Mouse Glucagon (GC) ELISA Kit

Instructions
Code CSB-E15775m
Size 96T,5×96T,10×96T
See More Details 24T ELISA kits trial application
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Product Details

Target Name glucagon
Alternative Names GcgGlucagon [Cleaved into: Glicentin; Glicentin-related polypeptide ELISA kit; GRPP); Oxyntomodulin ELISA kit; OXM ELISA kit; OXY); Glucagon; Glucagon-like peptide 1 ELISA kit; GLP-1); Glucagon-like peptide 1(7-37 ELISA kit; GLP-1(7-37)); Glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36 ELISA kit; GLP-1(7-36)); Glucagon-like peptide 2 ELISA kit; GLP-2)] ELISA kit
Abbreviation GCG
Uniprot No. P55095
Species Mus musculus (Mouse)
Sample Types serum, plasma, tissue homogenates
Detection Range 1.56 pg/mL-100 pg/mL
Sensitivity 0.39 pg/mL
Assay Time 1-5h
Sample Volume 50-100ul
Detection Wavelength 450 nm
Research Area Metabolism
Assay Principle quantitative
Measurement Sandwich
Precision
Intra-assay Precision (Precision within an assay): CV%<8%
Three samples of known concentration were tested twenty times on one plate to assess.
Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays): CV%<10%
Three samples of known concentration were tested in twenty assays to assess.
Linearity
To assess the linearity of the assay, samples were spiked with high concentrations of mouse GC in various matrices and diluted with the Sample Diluent to produce samples with values within the dynamic range of the assay.
SampleSerum(n=4)
1:5Average %92
Range %88-98
1:10Average %97
Range %93-110
1:20Average %95
Range %88-100
1:40Average %95
Range %82-104
Recovery
The recovery of mouse GC spiked to levels throughout the range of the assay in various matrices was evaluated. Samples were diluted prior to assay as directed in the Sample Preparation section.
Sample TypeAverage % RecoveryRange
Serum (n=5) 9485-99
EDTA plasma (n=4)9586-102
Typical Data
These standard curves are provided for demonstration only. A standard curve should be generated for each set of samples assayed.
pg/mlOD1OD2AverageCorrected
1002.564 2.592 2.578 2.489
501.439 1.488 1.464 1.375
250.805 0.792 0.799 0.710
12.50.421 0.432 0.427 0.338
6.250.214 0.223 0.219 0.130
3.120.146 0.150 0.148 0.059
1.560.102 0.105 0.104 0.015
00.088 0.090 0.089
Troubleshooting
and FAQs
ELISA kit FAQs
Storage Store at 2-8°C. Please refer to protocol.
Lead Time 3-5 working days

Target Data

Function Glucagon plays a key role in glucose metabolism and homeostasis. Regulates blood glucose by increasing gluconeogenesis and decreasing glycolysis. A counterregulatory hormone of insulin, raises plasma glucose levels in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia (By similarity).
Gene References into Functions
  1. Data suggest that Tas1r2 and Tas1r3 are involved in regulation of Glp1 secretion in enteroendocrine cells; 3DG (3-deoxyglucosone) attenuates high glucose-stimulated Glp1 secretion by antagonizing Tas1r2/Tas1r3 subunits and downstream cAMP signaling. (Tas1r2 = sweet taste receptor subunit Tas1r2; Tas1r3 = sweet taste receptor subunit Tas1r3; Glp1 = glucagon-like peptide-1) PMID: 29277113
  2. GPR119 is the oleoyl-lysophosphatidylinositol receptor that is required for GLP-1 secretion in enteroendocrine cells. PMID: 29883799
  3. data show that the CREB/CRTC2-dependent transcriptional pathway is critical for regulating glucose homeostasis by controlling production of GLP-1 from the L cells at the level of transcription, maturation, and exocytosis. PMID: 29118086
  4. the results of the present study indicated that GLP1 may be a promising target for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for HGinduced nephropathy, and may function through the activation of SIRT1 PMID: 29845208
  5. this study, we investigated whether glucagon and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), hormones produced by alpha cells, contribute to insulin secretion in INS-1 cells, a beta cell line. Co-treatment with glucagon and exendin-4 (Ex-4), a GLP-1 receptor agonist, additively increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in INS-1 cells PMID: 29725251
  6. results show that glucagon controls gene expression and metabolic zonation in the liver through a counterplay with the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. PMID: 29555772
  7. Data (including data from studies using transgenic and knockout mice) suggest that Glp1/Glp1r signaling in insulin-secreting cells plays important role in development of glucose intolerance in obesity; however, Glp1r is not required in insulin-secreting cells for improvement in glucose intolerance after weight loss due to bariatric surgery (here, vertical sleeve gastrectomy). PMID: 29759973
  8. Data suggest that metabolism of glutamine and related analogs by Gdh in intestinal L-cells explains why Glp1 secretion, but not that of insulin by pancreatic beta-cells, is activated by these secretagogues. (Gdh = glutamate dehydrogenase; Glp1 = glucagon-like peptide 1) PMID: 29229616
  9. Glucokinase governs an alpha-cell metabolic pathway that suppresses secretion at or above normoglycemic levels; abnormal suppression of glucagon secretion deregulates hepatic glucose metabolism and, over time, induces a pre-diabetic phenotype. PMID: 29416045
  10. in colonic crypt cultures, the GLP-1 secretion induced by such Gq + Gs GPR40 agonists is indeed inhibited by blockers of both Gq and Gs and is eliminated by combining these. PMID: 27908836
  11. Enteric GLP-1 activates NO production by enteric neurons that is impaired in type 2 diabetes. Gut microbiota dysbiosis induces enteric neuropathy. Gut microbiota dysbiosis is responsible for the GLP-1 resistance. PMID: 28467926
  12. of glucagon-like peptide-1 in vagotomized mice may prevent VLDL overproduction and insulin resistance induced by high-fat diet. PMID: 29074588
  13. beta-cell function, plasma active GLP-1 levels, the GLP-1R pathway in beta cells and L cell differentiation, were investigated. PMID: 27436347
  14. The role of syntaxin 1A in GLP1 release from intestinal cells as a response to external stimuli is reported. PMID: 28596237
  15. GCG neurons likely stimulate separate populations of downstream cells to produce a change in food intake and glucose homeostasis and that these effects depend on the metabolic state of the animal. PMID: 28218622
  16. Together, our data indicate effects of AgoPAMs that go beyond glucose lowering previously observed with GPR40 partial agonist treatment with additional potential for weight loss. PMID: 28292762
  17. pancreatic reactivation of Gcg fully restored the effect of exendin-[9-39] to impair both oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance. PMID: 28325479
  18. These findings suggest that TRPV2 activation via actin reorganization induced by Gq and G12/13 signaling is involved in LPI-stimulated GLP-1 secretion in enteroendocrine L cells. PMID: 28533434
  19. These results show novel ex vivo effects of rebaudioside A on enteroendocrine cells of the mouse small intestine and highlight potentially new applications for rebaudioside A in metabolic diseases. PMID: 27798332
  20. critical for the regulation of glucagon secretion in response to glucose in obesity PMID: 27547850
  21. These results strongly suggest that incretins upregulate the TNF-alpha-stimulated IL6 synthesis in osteoblasts, and that the amplifying effect of incretin is exerted via reducing the IkappaB/NFkappaB pathway through the adenylyl cyclase-cAMP system. PMID: 28204823
  22. These results indicated that 5rolGLP-HV had dual-function in treating diabetes and preventing thrombosis. PMID: 26780765
  23. Glucagon-like peptide-1 regulates calcium homeostasis and electrophysiological activities in cultured cardiomyocytes. PMID: 26930508
  24. GLP-1 release is altered in intestinal cultures from a high fat diet-fed mice. PMID: 26145551
  25. Data show that ginsenoside Rg3 stimulated glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion in NCI-H716 enteroendocrine cells. PMID: 26675132
  26. GPR119 in L-cells plays a key role in oral lipid-triggered GLP-1 secretion. PMID: 26144594
  27. AMPK antagonizes hepatic glucagon signalling via phosphorylation-induced PDE4B activation PMID: 26952277
  28. Deletion of AMPK alpha 1 and alpha 2 in proglucagon-expressing cells results in increased L-cell mass and elevated circulating GLP-1 levels. PMID: 27010458
  29. The results suggest that TGR5 activation mediates cross-talk between alpha- and beta-cells by switching from glucagon to GLP-1 to restore beta- cell mass and function under hyperglycemic conditions. PMID: 26757816
  30. the acute combined administration of the strongly insulinotropic GLP-1 and glucagon, both in vivo and in vitro, did not induce any additive or synergistic action on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. PMID: 26119909
  31. Data (including data from studies in transgenic mice) suggest neurotensin/Nts, GLP-1, and peptide YY are closely co-expressed and co-secreted within enteroendocrine cells in ileum mucosa; however, Nts is stored in distinct/separate secretory granules. PMID: 26469136
  32. CEACAM2 regulates insulin secretion, at least in part, by a GLP-1-mediated mechanism, independent of confounding metabolic factors. PMID: 26586918
  33. These data suggest that GLP-1 released from NTS neurons can reduce highly palatable food intake by suppressing mesolimbic DA signaling. PMID: 26212334
  34. Neuronostatin acts via GPR107 to increase cAMP-independent PKA phosphorylation and proglucagon mRNA accumulation in pancreatic alpha-cells. PMID: 26561648
  35. Data indicate that GCGKO mice, lack all proglucagon-derived peptides, including glucagon and GLP-1 are animal model for studying the development, pathogenesis, and metastasis of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (panNETs). PMID: 26192435
  36. Data show that ileal sections were costained for glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and tumor necrosis factor receptor TNFR1. PMID: 26270730
  37. Data show that the action of bile acids on -like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion is predominantly mediated by G protein-coupled bile acid receptor GPBAR1 (TGR5) located on the basolateral L-cell membrane. PMID: 26280129
  38. The PKC-dependent effect of GLP-1 on membrane potential and electrical activity was mediated by activation of Na(+)-permeable TRPM4 and TRPM5 channels by mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+) from thapsigargin-sensitive Ca(2+) stores PMID: 26571400
  39. It was suggested that increased ileal GPR119 is a potential mechanism by which GLP-1 secretion is enhanced in apoA-IV-/- mice. PMID: 26294669
  40. Hypoxia decreases GLP-1 secretion from the GLUTag cell line, and our findings suggest that the postprandial decrease in oxygen tension in the intestine attenuates GLP-1 secretion. PMID: 25832631
  41. In mice, food intake stimulates oxyntomodulin secretion from the gut, which resets liver transcription rhythms via induction of the core clock genes Per1 and 2. PMID: 25821984
  42. Suggest that endogenous GLP-2 may act as a protective factor against the dysregulation of the glucose metabolism that occurs in mice fed a high fat diet. PMID: 25967277
  43. synaptotagmin-7 is directly activated by GLP-1 signaling and may serve as a drug target for boosting insulin secretion. PMID: 26216970
  44. Glucocorticoid receptor activation in GLP-1-producing cells will diminish the secretory responsiveness of these cells to subsequent carbohydrate stimulation leading to diabetes. PMID: 25853863
  45. The patterns of colocalisation of the K cell marker, glucagon-like insulinotropic peptide, and the L cell markers, glucagon like peptide-1 and peptide YY, in enteroendocrine cells of the small intestine and colon of mouse and pig, were investigated. PMID: 25378285
  46. These data indicate that GLP-1 but not GIP is a key mediator of beta cell mass expansion and related adaptations in pregnancy, triggered in part by generation of intra-islet GLP-1. PMID: 24927416
  47. Data suggest that Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes potentially mediate insulin resistance through modulation of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion in obesity. PMID: 25713030
  48. Data suggest that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) may be involved in normal sweet taste signal transmission. PMID: 25678625
  49. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is co-localized with GLP-1 and GIP in small intestinal cells. Data support the hypothesis that nesfatin-1 is present in enteroendocrine cells and that it stimulates incretin secretion. PMID: 25930999
  50. results suggest that the fine-turning of GLP-1 secretion from enteroendocrine L cells is established by the balance between alpha1-, alpha2-, and beta-ARs activation PMID: 25843795
  51. Data suggest there are clear differences in intra-islet GLP1 production during development of type 1 and 2 diabetes; GLP1 is up-regulated only in type 2 diabetes; GLP1 production appears to affect pathophysiological processes in pancreatic islets. PMID: 24510483
  52. In conclusion, GLP-1 and activators of the GLP-1 receptor might be useful targets for the treatment of AD. PMID: 25660451
  53. GLP-1 exerts important insulinotropic effects after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and lifestyle modifications, but the enhanced incretin response plays a limited role in improved glycemia shortly after surgery. PMID: 25204975
  54. These results showed that a modest suppression of Kv2.1 channels dramatically raises insulinotropic potency of GLP-1-based drugs. PMID: 25337656
  55. These data demonstrate glucose-regulated secretion of PP and its effects on glucagon release through PPYR1 receptors expressed by alpha-cells. PMID: 25445712
  56. GLP-1 alters beta cell intermediary metabolism to influence ATP dynamics in a species-specific manner. PMID: 24766140
  57. In the mouse, GLP-1 is extensively amidated at all sites in the intestines, whereas rats and pigs on average had around 2.5 and 4 times higher levels of amidated compared to non-amidated GLP-1. PMID: 24486427
  58. These results suggest that a cAMP-PKA-mediated pathway participates in Glucagon-like peptide-1 stimulated Dio3 expression in MIN6 cells. PMID: 25241124
  59. Glucagon is essential for adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue. PMID: 24949663
  60. Data show that RANTES is involved in altered secretion of GLP-1/GLP-2 most probably acting through SGLT1. PMID: 24875103
  61. Glutamine stimulates the co-release of endogenous GLP-1 and PYY from mucosal L-cells resulting in paracrine GLP-1 and Y1 receptor-mediated electrogenic epithelial responses. PMID: 23992397
  62. This study characterizes the binding of GLP-1(9-36) to native mouse tissues and to cells expressing GLP-1 receptors. PMID: 24641952
  63. Dietary fructose elicits GLP-1 secretion without simultaneous release of glucagonotropic GIP. PMID: 24525020
  64. Grape-seed procyanidins modulate cellular membrane potential and nutrient-induced enteroendocrine GLP-1 secretion in STC-1 cells. PMID: 24371039
  65. This study showed that enhanced GLP-1 secretion and action underlies the development of glucose-mediated hyperinsulinemia associated with endotoxemia. PMID: 24186868
  66. GLP-1 appears to prevent apoptosis, and inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), which cleaves GLP-1, is renoprotective in rodent ischemia-reperfusion injury models. PMID: 24092928
  67. Data suggest that glucagon (but not glucagon-secreting cells) is necessary for normal postnatal islet morphogenesis and functional maturation. PMID: 23982158
  68. butyrate stimulated the release of GLP-1 from intestinal L-cells, thereby providing a plausible mechanism for VSL#3 action. PMID: 23836895
  69. Data suggest that gut microbiota down-regulates expression of two genes coding for body fat-suppressing neuropeptides, Gcg and Bdnf (brain derived neurotrophic factor), an alteration that may contribute to fat mass induction by the gut microbiota. PMID: 23892476
  70. Data suggest that secretion of GLP1 by enterocytes can be up-regulated by dietary factors, here, corn zein hydrolysate (a dietary supplement) which undergoes further digestion. PMID: 23798598
  71. in SAMP8 mice, treatment decreased the expression of glucagon, GLUT2, somatostatin and insulin mRNA. PMID: 22411259
  72. GLP-1 analogue prevents NAFLD in ApoE KO mice with diet and Acrp30 knockdown by inhibiting c-JNK. PMID: 23432843
  73. CRTC2 inhibition resulted in reduced expression of several glucagon-induced pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes that convert amino acids to gluconeogenic intermediates PMID: 23595987
  74. The microglial mRNA expression of proglucagon and GLP-1 protein expression are affected by high levels of free fatty acids. PMID: 23259618
  75. GLP-1 potentiates glucotoxicity-diminished insulin secretion mainly through cAMP-PKA signaling pathway. PMID: 23220045
  76. Data from knockout mice suggest that lack of Ucp2 (uncoupling protein 2) in islet alpha-cells perturbs Gcg response to fasting/ caloric restriction hypoglycemia; normal glucose sensing, Gcg secretion, and euglycemia maintenance require Ucp2. PMID: 23434936
  77. Data suggest that glucagon controls glucose/energy/lipid metabolism via fibroblast growth factor 21- (FGF21)-dependent pathways; activation of glucagon/glucagon receptor signaling raises both hepatic expression and circulating levels of FGF21. PMID: 23305646
  78. Data suggest a role for endogenous GLP2 and GLP2R (glucagon-like peptide-2 receptor) in adaptation of mucosa of duodenum and jejunum to high-fat diet; results suggest dysregulation of GLP2/GLP2R signaling in obesity due to prolonged high-fat diet. PMID: 23308022
  79. Data suggest that alpha-gustducin in colonic mucosa is a key signaling molecule coupling free fatty acid receptors (Gpr43, Gpr119, Gpr120) and possibly bile acid receptor (TGR5) to secretion of GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide 1). PMID: 23341498
  80. the GPRC6A receptor functions as an amino acid sensor in GLUTag cells that promotes GLP-1 secretion PMID: 23269670
  81. Data suggest that gut/brain proglucagon expression is controlled by TCF7L2 (transcription factor 7-like 2 transcription factor) and Wnt signaling; cross-talk between Wnt and glucagon-like peptide 1/cAMP signaling appears to regulate brain metabolism. PMID: 22966074
  82. intestine-restricted activation of membrane progesterone receptors may represent a novel approach for stimulation of incretin hormone secretion and control of glucose homeostasis PMID: 22933106
  83. Data suggest that TGR5 represents an essential component in the pathway mediating the enhanced GLP-1 release in response to anionic exchange resins. PMID: 22666533
  84. Glucagon regulates its own synthesis by autocrine signaling PMID: 23213228
  85. proglucagon-derived peptides are not required for pregnancy-associated ss-cell proliferation, however, are required for regulation of blood glucose levels and normal reproductive capacity PMID: 22928026
  86. Data suggest that glucagon-like peptide 1/glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor signal transduction in diabetes can induce protective action on glomerular endothelial cells (i.e., prevent diabetic nephropathy) by inhibiting Ang II/c-Raf signaling pathway. PMID: 22826029
  87. Postprandial GLP-1 influences the early insulin response to a mixed meal to a greater extent than isocaloric glucose alone. PMID: 22750278
  88. Data suggest that both GLP-1/glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor signal transduction and glucagon receptor activity in central nervous system are involved in control of interscapular brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. PMID: 22933116
  89. A key role was demonstrated for FATP4 in oleic acide-induced GLP-1 secretion from the murine intestinal L cell in vitro and in vivo. PMID: 22871340
  90. Insulin, leptin, and cyclic AMP act directly, but differentially, on specific hypothalamic neurons to regulate proglucagon gene expression. PMID: 22669740
  91. Metabolic manifestations of diabetes cannot occur without glucagon action and, once present, disappear promptly when glucagon action is abolished. PMID: 22891336
  92. this study is the first to show increased levels of GLP-1 in plasma in spontaneously diabetic NOD mice. PMID: 22695119
  93. Results reveal an inhibitory role of uncoupling protein 2 in glucose-induced glucagon-like peptide 1 secretion. PMID: 22257551
  94. results demonstrated that CTCF functions as a switch-like molecule between the insulin signaling and the regulations of Pax6 and glucagon expression in pancreatic islet alpha-cells PMID: 22426149
  95. Elucidating mechanisms of GLP-1R regulation by sumoylation will help improve our understanding of incretin biology and of GLP-1-based treatment of type 2 diabetes PMID: 22234371
  96. GLP-1 or its long-lasting analog liraglutide, function as intestinally derived signals to induce adipocyte formation, both in vitro and in vivo. PMID: 22207759
  97. Data from glucagon receptor knockout mice suggest that glucagon action and glucagon/glucagon receptor signaling contribute to normal female reproductive function (i.e., normal ovulation, placentation, and fetal development). PMID: 22167521
  98. GLP1 activation of central/hypothalamic GLP1R improves glucose homeostasis in insulin resistant mice by increasing pancreatic insulin secretion and enhancing hepatic insulin action. PMID: 22094469
  99. Proglucagon-derived peptides should play important roles in regulating various metabolic pathways, especially that of amino acids. PMID: 22187375
  100. Data show that administration of IL-6 or elevated IL-6 concentrations in response to exercise stimulate GLP-1 secretion from intestinal L cells and pancreatic alpha cells, improving insulin secretion and glycemia. PMID: 22037645

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Subcellular Location Secreted
Protein Families Glucagon family
Tissue Specificity Glucagon is secreted in the A cells of the islets of Langerhans. GLP-1, GLP-2, oxyntomodulin and glicentin are secreted from enteroendocrine cells throughout the gastrointestinal tract. GLP-1 and GLP-2 are also secreted in selected neurons in the brain.
Database Links

KEGG: mmu:14526

STRING: 10090.ENSMUSP00000099794

UniGene: Mm.45494

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