Rat xanthine oxidase (XOD) ELISA kit

Code CSB-E13614r
Size 96T,5×96T,10×96T
See More Details 24T ELISA kits trial application
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Product Details

Target Name xanthine dehydrogenase
Alternative Names Xdh ELISA Kit; Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase [Includes: Xanthine dehydrogenase ELISA Kit; XD ELISA Kit; EC; Xanthine oxidase ELISA Kit; XO ELISA Kit; EC ELISA Kit; Xanthine oxidoreductase ELISA Kit; XOR)] ELISA Kit
Abbreviation XDH
Uniprot No. P22985
Species Rattus norvegicus (Rat)
Sample Types serum, plasma, tissue homogenates
Detection Range 0.312 ng/mL-20 ng/mL
Sensitivity 0.078 ng/mL
Assay Time 1-5h
Sample Volume 50-100ul
Detection Wavelength 450 nm
Research Area Others
Assay Principle quantitative
Measurement Sandwich
Intra-assay Precision (Precision within an assay): CV%<8%
Three samples of known concentration were tested twenty times on one plate to assess.
Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays): CV%<10%
Three samples of known concentration were tested in twenty assays to assess.
To assess the linearity of the assay, samples were spiked with high concentrations of rat XOD in various matrices and diluted with the Sample Diluent to produce samples with values within the dynamic range of the assay.
1:1Average %87
Range %82-93
1:2Average %96
Range %91-103
1:4Average %98
Range %96-105
1:8Average %97
Range %92-102
The recovery of rat XOD spiked to levels throughout the range of the assay in various matrices was evaluated. Samples were diluted prior to assay as directed in the Sample Preparation section.
Sample TypeAverage % RecoveryRange
Serum (n=5) 9894-104
EDTA plasma (n=4)10496-108
Typical Data
These standard curves are provided for demonstration only. A standard curve should be generated for each set of samples assayed.
202.711 2.610 2.661 2.544
102.208 2.107 2.158 2.041
51.507 1.486 1.497 1.380
2.50.909 0.898 0.904 0.787
1.250.467 0.456 0.462 0.345
0.6250.280 0.291 0.286 0.169
0.3120.185 0.188 0.187 0.070
00.116 0.117 0.117  
and FAQs
Storage Store at 2-8°C. Please refer to protocol.
Lead Time 3-5 working days

Target Data

Function Key enzyme in purine degradation. Catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine. Catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. Contributes to the generation of reactive oxygen species.
Gene References into Functions
  1. S-allyl cysteine as potent anti-gout drug: Insight into the xanthine oxidase inhibition and anti-inflammatory activity. PMID: 30059711
  2. Abdominal paracentesis drainage protects rats against severe acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury by reducing the mobilization of intestinal xanthine dehydrogenase. PMID: 27585949
  3. Our results show that XOR is important to the cardiovascular responses to nitrite in 2K1C hypertension, and XOR inhibitors commonly used by patients may cancel this effect. This finding suggests that nitrite treatment may not be effective in patients being treated with XOR inhibitors PMID: 27078869
  4. Hepatocyte growth factor prevents XO activation following hypoxia/reoxygenation primarily by inhibiting the JAK2 signaling pathway and in turn, inhibiting the increase in cytosolic Calcium. PMID: 27573711
  5. Treatment with etaftorone decreased expression of inducible NOS and XOR in kidneys, whereas it increased the expression of endothelial NOS. PMID: 26663724
  6. Results suggest that exaggerated XO activity and resultant increase in oxidative stress contributes to hypertension and xanthine oxidase inhibition could treat treating hypertension and related endothelial dysfunction. PMID: 27198514
  7. Transitional cell tumors induced by xanthine oxidase inhibitor topiroxostat in rats were due to physical stimulation to transitional cells of xanthine crystals/calculi. PMID: 24448833
  8. metabolism of sodium metabisulfite in liver tissue increased XO activity, induced ER stress and caused caspase activation which was attenuated by ghrelin treatment PMID: 25486021
  9. We have constructed a variant of the liver enzyme that lacks the carboxy-terminal amino acids 1316-1331; it appears to assume an intermediate form, exhibiting a mixture of dehydrogenase and oxidase activities. PMID: 25817260
  10. Data suggest that, with aging, up-regulation of reactive oxygen species derived from XO down-regulates uric acid excretion via down-regulation of active homodimer breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1, uric acid efflux transporter) in ileal mucosa. PMID: 26119820
  11. Rat Xdh is a moonlighting protein that has two distinct catalytic activities as a dehydrogenase and an oxidase. PMID: 15878860
  12. Allopurinol improves left ventricular contractile function and efficiency possibly by diminishing the known XO-mediated ROS effects on myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity. PMID: 24014679
  13. crystal structures of the urate complexes of the demolybdo-form of the D428A mutant of rat xanthine oxidoreductase and of the reduced bovine milk enzyme PMID: 21077683
  14. 6-mercaptopurine treatment resulted in increased xanthine oxidase (Xdh) expression in the placenta. PMID: 22688000
  15. The present study indicates that enhancement of XO activity could be implicated in acrylonitrile-induced gastric damage in rats. PMID: 22648241
  16. inhibition ameliorates sympathetic innervation and arrhythmias PMID: 21295134
  17. Report differential effects of xanthine oxidase inhibition and exercise on albumin concentration in rat tissues. PMID: 20555367
  18. Xanthine oxidase inhibition can offer protection from radiation-induced endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular complications. PMID: 20167676
  19. xanthine oxidase and nitric oxide synthase have a role in cocaine-induced oxidative damage to skin PMID: 20399619
  20. Aluminium increases xanthine oxidase activity and disturbs antioxidant status in the rat. PMID: 11787993
  21. a pivotal role in cytokine-induced bone resorption PMID: 12653206
  22. Contractile claudication causes an increase in xanthine oxidase activity in muscles. Inhibition of these oxidant sources protects against oxidative stress, muscle damage, and edema. PMID: 12969896
  23. 17alpha- and 17beta-estradiol modulate the hypoxia-induced regulation of XDH/XO activity at a posttranscriptional level by a receptor-independent mechanism PMID: 14588143
  24. role for locally synthesized XOR in the development of hypertension-associated end-organ damage, but no major role in the development of hypertension. PMID: 15201549
  25. Major part of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in acute rejection was contributed by xanthine oxidoreductase(XOR). ROS are associated with and contribute to acute allograft rejection because inhibition of XOR alleviated rejection phenomena. PMID: 15201667
  26. analysis of cysteine disulfide bonds and crystal structure of a non-convertible rat liver xanthine dehydrogenase mutant PMID: 15878860
  27. RONS formation by xanthine oxidase prevents activation of important signalling pathways, predominantly the MAPK-NF-kappaB pathway PMID: 15932896
  28. Nitrite-derived nitric oxide by xanthine oxidoreductase in hypoxic and acidic environment induced by hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury(I/R) protects liver against I/R injury in vivo. PMID: 16109514
  29. results point to an important role for xanthine oxidase in the early stage of hyperlipidemia-associated renal injury, mediating macrophage infiltration by a putatively redox-dependent upregulation of MCP-1 and VCAM-1 PMID: 16407880
  30. increased free radical generation-associated increase in SBP in aging rats is xanthine oxidase but not NAD(P)H oxidase-dependent PMID: 17031261
  31. Study presents a mutant of rat XOR that displays mainly XO activity with a superoxide:hydrogen peroxide production ratio of about 6:1. PMID: 17301076
  32. the NADH oxidase activity of both xanthine dehydrogenase (XD) and xanthine oxidase (XO) forms of rat liver xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) and the potential role of this mammalian enzyme as an O2*- source PMID: 17440754
  33. data provide the first evidence indicating that the JAK-STAT pathway is involved in hypoxia-mediated xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase (XDH/XO) activation in lung microvascular endothelial cells PMID: 17920330
  34. Hypoxia-exposed pups had evidence of increased serum and lung XO activity, increased vascular XO-derived superoxide production, and vascular nitrotyrosine formation. PMID: 18083771
  35. Xanthine oxidase and mitochondria contribute to vascular superoxide anion generation in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. PMID: 18487445
  36. Mechanisms underlying erythrocyte and endothelial nitrite reduction to nitric oxide in hypoxia: role for xanthine oxidoreductase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. PMID: 18818408
  37. Xanthine oxidase contributes to mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragmatic oxidative stress and contractile dysfunction. PMID: 18974366

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Subcellular Location Peroxisome, Cytoplasm, Secreted
Protein Families Xanthine dehydrogenase family
Database Links

KEGG: rno:497811

STRING: 10116.ENSRNOP00000009634

UniGene: Rn.202951

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