Recombinant Human Interleukin-31 (IL31) (Active)

Code CSB-AP004631HU
Size $290
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  • (Tris-Glycine gel) Discontinuous SDS-PAGE (reduced) with 5% enrichment gel and 15% separation gel.
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Product Details

Greater than 95% as determined by SDS-PAGE.
Less than 0.01 EU/µg as determined by LAL method.
The ED50 as determined by inducing STAT3 activation in U87 MG human glioblastoma/astrocytoma cells is less than 45 ng/mL.
Target Names
Uniprot No.
Research Area
Alternative Names
IL 31; IL-31; IL31; IL31_HUMAN; Interleukin 31; Interleukin-31
Homo sapiens (Human)
Expression Region
Complete Sequence
Mol. Weight
15.8 kDa
Protein Length
Full Length of Mature Protein
Tag Info
Lyophilized powder
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered 1xPBS, pH 7.4.
We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
Troubleshooting and FAQs
Storage Condition
Store at -20°C/-80°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life
The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time
Basically, we can dispatch the products out in 5-10 working days after receiving your orders. Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA
Please contact us to get it.

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Target Background

Activates STAT3 and possibly STAT1 and STAT5 through the IL31 heterodimeric receptor composed of IL31RA and OSMR. May function in skin immunity. Enhances myeloid progenitor cell survival in vitro. Induces RETNLA and serum amyloid A protein expression in macrophages.
Gene References into Functions
  1. Eosinophils are a major source of IL-31 in bullous pemphigoid and this cytokine may contribute to itch in these patients. PMID: 29693698
  2. Lung cancer patients homozygous CC for rs7977932 or carried the G allele of rs4758680 had significantly poorer prognoses compared to those who did not have these genotype; the rs7977932 CC genotype was significantly associated with metastasis and poor survival status in lung adenocarcinoma PMID: 29791232
  3. The findings suggest that rs7977932 and rs4758680 of IL-31 may be associated with the development and progression of the epithelial ovarian cancer in the Chinese population. PMID: 29484036
  4. this study shows that decreased serum levels of IL-31 correlate in treated patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis PMID: 29050818
  5. review: in-depth overview of the role of IL-31 in chronic skin diseases and the possible diagnostic and therapeutic applications in the management of these diseases PMID: 29046191
  6. Obtained results, as well as literature data, show that lower concentration of IL-31 in patients' serum may be correlated with its role in JAK/STAT signaling pathway which is involved in development of autoimmune blistering disease PMID: 28808661
  7. IL-31 gene polymorphisms were tightly associated with dilated cardiomyopathy susceptibility and contributed to worse prognosis in DCM patients. PMID: 28572699
  8. This study indicated that CXCL13 rather than IL-31 may have clinical values of diagnosis and prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID: 27663978
  9. The first demonstration of the involvement of the IL-31/IL-31R axis in cancer came from studies in patients with mycosis fungoides/Sezary syndrome, the most frequent, cutaneous T cell lymphoma. Tumor cells were shown to produce IL-31, whose serum levels correlated with pruritus intensity. PMID: 28408397
  10. IL31 and its receptor, IL31RA, are highly expressed in various human and mouse cancer cell lines, as well as in tumor specimens from cancer patients. MC38 murine colon carcinoma cells depleted of IL31 exhibit an increase in invasive and migratory properties in vitro. PMID: 28147314
  11. this study shows that IL-31 may be involved in the pathogenesis of asthma and rhinitis; dust mite and mugwort allergy could increase it significantly PMID: 28303765
  12. While serum TSLP levels were unaffected by concomitant allergies and atopic comorbidities, serum levels of IL-31, IL-33 and sST2 were affected to a small extent. We found a positive correlation between TSLP, IL-31 and IL-33, and an inverse relationship between IL-33 and sST2 PMID: 27152943
  13. Suggest that IL-31 gene may play a role in the development of systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID: 26769434
  14. High IL31 expression is associated with Endometrial Cancer. PMID: 27340318
  15. In a CML patient with pruritus receiving imatinib mesylate, IL-31 and IL-33 serum levels were significantly higher than controls. Imatinib could cause keratinocyte injury, the release of IL-33, and the consequent interaction with its receptor on mast cells, inducing IL-31 secretion. The IL-31/IL-33 axis may be involved in the pathogenesis of skin side effects related to imatinib mesylate treatment. PMID: 26316486
  16. Distinct polymorphic variants of the IL-31 gene may be involved in the patho-genesis of mastocytosis, and IL-31 may be involved in the induction of pruritus in patients with mastocytosis. PMID: 27276346
  17. Serum/pleural fluid IL-31 levels are elevated in tuberculous pleural effusion. PMID: 26864868
  18. both SCF and IL-31 play an important role in mediating inflammation and enhancing severity of atopic asthma. PMID: 26853551
  19. IL-31 affects keratinocyte differentiation in multiple ways and the IL-1 cytokine network is a major downstream effector of IL-31 signaling in deregulating the physical skin barrier. PMID: 26944931
  20. Oncostatin M and interleukin-31: Cytokines, receptors, signal transduction and physiology. PMID: 26198770
  21. The results of our analyses regarding serum levels and receptor expression do not suggest a central role of IL-31 in Mycosis fungoides/Sezary syndrome pathogenesis. PMID: 25488078
  22. In summary, TGF-beta1 and IL-31 were linked to progression from chronic hepatitis B to liver cirrhosis, and correlated well with the severity of disease. PMID: 25710085
  23. An increase of IL-31 serum levels in postmenopausal women with decreased bone mineral density, is shown. PMID: 26449657
  24. a possible systemic involvement of IL-31 and the absence of a systemic involvement of IL-33 in allergic contact dermatitis. PMID: 26357000
  25. crucial requirements for IL-31 signaling and its counter-regulation by SOCS3 PMID: 26306032
  26. IL-31 expression in allergic rhinitis aggravated and amplified Th2 inflammation as well as mucin production PMID: 25285475
  27. The IL-31 serum level was significantly higher in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma patients than in the control group but there were no positive correlation between IL-31 serum level and pruritus. PMID: 25176053
  28. IL-31 is overexpressed in the lesional skin of LP but its expression does not correlate with intensity of pruritus. PMID: 25756056
  29. IL-31 was increased after IVIG treatment in patients with KD and was significantly associated with CAL formation. PMID: 25122210
  30. Case Report: sporadic lichen amyloidosis with high expression of Il31. PMID: 24573820
  31. The results of this study suggest that the severity of atopic dermatitis in a Polish population is associated with some specific haplotypes of the IL-31 gene and renew questions concerning the role of IL-31 in pruritus in atopic dermatitis. PMID: 25534405
  32. enhanced Th2 cytokine levels was correlated with IL-31 expression in NPs and provide a possible explanation for IL-31's regulatory role in the pathogenesis of NPs. PMID: 24515918
  33. the results suggest that IL-31 may be a candidate gene associated with the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis PMID: 25572240
  34. The interleukin IL-31/IL-31receptor axis contributes to tumor growth in human follicular lymphoma. PMID: 25283844
  35. TARC and interleukin-31 may be biomarkers for adult atopic dermatitis PMID: 24984931
  36. IL-31 may play an important role in the pathophysiology of uremic pruritus. PMID: 25270263
  37. IL-31-positive cells were observed as mononuclear infiltrating cells and as CD11b co-expressing cells in severe atopic dermatitis samples. PMID: 24667097
  38. Data show that STAT6 and NF-kappaB are central players in mediating IL-31 expression induced by IL-4/IL-33. PMID: 24943220
  39. EGFR-TK inhibitors could cause keratinocytes injury, the release of IL-33 and the consequent interaction with its receptor on mast cells, that induces the secretion of several factors capable to cause skin manifestations, included IL-31 PMID: 23794184
  40. IL-31 seems to be another sweat stimulator. PMID: 23874436
  41. CD4+CD26- malignant cells specifically produce IL-31 and clinical resolution of pruritus correlates with decreased IL-31 levels in the circulation PMID: 23698099
  42. IL-31 and IL-31RA are upregulated in patients with allergic rhinitis, and induce MUC5AC gene expression in human airway epithelial cells. PMID: 23392388
  43. IL-31 induces pro-inflammatory effects in activated human macrophages via STAT-1 and 5 phosphorylation. Interleukin-31-induced ERK 1/2 activation contributes to the underlying mechanism of Th1 cytokine IL-12 suppression in macrophages. PMID: 23621408
  44. Il-31 is not a TH2 cytokine in the classical sense but is likely to be expressed by a number of cells in an allergic situation in which IL-4 is present and possibly contribute to the allergic reaction. PMID: 23694808
  45. hypothesize that an altered regulation of IL-31 gene expression influence clinical course of AD. The available published data and our results lend support to an important role of IL-31 gene polymorphism in AD pathogenesis PMID: 22827739
  46. IL-31-631 T>G polymorphism was significantly associated with IL-31 blood level but not with disease susceptibility. PMID: 21952721
  47. T cells in chronic atopic dermatitis (AD) skin produce IL-31 and AD lesions contain increased levels of these IL-31-producing T cells. PMID: 22621183
  48. IL-31 serum levels correlate with the SCORAD score, sleeplessness, and Th2 cytokines including IL-4 and IL-13, in sixty children with the extrinsic type of atopic dermatitis. PMID: 22509760
  49. IL-31-specific activation of dendritic cells may be part of a positive feedback loop driving the progression of inflammatory skin diseases. PMID: 22539792
  50. Distinct SPINK5 and IL-31 gene variants (SNPs) were associated with the development of atopic eczema and non-atopic hand dermatitis in Taiwanese nurses. PMID: 22017185

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Subcellular Location
Tissue Specificity
Detected at low levels in testis, bone marrow, skeletal muscle, kidney, colon, thymus, small intestine and trachea.
Database Links

HGNC: 19372

OMIM: 609509

KEGG: hsa:386653

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000366234

UniGene: Hs.569071

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