Human α2 macroglobulin,α2 MG ELISA Kit

Instructions
Code CSB-E08959h
Size 96T,5×96T,10×96T
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Product Details

Target Name alpha-2-macroglobulin
Alternative Names A2m ELISA Kit; A2MG_HUMAN ELISA Kit; Alpha 2 M ELISA Kit; Alpha 2M ELISA Kit; Alpha-2-M ELISA Kit; Alpha-2-macroglobulin ELISA Kit; C3 and PZP-like alpha-2-macroglobulin domain-containing protein 5 ELISA Kit; CPAMD5 ELISA Kit; DKFZp779B086 ELISA Kit; FWP007 ELISA Kit; S863 7 ELISA Kit
Abbreviation A2M
Uniprot No. P01023
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Sample Types serum, plasma, tissue homogenates
Detection Range 1.25 μg/mL-20 μg/mL
Sensitivity 1.25 μg/mL
Assay Time 1-5h
Sample Volume 50-100ul
Detection Wavelength 450 nm
Research Area Immunology
Assay Principle quantitative
Measurement Competitive
Precision
Intra-assay Precision (Precision within an assay): CV%<8%
Three samples of known concentration were tested twenty times on one plate to assess.
Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays): CV%<10%
Three samples of known concentration were tested in twenty assays to assess.
Linearity
To assess the linearity of the assay, samples were spiked with high concentrations of human α2 MG in various matrices and diluted with the Sample Diluent to produce samples with values within the dynamic range of the assay.
 SampleSerum(n=4)
1:100Average %87
Range %82-93
1:200Average %94
Range %89-99
1:400Average %95
Range %89-99
1:800Average %92
Range %87-96
Recovery
The recovery of human α2 MG spiked to levels throughout the range of the assay in various matrices was evaluated. Samples were diluted prior to assay as directed in the Sample Preparation section.
Sample TypeAverage % RecoveryRange
Serum (n=5) 9285-98
EDTA plasma (n=4)9692-101
Typical Data
These standard curves are provided for demonstration only. A standard curve should be generated for each set of samples assayed.
μg/mlOD1OD2Average
200.185 0.187 0.186
100.360 0.365 0.363
50.635 0.642 0.639
2.51.163 1.172 1.168
1.251.995 2.013 2.004
02.849 2.924 2.887
Troubleshooting
and FAQs
ELISA kit FAQs
Storage Store at 2-8°C. Please refer to protocol.
Lead Time 3-5 working days

Target Data

Function Is able to inhibit all four classes of proteinases by a unique 'trapping' mechanism. This protein has a peptide stretch, called the 'bait region' which contains specific cleavage sites for different proteinases. When a proteinase cleaves the bait region, a conformational change is induced in the protein which traps the proteinase. The entrapped enzyme remains active against low molecular weight substrates (activity against high molecular weight substrates is greatly reduced). Following cleavage in the bait region, a thioester bond is hydrolyzed and mediates the covalent binding of the protein to the proteinase.
Gene References into Functions
  1. Serum alpha2MG levels might reflect endothelial dysfunction evaluated by flow-mediated dilation in patients with chronic stroke or cardiovascular risk factors PMID: 29093276
  2. The blood coagulation pathway may be a key regulatory network pathway contributing to the allergic inflammatory response in AR patients. A2M, which is regulated by STAT3, may be an important protein in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis in AR patients. PMID: 27228572
  3. Proteomics study showed a strong association of FN1, A2M, C4BPA and CFB in molecular subtypes of breast cancer, in which, C4BPA and A2M demonstrated a potent signature in blood plasma and tissue samples of Luminal-B (LB) and Triple-negative (TN)subtypes in BC patients, respectively. PMID: 27498393
  4. BBB disruption is present in ACS, and elevated levels of IL-6 and C3 in CSF in diffuse NPSLE PMID: 29036223
  5. Case Reports: inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors of the lung containing a chimeric A2M-ALK gene categorized as a specific type of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor that develops exclusively in neonates and infants. PMID: 28705706
  6. The plasma level of alpha2M was found positively correlated, while HCII level was negatively correlated with higher vulnerability of carotid plaques. Both proteins were efficient in differentiating stable and vulnerable carotid plaques. These provide potential new targets for the research of carotid plaque vulnerability. Plasma alpha2M and HCII may be potential biomarkers for evaluation of the vulnerability of carotid ... PMID: 28087279
  7. Stabilizers during pasteurization improved alpha-2-macroglobulin (alpha2-M) activity by more than 300% points compared with the unstabilized control. PMID: 28215695
  8. Data show that low that low globulin (GLB) levels were significantly associated with favorable survival, and low ALB levels were associated with a significantly worse survival . PMID: 26476541
  9. This work demonstrates that alpha2M*/CS-GRP78 acts as an upstream regulator of the PDK1/PLK1 signaling axis to modulate c-MYC transcription and its target genes, suggesting a therapeutic strategy for targeting c-MYC-associated malignant progression. PMID: 27002159
  10. Meta-analysis. Our data indicate that the rs669 (A/G) polymorphisms in A2M gene are associated with increased risk in Parkinson disease. PMID: 25495992
  11. These data demonstrate that alpha2M* and LRP1 modulate the BKCachannel in human myometrium and that BKCaand its immunomodulatory interacting partners regulate Ca(2+)dynamics in hMSMCs during pregnancy. PMID: 27044074
  12. we identify a single serum factor, alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2M), which is both required and sufficient for rosetting mediated by the parasite protein P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 protein HB3VAR06 and some other rosette-mediating PfEMP1 proteins PMID: 26134405
  13. A2M is expressed in the vasculature and NR4A receptors modulate VSMC MMP2/9 activity by several mechanisms including the up-regulation of A2M. PMID: 25809189
  14. Data indicate that the expression of salivary alpha2 macroglobulin (alpha2-M) showed a remarkable increase in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which may be associated with functional disorders of the salivary gland. PMID: 25867373
  15. A2M is not the only biological candidate gene for AD determination PMID: 25574746
  16. Alpha2M causes neurodegeneration in a p75(NTR)- and proNGF-dependent manner. PMID: 26217017
  17. there is no enough evidence for associations of A2M gene polymorphisms (5 bp I/D, Ile1000Val) with Alzheimer's disease risk PMID: 24756728
  18. phosphorylating the T-loop Akt residue Thr(308) by PDK1 requires Raptor of the mTORC1 complex as a platform or scaffold protein. PMID: 24516643
  19. genetic variation within the A2M gene influences CSF Ab42 levels. PMID: 24011543
  20. alpha2M is a specialized chaperone that prevents the extracellular accumulation of misfolded and potentially pathogenic proteins, particularly during innate immune system activity PMID: 24799681
  21. FEIgG and alpha2m/C are powerful predictors of outcome and responsiveness to steroids and cyclophosphamide; their predictive value, if validated in prospective studies, may be useful in clinical practice PMID: 24093110
  22. There is no statistically significant difference in allele or genotype frequencies between patients with sporadic Alzheimer's disease and control subjects for the A2M polymorphism. PMID: 23186781
  23. Eosinophil activation occurred in early and late responses after L-ASA NPT in upper airway mucosa of AERD patients, where ApoA1, alpha2M and CP as well as CysLT may be involved in eosinophilic inflammation. PMID: 23786280
  24. A model is proposed that suggests that unlike proteases, which are irreversibly bound to activated alpha2M, hepcidin remains labile and available to down-regulate Fpn1. PMID: 23846698
  25. alpha2macroglobulin stimulates endothelial and early cardiac muscle differentiation of embryonic stem cells through generation of induction of FGF-2 expression. PMID: 23379699
  26. Serum monomeric alpha2-macroglobulin is highly expressed in many diabetic subjects. PMID: 23535567
  27. While activated alpha-2-microglobulin (AA2M) ligates only one GRP78 receptor molecule per AA2M, it may potentially serve as a reservoir for release of up to four binding fragments per molecule. PMID: 23721263
  28. Oxidative stress and the levels of endogenous plasma prolyl oligopeptidase (PREP) inhibitor alpha-2-macroglobulin (alpha2M) decrease PREP activity in patients with multiple sclerosis. PMID: 23643808
  29. IGFBP-2 associates with alpha2-macroglobulin in the blood circulation. PMID: 23397525
  30. [review] alpha2M has many diversified and complex functions but is primarily known by its ability to inhibit a broad spectrum of proteases without the direct blockage of the protease active site. PMID: 23086799
  31. protease-activated alpha2M has two mechanisms for inhibiting amyloid formation: via protease-alpha2M-mediated degradation of amyloidogenic substrates and by a chaperone action that prevents misfolded clients from continuing along the amyloid forming pathway. PMID: 23353684
  32. inhibitory activity of Aeromonas sobria serine protease by alpha2-macroglobulin PMID: 23089609
  33. Complexes between alpha2-macroglobulin and urokinase were detected in alveolar edema fluids as well as in lungs of patients with acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome where they were located mainly in close proximity to epithelial cells. PMID: 23064953
  34. an isoform of ASP cleaved proteins more in plasma and was inhibited by human alpha(2)-macroglobulin more slowly than single-chain ASP PMID: 22971340
  35. investigation of secondary structure and thermal stability of recombinant bodhesin 2, a spermadhesin from seminal plasma PMID: 22541546
  36. alpha-2-macroglobulin (a2M) deficiency develops from catabolism of a2M in androgen-dependent advanced prostate cancer patients PMID: 22576683
  37. Ethnicity affects the genetic association of A2M with rheumatoid arthritis in South Asian and Caucasian patients living in East Midlands/United Kingdom. PMID: 20401725
  38. We observed that the most informative biomarkers for predicting significant liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C patients were blood levels of alpha2-macroglobulin and hyaluronic acid PMID: 21971609
  39. Identify a novel transcriptional regulatory element contributing to the up-regulation of alpha2M during replicative senescence. PMID: 21541797
  40. alpha2-macroglobulin is neurotoxic by inhibiting neuroprotective activity of nerve growth factor via TrkA receptors. PMID: 21642630
  41. dimeric alpha2M as well as tetrameric alpha2M may play an important role in controlling beta2-m amyloid fibril formation PMID: 21216953
  42. The chaperone action of alpha-2-macroglobulin targets prefibrillar species to inhibit amyloid formation PMID: 19074141
  43. The chaperone action of alpha-2-macroglobulin inhibits the toxicity and uptake of A beta in human cerebrospinal fluid PMID: 19472074
  44. The extracellular chaperone alpha-2-macroglobulin is likely to help control amyloid formation and toxicity in vivo PMID: 18075673
  45. Alpha-2-macroglobulin is an extracellular chaperone PMID: 18171086
  46. statistically significant evidence of interaction between the polymorphisms in A2M, SLC6A4 and UCHL1 genes (global P = 0.0107, for the best model) and the risk for PD. PMID: 20861575
  47. LRP1-C/T, A2M-Ile/Val and APOE-epsilon 2/epsilon 3/epsilon 4 polymorphisms are associated with AD. PMID: 20637261
  48. Reduced expression of alpha-2 macroglobulin and complement factor B was detected in sera of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. PMID: 20575108
  49. Haplotype -88G/25G might play a protective role in the development of SAD, and the protective effects of -88G and 25G were independent of APOEvarepsilon4 allele. PMID: 20493925
  50. Galectin-3 Binding Protein and Alpha-2 macroglobulin were differentially expressed on DVT patients in microparticles extracted from platelet-poor plasma PMID: 20156641
  51. SP-D utilizes a novel mechanism in which the collectin interacts with protease inhibitor A2M to decrease its degradation and to concurrently increase its innate immune function. PMID: 20207732
  52. These data support an involvement of the suggested A2M risk haplotype in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and adds new evidence to the risk-allele depletion hypothesis. PMID: 19639019
  53. LRP1 bound A2M* found to be associated with an inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, migration, invasion, spheroid formation, and anchorage-independent growth. PMID: 20048078
  54. Differential binding to ldl receptor related protein PMID: 11811950
  55. distinct binding sites mediate interaction with beta-amyloid peptide and growth factors PMID: 11823454
  56. has an important role in the AD-specific neurodegenerative process but its exon 24 Val-1000-Ile polymorphism is not likely to be associated with late-onset sporadic AD in the Hungarian population PMID: 11901360
  57. REVIEW: binds and neutralizes alfimeprase, which has direct proteolytic activity against the fibrinogen Aalpha chain PMID: 11910179
  58. The three-dimensional structure of the dimer reveals its structural organization in the tetrameric native and chymotrypsin alpha 2-macroglobulin complexes. PMID: 12015318
  59. relationship between serum VEGF levels, alpha(2)M levels and the development of OHSS in hyperstimulated subjects undergoing IVF PMID: 12042276
  60. Alpha 2-macroglobulin enhances prothrombin activation and thrombin potential by inhibiting the anticoagulant protein C/protein S system in cord and adult plasma. PMID: 12062545
  61. Genetic association of argyrophilic grain disease with polymorphisms in alpha-2 macroglobulin. PMID: 12175343
  62. Genetic association of alpha2-macroglobulin polymorphisms with Alzheimer's disease PMID: 12221172
  63. These results suggest the possible involvement of cathepsin E in disruption of the structural and functional integrity of alpha 2-macroglobulin in the endolysosome system. PMID: 12631277
  64. alpha(2)M-derived peptides target the receptor-binding sequence in TGF-beta PMID: 12755614
  65. FGF-2 and this protein interact at specific binding sites, involving different FGF-2 sequences. PMID: 12755687
  66. There is a significant genetic association of the 5 bp deletion and two novel polymorphisms in alpha-2-macroglobulin alpha-2-macroglobulin precursor with AD PMID: 12966032
  67. alpha2-macroglobulin inhibits human pepsin and gastricsin PMID: 14506912
  68. alpha2-M deletion polymorphism is probably not associated with functional deficiencies important in Alzheimer's disease pathology PMID: 14637088
  69. A2M-D allele played a weak Alzheimer disease protective role, and APOE-E4 and A2M-G alleles might act synergistically in Alzheimer disease risk for mainland Han Chinese. PMID: 14675603
  70. Plasma from patients homozygous for the intronic deletion (DD) showed normal alpha(2)M subunit size, conformation, and proteinase inhibitory activity. Plasma alpha(2)M from two DD patients showed markedly increased TGF-beta1 binding. PMID: 14678766
  71. Alpha2-macroglobulin is a substrate and an endogenous inhibitor for ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 PMID: 14715656
  72. The presence of MPO-G/G and A2M-Val/Val genotypes synergistically increased the risk of AD (OR, 25.5; 95% CI, 4.65-139.75). PMID: 15023809
  73. an important involvement of alpha2M in regulation of increased proteolytic activity occurring in multiple sclerosis disease PMID: 15511627
  74. increased alpha(2)-macroglobulin expression appears to be associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia PMID: 15611997
  75. Results of this study revealed no association between the I1000V polymorphism of A2M and Chinese sporadic AD in Guangzhou and Chengdu. PMID: 15793779
  76. PAK-2 is activated in 1-LN prostate cancer cells by a proteinase inhibitor, alpha 2-macroglobulin PMID: 15908432
  77. These studies demonstrate that a single mutation in full-length r(alpha)2M is sufficient to block binding to LRP-1. PMID: 15910735
  78. A2M gene was suggested to be associated with Alzheimer's disease. PMID: 15931081
  79. results indicate that secondary proteolysis of alpha2-macroglobulin promotes impaired control of extracellular proteolytic activity, leading to local and distant tissue injuries during severe acute pancreatitis PMID: 16232083
  80. review of the A2M gene families of mice and humans, the predicted structural relationships between A2M and its pregnancy induced forms and the postulated roles for this gene family in normal pregnancy PMID: 16297527
  81. the inhibition of proteases on the surface of microorganisms by an ancestral alpha2M-like thiol ester protein may generate "arrays" of oligomannose glycans to which MBL or other lectins can bind PMID: 16407218
  82. PDGF-BB and TGF-beta1 binding to intact alpha2M is specific, involving a defined region of the alpha2M subunit PMID: 16641085
  83. In this proteins two amino acid polymorphisms (Ile/Val A-->G) have been associated with an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the combination with CTSD-T allele seems to increase this risk. PMID: 16784755
  84. results did not support the hypothesis that A2M deletion polymorphism is associated with a low A2M concentration in overweight/obese subjects PMID: 16910174
  85. bone morphogenetic protein 1 is inhibited by native and altered forms of alpha2-macroglobulin PMID: 17071617
  86. alpha(2)M* binding to LRP-1 induces cell proliferation and MAPK activation in the J774 macrophage-derived cell line PMID: 17288987
  87. The risk of symptomatic thromboembolism was significantly increased with elevated alpha2MG levels. PMID: 17403113
  88. alpha2-macroglobulin may facilitate conformational changes in prion protein in spontaneous forms of prion disease PMID: 17453620
  89. expression and characterization of three alpha(2)M domains predicted to be involved in the stabilization of the thiol ester in native alpha2M and in its activation upon bait region proteolysis. PMID: 17608619
  90. Alpha 2M activated by neutrophil elastase to its receptor-recognized form binds CpG ODN and enhances their immunostimulatory properties significantly. PMID: 17967834
  91. Decreased expression of alpha2-M mRNA and protein and protease inhibitory activity in the vaginal wall tissues of women with stress urinary incontinence(SUI) may contribute to the development of SUI. PMID: 18077315
  92. alpha2M is a newly discovered and unique member of a small group of abundant extracellular proteins with chaperone properties PMID: 18171086
  93. A2M allele and genotype frequencies were similar between AD patients and controls. PMID: 18191876
  94. Senile systemic amyloidosis was associated with age, myocardial infarctions, the G/G (Val/Val) genotype of the exon 24 polymorphism in the alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2M), and the H2 haplotype of the tau gene PMID: 18382889
  95. effects of intact alpha(2)M on cell physiology reflect the degree of penetration of activities associated with different domains PMID: 18499670
  96. Copper is taken up efficiently from albumin and alpha2-macroglobulin by cultured human cells by more than one mechanism. PMID: 18579803
  97. both alpha(2)M and Hp are likely to play an important role in controlling the inappropriate aggregation of proteins in the extracellular environment. PMID: 19074141
  98. An ancestral risk haplotype clade in ACE and putative multilocus association between ACE, A2M, and LRRTM3 in Alzheimer disease. PMID: 19105203
  99. Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator) PMID: 11496365
  100. Observational study and meta-analysis of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator) PMID: 15931081

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Subcellular Location Secreted
Protein Families Protease inhibitor I39 (alpha-2-macroglobulin) family
Tissue Specificity Secreted in plasma.
Database Links

HGNC: 7

OMIM: 103950

KEGG: hsa:2

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000323929

UniGene: Hs.212838

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