. An acute stressor caused the release of HMGB-1 in the brain which stimulates microglia. PMID: 25568124
  78. Knockdown of HMGB1 significantly suppressed neural stem cells proliferation. PMID: 24748429
  79. Data indicate that Gu-4 improves survival in sepsis and this improvement is accompanied by marked decrease of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in serum. PMID: 24603876
  80. It is an inflammatory mediator. PMID: 25004875
  81. Findings suggest that the ability of reactive astrocytes to promote EPC response may be due to the release of HMGB1. PMID: 24480450
  82. HMGB1 may be associated with the onset and progression of periodontitis PMID: 24692854
  83. early retinal neuropathy of diabetes involves upregulated expression of HMGB1 and can be ameliorated by inhibition of HMGB1 PMID: 24733965
  84. These data suggest that peripheral HMGB1 causes hyperalgesia and that recombinant human thrombomodulin (rhsTM) abolishes HMGB1-dependent hyperalgesia, providing novel evidence for therapeutic usefulness of rhsTM as an analgesic. PMID: 24004409
  85. Binding of histone H1 to DNA is differentially modulated by redox state of HMGB1. PMID: 24551219
  86. Data indicate that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) reduced the expression of high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) in spinal cord injury (SCI) tissues. PMID: 24335635
  87. Data suggest that extracellular high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) contributes to the effect of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMCs) transplantation to recover the damaged myocardium by favorably modulating innate immunity in heart failure. PMID: 24204700
  88. SNCA-induced impairment of autophagy occurs, in part, through HMGB1. PMID: 24178442
  89. Suggest that Ex-4 could attenuate myocardial I/R injury by inhibiting HMGB1 expression. PMID: 24338536
  90. evidence is provided that high-mobility group box 1 and corticotropin-releasing factor release are critical for the chronic ethanol withdrawal induction of selected brain cytokine messenger RNAs PMID: 23895427
  91. The expression of HMGB1 partly correlated with suppression of vascular reactivity. PMID: 23532259
  92. Moderate tidal volume mechanical ventilation augmented lipopolysaccharide induced lung injury by up-regulating HMGB1. PMID: 24058610
  93. although p53 is usually regarded as a tumor suppressor, its constant activation can promote pro-tumorigenic inflammation, at least in part, via inducing HMGB1 release PMID: 23714159
  94. enhanced early extracellular release of HMGB1 might represent an important mechanism for worsened ischemic damage, particularly early blood-brain barrier disruption, during hyperglycemic stroke. PMID: 24012767
  95. maintenance of stable nuclear HMGB1 levels prevents hypertrophy and heart failure by inhibiting DNA damage. PMID: 23708738
  96. This study clearly indicates an immunomodulatory potential of human PDL cells via release of mediators, including HMGB1 protein. PMID: 23974442
  97. gene silencing reduces inflammation and acute lung injury after severe acute pancreatitis PMID: 23706497
  98. Feeding low-dose fish oil for 6 months attenuated CAV, and significantly reduced HMGB1 and RAGE expressions, indicating beneficial effects of low-dose fish oil on CAV may occur via down-regulation of the HMGB1-RAGE pathway PMID: 23769041
  99. Heat shock significantly reduces the intracellular level of HMGB1, and propofol inhibit its reduction. PMID: 23364923
  100. Expression of HMGB1 signalling pathway components were increased in diabetic rat retinas and in ARPE-19 cells exposed to high glucose. PMID: 24133029

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Subcellular Location Nucleus, Cytoplasm, Secreted, Chromosome, Cell membrane, Peripheral membrane protein, Extracellular side, Endosome, Endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment
Protein Families HMGB family
Database Links

KEGG: rno:25459

STRING: 10116.ENSRNOP00000040874

UniGene: Rn.144565

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