Rat Aquaporin 2,AQP-2 ELISA Kit

Instructions
Code CSB-E08243r
Size 96T,5×96T,10×96T
See More Details 24T ELISA kits trial application
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Product Details

Target Name aquaporin 2 (collecting duct)
Alternative Names Aqp2 ELISA Kit; Aquaporin-2 ELISA Kit; AQP-2 ELISA Kit; ADH water channel ELISA Kit; Aquaporin-CD ELISA Kit; AQP-CD ELISA Kit; Collecting duct water channel protein ELISA Kit; WCH-CD ELISA Kit; Water channel protein for renal collecting duct ELISA Kit
Abbreviation AQP2
Uniprot No. P34080
Species Rattus norvegicus (Rat)
Sample Types serum, plasma, urine, tissue homogenates
Detection Range 6.25 ng/mL-400 ng/mL
Sensitivity 1.56 ng/mL
Assay Time 1-5h
Sample Volume 50-100ul
Detection Wavelength 450 nm
Research Area Signal Transduction
Assay Principle quantitative
Measurement Sandwich
Precision
Intra-assay Precision (Precision within an assay): CV%<8%
Three samples of known concentration were tested twenty times on one plate to assess.
Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays): CV%<10%
Three samples of known concentration were tested in twenty assays to assess.
Linearity
To assess the linearity of the assay, samples were spiked with high concentrations of rat AQP-2 in various matrices and diluted with the Sample Diluent to produce samples with values within the dynamic range of the assay.
 SampleSerum(n=4)
1:1Average %86
Range %82-93
1:2Average %90
Range %85-95
1:4Average %93
Range %88-97
1:8Average %94
Range %91-98
Recovery
The recovery of rat AQP-2 spiked to levels throughout the range of the assay in various matrices was evaluated. Samples were diluted prior to assay as directed in the Sample Preparation section.
Sample TypeAverage % RecoveryRange
Serum (n=5) 10195-106
EDTA plasma (n=4)9487-99
Typical Data
These standard curves are provided for demonstration only. A standard curve should be generated for each set of samples assayed.
ng/mlOD1OD2AverageCorrected
4002.561 2.784 2.673 2.496
2001.823 1.827 1.825 1.648
1001.156 1.167 1.162 0.985
500.754 0.789 0.772 0.595
250.465 0.487 0.476 0.299
12.50.337 0.364 0.351 0.174
6.250.264 0.275 0.270 0.093
00.175 0.179 0.177  
Troubleshooting
and FAQs
ELISA kit FAQs
Storage Store at 2-8°C. Please refer to protocol.
Lead Time 3-5 working days

Target Data

Function Forms a water-specific channel that provides the plasma membranes of renal collecting duct with high permeability to water, thereby permitting water to move in the direction of an osmotic gradient.
Gene References into Functions
  1. AQP2 is crucial for the activation of SK3 by TRPV4, leading to hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane. PMID: 29243846
  2. AQP2 expression is markedly increased in kidneys following chronic stress. PMID: 30021346
  3. Low AQP2 expression is associated with hypertension. PMID: 30009821
  4. ezrin facilitates AQP2 endocytosis, thus linking the dynamic actin cytoskeleton network with AQP2 trafficking. PMID: 28754689
  5. Results provide evidence that NHE2 and AQP2 work in coordination as part of the cellular device that regulates collecting duct cell cycle progression. PMID: 27191152
  6. The results of this study using multiple approaches and 2 different animal models of hypercalcemia revealed that autophagic degradation of a specific set of proteins including AQP2 was observed at the early onset of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. PMID: 28139295
  7. PP2C activity is required for S261 AQP2 dephosphorylation upon vasopressin stimulation, which occurs independently of S256 phosphorylation. PMID: 28381458
  8. aquaporin-2 regulates serine/threonine phosphatases in renal collecting duct PMID: 27784696
  9. These results suggest that Ser-261 phospho-regulation is involved in pS256- and pS269-mediated AQP2 apical translocation. PMID: 28668390
  10. These results provide the direct evidence that the Ser-261 dephosphorylation is involved in the pS256- and pS269-related AQP2 regulation. PMID: 27889609
  11. Upregulation of AQP-2 in the distal colon is found in cirrhotic rats with ascites. Tolvaptan inhibits its expression and may decrease water reabsorption and induce diarrhea. PMID: 27022218
  12. Data show that enhanced autophagic degradation of proteins, most notably including aquaporin-2 (AQP2), is an early event in hypokalemia-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). PMID: 26674602
  13. Remote ischemic perconditioning prevents dysregulation of renal water and salt handling via regulation of AQP2 expression and phosphorylation as well as via regulation of Na-K-ATPase expression in I/R rat kidneys. PMID: 27405971
  14. the activation of CaSR in the collecting duct prevents the cyclic AMP-dependent increase in AQP2-phosphorylation at S256 and water permeability, counteracting the short-term vasopressin response. PMID: 25977473
  15. Therefore, we suggest that there is a regional heterogeneity of regulation of renal NPRs, TonEBP, and APQ-2 mRNA in acute kidney injury . PMID: 25858778
  16. increased expression in facial nerve following crush injury PMID: 25762220
  17. AVP-induced increase in AQP2 is blunted in heart failure during cardiac remodeling and is associated with decreased AT1R abundance in rat kidney. PMID: 25658446
  18. Suggest ERalpha in mediates the inhibitory effect of estradiol on AQP2 expression in collecting ducts. PMID: 26062878
  19. Exercise training decreased AQP-2 and beta-tubulin protein expression. PMID: 21251048
  20. The direct renin inhibitor aliskiren increased water channel AQP2 expression in obstructed kidneys of UUO mice, at least partially by preventing NLRP3 inflammasome activation in association with ureteral obstruction. PMID: 25694485
  21. Reduced activity of PP2A, secondary to reduced intracellular Ca2+ levels, promotes AQP2 trafficking independently of the arginine vasopressin-protein kinase A axis. PMID: 24700872
  22. Developed a systematic procedure for identifying new compounds that modulate AQP2 trafficking using high throughput screening, in vitro assays in cells/kidney slices, and in vivo testing in an animal model. PMID: 24944200
  23. The data demonstrate that VACM-1 is involved in the regulation of AQP2 protein concentration and may play a role in regulating water balance. PMID: 23171819
  24. It is a water channel and its abnormal gene expression in kidney causes a disorder of urine concentrating ability. PMID: 24531898
  25. These data suggest that an increased plasma level of vasopressin promoted the excretion of urinary exosomal AQP2 and that urine alkalinization also increased it independently of vasopressin. PMID: 23986519
  26. Hypothyroidism contributes in a differential way to aging-induced changes in renal function, and medullary NO and AQP2 would be implicated in maintaining water homeostasis. PMID: 23706747
  27. An increase in cell proliferation is observed in renal cells expressing AQP2. PMID: 22786728
  28. Antidiuretic hormone might play an important role in controlling the expression of AQP-2 in the endolymphatic sac and kidney. PMID: 15338864
  29. Emodin can inhibit the genetic transcription and translation of AQP2 gene in NRK cells. PMID: 21038660
  30. Protein expression of AQP2 was significantly lower after ovariectomy and was restored to the control levels after 17beta-estradiol treatment. This suggests that AQPs may have a role in detrusor overactivity that occurs with hormonal alteration in female rat. PMID: 21479884
  31. Our data provide evidence of a novel association between TRPV4 and AQP2 that is involved in the activation of TRPV4 by hypotonicity and regulation of cellular response to the osmotic stress PMID: 21938744
  32. Report age-related changes in expression of renal AQP2 in response to congenital, partial, unilateral ureteral obstruction in rats. PMID: 22028046
  33. Report AQP2 up-regulation in the solitary kidney in response to partial ureteral obstruction in neonatal rats. PMID: 21677414
  34. Data suggest that EP2 and EP4 agonists increase AQP2 phosphorylation and trafficking, likely through different signaling pathways. PMID: 21768374
  35. Simvastatin -induced membrane accumulation of AQP2 in cultured cells and kidney slices in vitro is mainly due to reduced endocytosis rather than increased exocytosis. PMID: 21511701
  36. downregulation of AQP2 could in part be caused by degradation of AQP2 through a lysosomal degradation pathway PMID: 21525134
  37. AQP2 was mainly localized to the type II, IV, and V fibrocyte of the spiral ligament of the inner ear. Interaction between AQP1, AQP2 and AF might be possible. PMID: 17628981
  38. KCC1 affects water transport solely by K(+) extrusion. Intracellular K(+) retention conceivably leads to cell swelling, followed by an increased rate of endocytic AQP2 retrieval from the apical membrane. PMID: 21112289
  39. Elevation of cAMP increased AQP2 protein levels within 30 minutes in primary inner medullary collecting duct cells. PMID: 20724536
  40. AQP2 expression facilitates cell swelling or shrinkage leading to the activation of channels necessary to the control of cell proliferatio and apoptosis. PMID: 20432437
  41. Upregulation of AQP2 expression is maintained dependent upon non-suppressible release of arginine vasopressin in rats with glucocorticoid deficiency. AQP2 plays a crucial role in impairment of water excretion in aged rats with glucocorticoid deficiency. PMID: 19040709
  42. These results demonstrate that NSAIDs decrease AQP2 protein abundance, particularly during adaptation during dehydration. PMID: 20130117
  43. The results indicate that COX-2 inhibition does not mimic ANG II receptor (AT1R) blockade-mediated effects and that AT1R-mediated AQP2 regulation in the postobstructed kidney collecting duct is independent of COX-2 induction. PMID: 20107111
  44. These studies suggest that Ser269 phosphorylation may be a more consistent indicator of vasopressin action and AQP2 membrane abundance than is Ser256 phosphorylation. PMID: 20089674
  45. delineates induction and degradation mechanisms of AQP2 endogenously expressed by a renal collecting duct principal cell line PMID: 11782489
  46. Aquaporin-2 transcription is differentially regulated by dietary salt in Sprague-Dawley and Dahl SS/Jr rats PMID: 12176047
  47. by elevated effective osmolality (tonicity) is crucial for the expression of AQP2 in inner medullary cells of the kidney PMID: 12388395
  48. AQP2-bearing vesicles are a unique intracellular compartment distinct from the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, trans-Golgi network and lysosome. Endosomes might be involved in the trafficking of AQP2. PMID: 12422412
  49. cAMP initiates an early step, namely the transport of AQP2-bearing vesicles towards the plasma membrane. The data do not support a regulatory function for Ca(2+) in the AQP2 shuttle. PMID: 12524527
  50. The expression of the collecting duct water channel AQP2, p-AQP2 and AQP3 was significantly downregulated after hemorrhagic shock (HS), which may play an important role in the impaired urinary concentrating ability in HS-induced acute renal failure. PMID: 14605277
  51. Metabolic acidosis upregulates AQP-2 and increases urine osmolality. Concomitant increase in AVP synthesis and secretion likely plays essential role in adaptation of AQP-2 in metabolic acidosis. PMID: 15075200
  52. tonicity-response regions in the AQP-2 promoter gene, and that either hypervolemia or hypotonicity may attenuate the postreceptor signalling of vasopressin in renal collecting duct cells in SIADH rats. PMID: 15089964
  53. AQP2 levels are regulated by calcineurin A-alpha in diabetic kidney glomeruli and collecting ducts PMID: 15153553
  54. SPA-1 directly binds to AQP2 and regulates at least in part AQP2 trafficking PMID: 15196935
  55. C-terminal fragment of AQP2 strongly bound to actin and the K(D) value was 3.18x10(-8)M. PMID: 15336526
  56. N-ethylmaleimide causes translocation of AQP2 from the cytosol to the plasma membrane in rat inner medullary collecting ducts; like the response to arginine vasopressin, this action was also dependent on an intact cytoskeleton and PKA. PMID: 15536172
  57. ANG II AT(1) receptor activation plays a significant role in regulating aquaporin and sodium transporter expression and modulating urine concentration in vivo. PMID: 15585668
  58. the first 24 hours of food deprivation is associated with a significant down-regulation of AQP2 in the kidney cortex and outer medulla collecting ducts PMID: 15610244
  59. S256 phosphorylation is necessary but not sufficient for AQP2 plasma membrane expression PMID: 15625084
  60. AQP2 membrane insertion can be induced independently of vasopressin-receptor activation by activating a parallel cGMP-mediated signal transduction pathway with cGMP PDE inhibitors PMID: 15644488
  61. Results suggest that increases in the osmotic water permeability due to the expression of aquaporin 2 are critical for a rapid activation of regulatory volume decrease mechanisms. PMID: 15859948
  62. Our data point to a dual role of moesin in AQP2 trafficking: it might modulate actin depolymerization and it participates in the reorganization of F-actin-containing cytoskeletal structures close to the fusion sites of the AQP2-bearing vesicles. PMID: 16046477
  63. ANP induced an increase in apical targeting of AQP2 and ENaC.This targeting of ENaC and AQP2 likely represents direct or compensatory effects to increase sodium and water reabsorption and to prevent volume depletion in response to prolonged ANP infusion. PMID: 16174867
  64. The expression of KIM-1 and AQP-2 was similar among the injured kidneys of rats treated witwh cyclosporine and sirolimus. PMID: 16387092
  65. Our results demonstrated that the rate of osmosis produced by a given hypotonic shock depends on the gradient direction (osmotic rectification) only in the presence of apical AQP2. PMID: 16550485
  66. Activation of Epac by an exogenous cAMP analog triggers intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization and apical exocytotic insertion of AQP2 in inner medullary collecting duct. PMID: 16684923
  67. decreases in UT-A1, AQP2, and NKCC2/BSC1 proteins may contribute to the diuresis and natriuresis that occur following ANG II or norepinephrine-induced acute hypertension PMID: 16788141
  68. These results suggest that: 1) the increase in UT-A1 observed in DM is dependent upon having adrenal steroids present. PMID: 17264983
  69. microtubule-dependent transport of AQP2 is predominantly responsible for trafficking and localization of AQP2 inside the cell after its internalization but not for the exocytic transport of the water channel PMID: 17626240
  70. 70-kDa heat shock proteins as a AQP2 interactors and have shown for hsc70 that this interaction is involved in AQP2 trafficking. PMID: 17636261
  71. TRPC3 and TRPC6 exist in different vesicle populations. TRPC3 physically associates with APQ2 and shuttles to the apical membrane in response to AVP. TRPC3 is responsible for transepithelial Ca2+ flux in principal cells of the renal collecting duct. PMID: 17699554
  72. The AVP-independent downregulation of AQP2, the observed increase in renal arterial pressure, and decrease in filtration fraction contribute to polyuria and the increased solute excretion in spite of enhanced ion transporters in thyrotoxicosis. PMID: 17700641
  73. In rats in which hypertension is induced by nitric oxide synthase inhibition, SGLT2 activity and AQP2 expression are modified to compensate for the elevated arterial pressure. PMID: 17940347
  74. The expression of AQP2 in the cell membrane is critical to produce the increase in [Ca(2+)](i) which is necessary to activate regulatory volume decrease in RCCD(1) cells. PMID: 18094031
  75. inner medullary collecting ducts isolated from rats treated with lithium were subjected to proteomic analysis to identify unique candidate proteins for AQP2 regulation PMID: 18296634
  76. there is a posttranscriptional downregulation of AQP2 with aging, which is abolished by water deprivation PMID: 18367658
  77. Circulatory arrest led to down regulation of renal AQP2 expression. PMID: 18419953
  78. nitric oxide synthase activity decreases AQP2 expression/traffic in the inner collecting duct principal cells in response to hemorrhage and this effect is lower with aging PMID: 18502184
  79. vasopressin-mediated phosphorylation of AQP2 at Ser269:(a) depends on prior PKA-mediated phosphorylation of Ser256 and (b) enhances apical plasma membrane retention of AQP2. PMID: 18606813
  80. An animal model for nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with reduced AQP2 by lithium chloride was used to develop gene therapy. PMID: 18653713
  81. Reduction in transcriptional regulation of AQP-2 under hypotonic state may support the in vivo finding of AVP(argipressin) escape phenomenon in chronic AVP-induced antidiuresis. PMID: 18655911
  82. acute hypertonicity profoundly alters AQP2 trafficking and that hypertonicity-induced AQP2 accumulation at the cell surface depends on MAP kinase activity. PMID: 18664568
  83. NF-kappaB is an important physiological regulator of AQP2 transcription PMID: 18703515
  84. Results suggest that under apoptotic stimulation aquaporin-2 acts as a sensor for activation of potassium and chloride channels, resulting in rapid cell shrinkage and levels of ions necessary to activate the enzymatic apoptotic cascade. PMID: 18717646
  85. Glucagon increased the AQP2 water channel protein expression, leading us to conclude that glucagon controls water absorption by utilizing a glucagon receptor, rather than a AVP receptor, increasing the AQP2 protein expression. PMID: 18829741
  86. Serine 269 phosphorylated Aqp2 is targeted to the apical membrane of collecting duct principal cells. PMID: 18843259
  87. Results of these studies suggest that, in nucleus pulposus cells, osmotic pressure and calcium modulate AQP2 expression through TonEBP and are independent of the calcineurin-NFAT pathway PMID: 19138132
  88. phosphorylation of AQP2 at Ser-256 may regulate AQP2 trafficking in part by mediating differential binding of hsp70 family proteins to the COOH-terminal tail. PMID: 19209902
  89. AQP2 translocation is largely decreased by metabolic acidosis even with increased expression in the collecting ducts. PMID: 19300448
  90. Report syntaxin specificity of aquaporins in the inner medullary collecting duct. PMID: 19515809
  91. In sirolimus-treated animals, AQP2 expression was reduced and expression of TRPM6 was increased. PMID: 19656910
  92. Increased abundance of inner medulla aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and AQP2 phosphorylated at Ser(256) (p-AQP2) in heart failure. PMID: 19776175
  93. FAPP2 is necessary to generate AQP2-bearing vesicles at trans-Golgi that will undergo phosphorylation by protein kinase A in subapical regions. PMID: 19794145

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Subcellular Location Apical cell membrane, Multi-pass membrane protein, Basolateral cell membrane, Multi-pass membrane protein, Cytoplasmic vesicle membrane, Multi-pass membrane protein, Golgi apparatus, trans-Golgi network membrane, Multi-pass membrane protein
Protein Families MIP/aquaporin (TC 1.A.8) family
Tissue Specificity Expressed in renal collecting tubules.
Database Links

KEGG: rno:25386

STRING: 10116.ENSRNOP00000000324

UniGene: Rn.90076

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