Mexican Hwan Peh-dro Frahn-ko (Juan Pedro Franco) weighed nearly 600 kilogrammes (over half a tonne) at his heaviest. This is really a surprising weight! However, the lives of overweight people like Juan can be difficult, because the body is too heavy, they must lie in bed all day. And they can not take care of themselves, must rely on the help of others. They sometimes have to have part of their stomach removed to help with dieting.
1.What weight can be clarified as obesity?
When a person takes in more calories than the body consumes, the excess heat is converted into fat and stored in the body, causing an abnormal increase in adipose tissue, which results in obesity.
Body mass index (BMI) is a commonly used standard for measuring the fatness and health of the human body. BMI is calculated by dividing the weight in kilograms by the square of the height in meters.
If BMI is equal to or below 18.5, it suggests that you are underweight; if the number is between 18.5 to 24.9, it shows that your weight is normal; when the number is between 25 to 29.9, it reminds you that you are overweight, if your BMI is equal to or greater than 30, you are obese.
Obesity was once considered a problem in high-income countries, and it is now widespread in low and middle-income countries. Obesity is like an infectious disease and is prevalent throughout the world.
2.The harm of obesity
Overmuch adipose tissue in the body is not beneficial to human health and activities, and it often causes some diseases. Here list some common diseases related to obesity.
2.1 Obese people are prone to cancer
According to the results of the epidemiological investigation, obese women were more likely to develop uterine endometrial cancer and postmenopausal breast cancer; obese men are more susceptible to prostate cancer
. And as long as those who are obese, both men and women are more likely to develop colon cancer and colorectal cancer
. The more severe the degree of obesity, the higher the prevalence of the above several cancers.
2.2 Obesity often causes various vascular disorders
Various vascular disorders often occur in obese people. Not only an excessive accumulation of subcutaneous fat but also the internal organs and blood vessels throughout the body are also filled with fat, so fat people are easier to suffer from a variety of vascular diseases, especially cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases that are serious to health and life. Relevant research data show that the incidence of hypertension in obese people is 1.5 to 3 times than that of normal people. Moreover, the higher the degree of obesity, the higher the incidence of hypertension and the more obvious blood pressure. The incidence of hypertension in severely obese people is as high as 50 percent. On the contrary, if weight-loss measures are taken to reduce weight, blood pressure will decrease accordingly.
2.3 Obesity is easy to induce diabetes
Although obesity is not the direct cause of diabetes, its induction of diabetes is not negligible. Obesity is one of the important risk factors for developing diabetes (mainly type II diabetes). Many sources confirm that the more severe the obesity, the higher the incidence of diabetes. About one-third of adult-type diabetics are obese.
2.4 Fat persons are susceptible to sports system disorders
Excessive weight in obese people is an additional burden on the motor system such as bones and joints, especially on the spine and lower extremities. Skeleton, joints and other tissues have long-term support for excessive weight. Over time, it will inevitably lead to illness, arthritis, muscle strain or spinal nerve root compression, causing soreness in the back and shoulders of the waist and legs, and even joint deformation, seriously affecting physical activity.
2.5 Obesity causes dyslipidemia
Obese people, especially abdominal obesity, are more likely to show hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, low-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein abnormalities than normal people, while high-density lipoproteins are reduced.
2.6 Obesity increases the heart burden
Studies have shown that obesity has a four-fold increase in the incidence of angina and sudden death. This reveals that obesity will definitely increase the burden on the heart and cause heart damage. The heart of a normal human body is like a water pump that constantly contracts and relaxes, maintaining the circulation of blood. Obese people have a lot of blood stored in the blood, so the total amount of blood has elevated, and the heart will increase the contraction force accordingly. When the heart is overwhelmed, it can no longer effectively pump blood, leading to blood to accumulate in the state of the cardiovascular system, and even severe heart failure.
2.7 Obesity leads to fatty liver
About half of obese people have fatty liver. The liver is the site of synthetic triglycerides, but there is not much extra space in the liver to store it. In the corpulent people, the balance between triglyceride synthesis and transport is dysregulated. Obese people have a more fatty acid intake, so the liver synthesizes more triglycerides. A large number of triglycerides build up in the liver. The result is the formation of fatty liver.
Figure 1: the harm of obesity
3. The causes of obesity
● Genetic factors
: In general, parents with obesity, the possibility of obesity in their children is very high.
● Eating habits
: Eating high-fat and high-calorie foods frequently, the intake of nutrients exceeds the body's metabolism, the excess energy is converted into fat storage, leading to obesity.
● Physiological factors
: It may be derived from the patient's own advanced metabolism, endocrine disorders, chromosomal abnormalities, brain control, central control, or disease.
: When a woman is pregnant, the metabolism of two people is reflected in one person's body, as well as eating well, nutrition is too sufficient, but the amount of exercise is reduced, and it is easy to cause obesity.
● Taking drugs or surgery
: Taking some drugs, such as anti-allergic drugs, sex hormones, steroids, antidepressants, anti-epileptic drugs, etc., may also lead to obesity. Patients who have undergone surgery, long-term rest, lack of exercise, may also cause obesity.
4. Why do several people just eat but not be fat?
A study published in the April issue of the US Cellular Biweekly showed that scientists at the University of Cambridge discovered the gene MC4R, which blocks the 4 million people in the UK from getting fat. This discovery opened up new avenues for the development of diet pills.
The research team analyzed the genetic maps of more than 500,000 volunteers in the UK biomedical library. They found that about 6% of Britons of European descent have a special combination of genes, which means that no matter what lifestyle they have, they are more likely to not gain weight.
This particular gene is called MC4R. And Cambridge University scientists had discovered that this gene can control MC4R (melanocortin 4 receptor)
in the brain, and thus can regulate the appetite. Studies have shown that people with certain MC4R gene variants that interfere with this receptor tend to gain weight easily, and those with different combinations of genes that cause the receptor to remain "on" in the body are less likely to gain weight. These people eat less, which may be why they are slim.
The team found that people who had two copies of these specific genetic variants weighed an average of 2.5 kilograms less than those without these genetic variants, and they were 50 percent less likely to develop type II diabetes and heart disease.
Professor Sadaf Faroqui, the leader of the study, noted that this study clearly shows that genetics does play an important role in some people's obesity, and some people are fortunate to have genes that prevent them from getting fat.
In short, obesity is not only a state but also a disease. Of course, if you happen to be the " magic six percent ", it means that you have the special ability to eat but not be fat. But most people are still 94 percent of people who are easy to get fat, so in order to prevent obesity, the recommendations are a healthy diet and moderate exercise.