Human CD81 antigen(CD81) ELISA kit

Instructions
Code CSB-EL004960HU
Size 96T,5×96T,10×96T
See More Details 24T ELISA kits trial application
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Product Details

Target Name CD81 molecule
Alternative Names 26 kDa cell surface protein TAPA 1 ELISA Kit; 26 kDa cell surface protein TAPA-1 ELISA Kit; 26 kDa cell surface protein TAPA1 ELISA Kit; CD 81 ELISA Kit; CD81 ELISA Kit; CD81 antigen (target of antiproliferative ELISA Kit 1) ELISA Kit; CD81 antigen ELISA Kit; CD81 molecule ELISA Kit; CD81_HUMAN ELISA Kit; CVID6 ELISA Kit; S5.7 ELISA Kit; TAPA 1 ELISA Kit; TAPA1 ELISA Kit; Target of the antiproliferative ELISA Kit 1 ELISA Kit; Tetraspanin 28 ELISA Kit; Tetraspanin-28 ELISA Kit; Tetraspanin28 ELISA Kit; Tspan 28 ELISA Kit; Tspan-28 ELISA Kit; Tspan28 ELISA Kit
Abbreviation CD81
Uniprot No. P60033
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Sample Types serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates
Detection Range 0.156 ng/mL-10 ng/mL
Sensitivity 0.039 ng/mL
Assay Time 1-5h
Sample Volume 50-100ul
Detection Wavelength 450 nm
Research Area Immunology
Assay Principle quantitative
Measurement Sandwich
Precision
Intra-assay Precision (Precision within an assay): CV%<8%      
Three samples of known concentration were tested twenty times on one plate to assess.  
Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays): CV%<10%      
Three samples of known concentration were tested in twenty assays to assess.    
             
Linearity
To assess the linearity of the assay, samples were spiked with high concentrations of human CD81 in various matrices and diluted with the Sample Diluent to produce samples with values within the dynamic range of the assay.
  Sample Serum(n=4)  
1:1 Average % 92  
Range % 88-101  
1:2 Average % 97  
Range % 92-105  
1:4 Average % 92  
Range % 87-100  
1:5 Average % 95  
Range % 90-100  
Recovery
The recovery of human CD81 spiked to levels throughout the range of the assay in various matrices was evaluated. Samples were diluted prior to assay as directed in the Sample Preparation section.
Sample Type Average % Recovery Range  
Serum (n=5) 97 95-100  
EDTA plasma (n=4) 98 94-102  
             
             
Typical Data
These standard curves are provided for demonstration only. A standard curve should be generated for each set of samples assayed.
ng/ml OD1 OD2 Average Corrected  
10 2.185 2.064 2.125 1.977  
5 1.407 1.381 1.394 1.246  
2.5 0.807 0.790 0.799 0.651  
1.25 0.451 0.434 0.443 0.295  
0.625 0.326 0.352 0.339 0.191  
0.312 0.269 0.273 0.271 0.123  
0.156 0.197 0.204 0.201 0.053  
0 0.149 0.146 0.148    
Troubleshooting
and FAQs
ELISA kit FAQs
Storage Store at 2-8°C. Please refer to protocol.
Lead Time 5-7 working days

Citations

Q&A and Customer Reviews

 Q&A
Q:

Do you have information on the capture antibody?
How it was made? What was used as immunogen?

A:
Thanks for your inquiry!
CSB-EL004476HU
We tested the mentioned sample stated in the manual. We suggest you follow the manual.If you want to test human fecal samplee ,we suggest you do a pretest . Pls find following sample preparation method.
Feces Dilute samples with appropriate Sample Diluent. This can be achieved by adding 0.1g sample to appropriate Sample Diluent. Remove particulates by centrifugation for 10 minutes at 4000x g at 2-8°C and assay immediately.
Pls let me know if you have any further questions. Thank you.
 Customer Reviews

Target Data

Function May play an important role in the regulation of lymphoma cell growth. Interacts with a 16-kDa Leu-13 protein to form a complex possibly involved in signal transduction. May act as the viral receptor for HCV.; FUNCTION
Gene References into Functions
  1. CD81 might be a potential prognostic biomarker associated with poor patient prognosis in breast cancer. PMID: 30117494
  2. Tetraspanin hCD81 backbone domains are critical to signal for productive Hepatitis C Virus entry. A cholesterol-coordinating glutamate residue in CD81 promotes HCV infection. The backbone domains of hCD81 are additional HCV susceptibility-determining factors. PMID: 29677132
  3. results demonstrate that the interaction of CD81 with SAMHD1 controls the metabolic rate of HIV-1 replication by tuning the availability of building blocks for reverse transcription, namely dNTPs.Together with its role in HIV-1 entry and budding into host cells, the data indicate that HIV-1 uses CD81 as a rheostat that controls different stages of the infection PMID: 28871089
  4. CD81 is preferentially expressed in first trimester human placentas and progressively down-regulated with gestation advance in normal physiological conditions. CD81 up-regulation is detected in trophoblasts and cells in the villous core, and maternal sera of patients with early-onset severe preeclampsia. PMID: 28167787
  5. CD81 cell surface expression had a negative impact on survival in acute myeloid leukemia. PMID: 27566555
  6. Results from crystallography and molecular dynamics of CD81 long-extracellular loop (LEL) show that its flexibility is an inherent molecular property likely to be tuned by variation in pH and redox conditions. This tuning mechanism would explain the priming role ascribed to CD81LEL in rendering the virus-receptor complex fusogenic during cell entry. PMID: 27916518
  7. Free energy calculations indicated that the E2/CD81 binding process might follow a two-step model involving (i) the electrostatic interaction-driven initial binding of human-specific E2-site2, followed by (ii) changes in the E2 orientation to facilitate the hydrophobic and van der Waals interaction-driven binding of E2-site1 PMID: 28481946
  8. A new link between HCV receptor molecules and the hepatocyte glycocalyx, namely, CD81 and Synd-1. PMID: 27930836
  9. Study used molecular dynamics simulations to gain insights into the role of local conformational flexibility in nanodomain formation in the plasma membrane, using the tetraspanin molecule CD81 as a model; suggest that exposing a flexible domain of CD81 enables binding to interaction partners by circumventing the restriction of orientation and conformational freedom of membrane proteins PMID: 27276264
  10. Studies have shown that CD81 regulates cell migration and invasion, and has therefore been implicated in tumor growth, cancer progression and metastasis. CD81 is expressed in most types of cancer, and the overexpression or down-regulation of this molecule has been correlated with either good or bad prognosis. [review] PMID: 28408492
  11. The transmembrane segments of CD81 pack as two largely separated pairs of helices, capped by the large extracellular loop (EC2) at the outer membrane leaflet. The two pairs of helices converge at the inner leaflet to create an intramembrane pocket with additional electron density corresponding to a bound cholesterol molecule within the cavity. PMID: 27881302
  12. Results suggest that the CD81 antigen (CD81) expressed by B cells has differential effects on B cell proliferation or apoptosis according to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and the expression level of CD81. PMID: 26498453
  13. CD81 expression was lower in systemic sclerosis patients compared to controls independent of disease duration. PMID: 26926492
  14. IFI6 inhibits HCV entry by impairing EGFR mediated CD81/CLDN1 interactions. This may be relevant to other virus entry processes employing EGFR. PMID: 25757571
  15. Data suggest that the intramolecular 188-196 bond restricts the intrinsic conformational dynamics of D-helix of cluster of differentiation 81 (CD81)-large extracellular loop (LEL), which is essential for hepatitis C virus entry. PMID: 26116703
  16. LDLR was not required for the degradation of CD81 by PCSK9, but its presence strengthened the PCSK9 effect. PMID: 26195630
  17. These data revealed the crucial role played by His490 and His621 in hepatitis C virus infection, particularly during CD81 binding in cell entry. PMID: 25701820
  18. findings suggest that homozygous CD81 rs708564 TT may be a genetic modifier for avoiding HCV infection whether as a sole single nucleotide polymorphism or combined with the CLDN1 rs893051 GG genotype PMID: 25934191
  19. Hsp70/40 stimulated the association of Hsp104 with aggregates and increased the duration of this association PMID: 25635054
  20. Data indicate that HIV-1 colocalizes with CD81 antigen-lined vesicle compartments in astrocytes. PMID: 24587404
  21. Vpu-mediated downregulation of CD81 from the surfaces of infected T cells contributed to preserving the infectiousness of viral particles. PMID: 25568205
  22. The data suggest an important role played by the W(437)LAGLF(442) helix of the hepatitis C virus E2 protein in the hydrophobic interaction with the D-helix of CD81. PMID: 25339761
  23. We have developed infectious pseudo particles of local 3a-isolate and concluded that a number of liver-specific surface proteins function along with CD81 and SRBI receptor regarding HCV infectivity PMID: 24549717
  24. Amino acids Y507, V514, and V515 of hepatitis C virus E2 contribute to interaction with HCV receptor CD81. PMID: 24990994
  25. CLEC4M and CD81 both are still crucial for hepatitis C virus entry into hepatocytes. PMID: 24965233
  26. Authors show enhanced hepatoma migration and invasion following expression of CD81 and a reduction in invasive potential upon CD81 silencing. PMID: 24662676
  27. These results strongly suggest that CD81 stimulates melanoma cell motility by inducing MT1-MMP expression through the Akt-dependent Sp1 activation signaling pathway, leading to increased melanoma invasion and metastasis. PMID: 24733393
  28. study reported on seven CD81 SNP's present in human populations that all facilitate HCV entry in vitro PMID: 24211330
  29. The large extracellular loop (LEL) of CD81 is a molecule that is highly conserved and it was hypothesised that variation in the CD81 LEL sequence may modify susceptibility to HCV infection; no differences in nucleotide sequence influencing susceptibility to, or outcome of hepatitis C virus infection or evidence of methylation of the gene were found. PMID: 24122777
  30. Radiation increases the cellular uptake of exosomes through CD29/CD81 complex formation. PMID: 24667602
  31. results demonstrate important roles of CD81 in both entry and budding stages of the influenza infection cycle. PMID: 24130495
  32. A specific association between alpha4beta1 and CD81, CD82 and CD151 was demonstrated and antibodies to CD81 and CD82 augmented adhesion of proerythroblasts to Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1. PMID: 23704882
  33. Authors demonstrated that EWI-2wint promotes CD81 clustering and confinement in CD81-enriched areas. PMID: 23351194
  34. Two SNPs in the CD81 gene, that encodes the molecule involved in the signal modulation of B lymphocytes, show a strong association with alloimmunization in sickle cell disease. PMID: 23762099
  35. CD81 interacts with ICAM-1 and CD3 during conjugation between T cells and antigen-presenting cells PMID: 23858057
  36. HRas signal transduction promotes hepatitis C virus cell entry by triggering the host CD81-CLDN1 complex formation. PMID: 23498955
  37. Data indicate frequent down-regulation of CD81 expression in gastric cancer cell lines and primary tumor tissues. PMID: 23264205
  38. In summary, these data highlight the dynamic nature of CD81 and demonstrate a role for CD81 lateral diffusion to regulate hepatitis C virus infection in a polarization-dependent manner. PMID: 23126643
  39. Interaction of Rac1 with the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of CD81 is a novel regulatory mechanism of the GTPase activity turnover. PMID: 23264468
  40. These findings together indicate that the HCV RNA replication status plays a crucial determinant in HCV growth by modulating the expression and intracellular localization of CD81. PMID: 23349980
  41. CD81 interacts with the T cell receptor to suppress signaling. PMID: 23226274
  42. Fluorescent Resonance Energy Transfer studies confirm a role for these CD81 residues in claudin-1 association and Hepatitis C virus infection. PMID: 22897233
  43. data demonstrate that EGFR internalization is critical for hepatitis C virus entry and identify a hitherto-unknown association between CD81 and EGFR PMID: 22855500
  44. our results show that CD81 may have a relevant role in MM pathogenesis and represent a novel adverse prognostic marker in myeloma. PMID: 22333880
  45. A novel membrane binding interface was revealed adjacent to the exposed HCV interaction site in the extracellular loop of CD81. PMID: 22740401
  46. These results suggest that palmitoylation of CD81 should facilitate hepatitis C virus entry, at least in part, by regulating the association of CD81 with tetraspanin-enriched microdomains. PMID: 22560863
  47. Soluble serum CD81 is elevated in patients with chronic hepatitis C and correlates with alanine aminotransferase serum activity. PMID: 22355327
  48. Heptatitis c virus (HCV) specific E2 and host CD81 antibodies reduce HCV pseudoparticle entry. PMID: 22074322
  49. Hepatitis C virus is primed by CD81 protein for low pH-dependent fusion PMID: 21737455
  50. CD81 is required for the formation of actin membrane protrusions via RAC1 activation in adhesion-dependent immune cell migration. PMID: 21677313
  51. E2-CD81 engagement may contribute to Hepatitis C virus-associated B cell lymphoproliferative disorders and insufficient neutralizing antibody production. PMID: 21526201
  52. Hepatitis C virus entry and the tetraspanin CD81. PMID: 21428934
  53. Structural characterization of CD81-Claudin-1 hepatitis C virus receptor complexes. PMID: 21428935
  54. analysis of interacting regions of CD81 and two of its partners, EWI-2 and EWI-2wint, and their effect on hepatitis C virus infection PMID: 21343309
  55. Essential role for Claudin-CD81 complexes in hepaatitis C virus infection and their localization at the basolateral surface of polarized hepatoma cells. PMID: 20375010
  56. CD81 may control viral replication by directing viral RNA template function to RNA replication. PMID: 20089661
  57. The detection of CD81 and its differential expression in lymphoma subtypes, particularly diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, warrant further study to assess CD81 expression and its role in the risk stratification of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. PMID: 20004001
  58. Depletion of CD9, CD63, and CD81 levels by small interfering RNA demonstrated that CD81 is required for bacterial internalization, identifying for the first time a role for a member of the tetraspanin family in the entry of Listeria into target cells. PMID: 19901060
  59. Variation of hepatitis C virus load, hypervariable region 1 quasispecies and CD81 hepatocyte expression in hepatocellular carcinoma and adjacent non-cancerous liver. PMID: 12210407
  60. E2-binding site on CD81 comprises residues Ile(182), Phe(186), Asn(184), and Leu(162) PMID: 12368358
  61. Release and intercellular trafficking of CD81-positive microparticles regulate the expression of CD81 surface receptors in lymphocytes and play a role in the immune response during infections. PMID: 12421929
  62. CD81 colocalizes at the central zone of the supramolecular activation complex in both T lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells, suggesting a role for CD81 during antigen presentation. PMID: 12471100
  63. Data show that CD81, a putative receptor for hepatitis C virus, is required on hepatocytes for human Plasmodium falciparum and rodent Plasmodium yoelii sporozoite infectivity. PMID: 12483205
  64. two peptides from human CD81 (hCD81) large extra-cellular loop (LEL) with known importance in the hepatitis C virus glycoprotein E2 (HCV-E2) binding interaction was characterized using circular dichroism spectroscopy PMID: 12492902
  65. While CD81 specifically binds to HCV-E2 protein, the entry of HCV into human hepatocytes might be regulated by CD81-unrelated molecule(s). PMID: 12519228
  66. Signalling through CD81 on T cells costimulates both Th1 and Th2 cells, but increases the number of Th2 cells during long-term activation. PMID: 12597781
  67. The costimulatory effects of HCV E2 on T cells depend on CD81 cross-linking that activates Lck through raft aggregation and thus leads to enhanced TCR signaling. PMID: 12645944
  68. Expression of the CD81 tetraspanin in non-permissive CD81-negative hepato-carcinoma cells was sufficient to restore susceptibility to HCVpp infection, confirming its critical role as a cell attachment factor. PMID: 12913001
  69. CD81 is linked to ERK/MAPkinase signaling by Shc in liver tumor cells. PMID: 14676841
  70. data suggest a functional role for CD81 as a coreceptor for Hepatitis C virus glycoprotein-dependent viral cell entry PMID: 14722300
  71. Phage display selection on murine fibroblasts yielded a small peptide specific for HCV receptor human CD81. PMID: 14728804
  72. CD81 signaling events could be mediated by 14-3-3 adapter proteins, and these signals may be dependent on cellular redox PMID: 14966136
  73. CD81 functions as a post-attachment entry coreceptor and that other cellular factors act in concert with CD81 to mediate hepatitic C virus binding and entry into hepatocytes PMID: 15123813
  74. CD81, together with additional unknown liver specific receptor(s), mediate the hepacivirus-cell entry process. PMID: 15280458
  75. CD81 expression and HCV core antigen levels in PBMCs are increased in patients with mixed cryoglobulinemia PMID: 15294858
  76. binding with HCV E2 induces RANTES secretion and internalization of CCR5. PMID: 15500552
  77. These results suggest that the LEL has a more robust structure in the intact tetraspanin with regions outside the LEL contributing to CD81 dimerization. PMID: 15670777
  78. These findings suggest that engagement of CD81 decreases the signaling threshold required to initiate TCR/CD3-mediated induction of integrated HIV-1 proviral DNA in primary CD4+ T cells. PMID: 15767432
  79. interactions with hepatitis C virus e2 protein may modulate host's innate or adaptive immune response. PMID: 15956553
  80. CD81-mediated activation of B cells in vitro recapitulates the effects of hepatitis C virus binding to B cell CD81 in vivo PMID: 16339892
  81. in CD81, numerous membrane-exposed aromatic residues are asymmetrically clustered and protrude on one side of the transmembrane domain PMID: 16352525
  82. CD81-mediated hepatitis C virus (HCV)pseudoparticle entry entails HCV E2 protein binding to residues in the large extracellular loop as well as molecular events mediated by the transmembrane and intracellular domains of CD81. PMID: 16641285
  83. Lymphocyte subsets show different patterns of CD81 response before and during antiviral treatment, which are associated with administration of IFN-alpha and antiviral response PMID: 16735696
  84. Specific amino acids conserved in E2 across all genotypes that were critical for CD81 binding were W420, Y527, W529, G530, and D535. These data significantly increase our understanding of the CD81 receptor-E2 binding process. PMID: 16912317
  85. These data indicate that a high density of cell surface-exposed CD81 is a key determinant for productive HCV entry into host cells. PMID: 17079281
  86. These findings support an immunogenic model of hepatitis C virus E2 having three immunogenic domains with distinct structures and functions and provide added support for the idea that CD81 is required for Hepacivirus entry. PMID: 17079294
  87. Association of HTLV-1 Gag protein with tetraspanin-enriched microdomains is mediated by the inner loops of CD81 and CD82. PMID: 17166843
  88. CD81 down-regulation on B cells is associated with the response to interferon-alpha-based treatment for chronic hepatitis. PMID: 17194487
  89. CD81 expression is an important determinant of hepatitis C virus permissiveness of Huh7 cell clones harboring different characteristics PMID: 17329343
  90. these data suggested that both HSPG and CD81 are important for HCV entry. PMID: 17457918
  91. Results suggest that hepatitis C virus envelope glycoprotein E2 glycans modulate entry, CD81 binding, and neutralization by masking functionally important regions of E2 . PMID: 17507469
  92. In the plasma membrane, PrP(c) colocalizes with the tetraspanin CD81, sharing the same microdomain. PMID: 17827389
  93. CD81-independent routes of cell-cell transmission of hepatitis C virus exist. PMID: 17941058
  94. CD81 is involved in Hepacivirus infection of human hepatocytes PMID: 17942559
  95. fluorescent protein-tagged forms of CD81 and CLDN1 colocalized. PMID: 18337570
  96. Conformationally correct E2 mutants (Y527 and W529) within the second putative CD81 binding region (amino acids 522-551) disrupted binding of E2 to CD81-GST, suggesting that region 2 is critical to CD81 binding. PMID: 18355410
  97. CD81 partner EWI-2wint inhibits hepatitis C virus entry PMID: 18382656
  98. CD81 functions as a molecular organizer of membrane microdomains, whereby proteins such as PI4KII control actin remodeling and cell motility, establishing a role for these genes as negative modifiers of oncogenicity and hepatocellular carcinoma PMID: 18466772
  99. demonstrated that a combination of high-level expression of CD81 with single-step immunoaffinity purification is a useful method for obtaining large quantities of CD81 membrane receptor suitable for detailed structural analyses of this tetraspanin protein PMID: 18523555
  100. CD81 is a central regulator of cellular events required for hepatitis C virus infection of human hepatocytes. PMID: 18579606

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Involvement in disease Immunodeficiency, common variable, 6 (CVID6)
Subcellular Location Basolateral cell membrane, Multi-pass membrane protein
Protein Families Tetraspanin (TM4SF) family
Tissue Specificity Hematolymphoid, neuroectodermal and mesenchymal tumor cell lines.
Database Links

HGNC: 1701

OMIM: 186845

KEGG: hsa:975

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000263645

UniGene: Hs.54457

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