Human Xanthine Oxidase(XO) ELISA Kit

Code CSB-E13124h
Size 96T,5×96T,10×96T
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Product Details

Target Name
xanthine dehydrogenase
Alternative Names
Xanthine dehydrogenase ELISA Kit; Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase ELISA Kit; Xanthine oxidase ELISA Kit; Xanthine oxidoreductase ELISA Kit; XD ELISA Kit; XDH ELISA Kit; XDH_HUMAN ELISA Kit; xdha ELISA Kit; XO ELISA Kit; xor ELISA Kit
Uniprot No.
Homo sapiens (Human)
Sample Types
serum, plasma, urine, tissue homogenates
Detection Range
0.156 ng/mL-10 ng/mL
0.039 ng/mL
Assay Time
Sample Volume
Detection Wavelength
450 nm
Research Area
Assay Principle
Intra-assay Precision (Precision within an assay): CV%<8%      
Three samples of known concentration were tested twenty times on one plate to assess.  
Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays): CV%<10%      
Three samples of known concentration were tested in twenty assays to assess.    
To assess the linearity of the assay, samples were spiked with high concentrations of human XOD in various matrices and diluted with the Sample Diluent to produce samples with values within the dynamic range of the assay.
  Sample Serum(n=4)  
1:1 Average % 97  
Range % 88-101  
1:2 Average % 88  
Range % 81-92  
1:4 Average % 90  
Range % 85-94  
1:8 Average % 98  
Range % 90-101  
The recovery of human XOD spiked to levels throughout the range of the assay in various matrices was evaluated. Samples were diluted prior to assay as directed in the Sample Preparation section.
Sample Type Average % Recovery Range  
Serum (n=5) 102 92-107  
EDTA plasma (n=4) 99 91-103  
Typical Data
These standard curves are provided for demonstration only. A standard curve should be generated for each set of samples assayed.
ng/ml OD1 OD2 Average Corrected  
10 1.863 1.799 1.831 1.710  
5 1.400 1.433 1.417 1.296  
2.5 0.895 0.919 0.907 0.786  
1.25 0.540 0.527 0.534 0.413  
0.625 0.347 0.341 0.344 0.223  
0.312 0.233 0.239 0.236 0.115  
0.156 0.173 0.184 0.179 0.058  
0 0.120 0.122 0.121    
and FAQs
Store at 2-8°C. Please refer to protocol.
Lead Time
3-5 working days after you place the order, and it takes another 3-5 days for delivery via DHL or FedEx

This Human XDH ELISA Kit was designed for the quantitative measurement of Human XDH protein in serum, plasma, urine, tissue homogenates. It is a Sandwich ELISA kit, its detection range is 0.156 ng/mL-10 ng/mL and the sensitivity is 0.039 ng/mL.

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Target Background

(From Uniprot)
Key enzyme in purine degradation. Catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine. Catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. Contributes to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Has also low oxidase activity towards aldehydes (in vitro).
Gene References into Functions
  1. The information represented in the study confirmed previous reports. And it may assist to discover and design new backbones as potential XO inhibitors based on natural products. PMID: 29843539
  2. The role of xanthine oxidoreductase and uric acid in metabolic syndrome. PMID: 29733945
  3. Data found that gastric cancer patients adhering to the SNP rs207454 CC genotype had favorable clinical outcome compared with those carrying the AA/AC genotypes, suggesting that the CC allele was a protective allele in the prognosis of gastric cancer by effecting XDH mRNA expression level. PMID: 29551504
  4. this study shows that XOR is required for genotoxic stress-induced NKG2D ligand expression and gemcitabine-mediated antitumor activity PMID: 27494876
  5. Molecular docking simulations clarified that purpurogallins have stronger affinities for XO than corresponding pyrogallols. These results revealed that the potent XO inhibitory activity seemingly observed in pyrogallol is actually derived from its chemical conversion, under alkaline conditions, into purpurogallin. PMID: 28223196
  6. data suggest that Alcohol use disorders augment pulmonary and systemic XOR activity that may contribute to ROS and uric acid generation, promoting inflammation. PMID: 28839105
  7. XO is a useful marker to assess oxidative stress in polycystic ovary syndrome patients PMID: 27295433
  8. xanthine dehydrogensase gene expression and uric acid production is altered in asthma and in human airway epithelial cells PMID: 28863172
  9. Among cardiac patients, left ventricular hypertrophy, low LVEF, and increased BNP were significantly associated with plasma XOR activity independent of various confounding factors. PMID: 28797123
  10. we demonstrated that BP rise over time and/or the risk of hypertension are associated with three SNP in the XOR gene: rs2043013, rs11904439, and rs148756340. PMID: 27607461
  11. Hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase axis is not involved in the initial phase of clinical transplantation-related ischemia-reperfusion injury in kidney allograft recipients. PMID: 28031169
  12. Serum XOD activity was higher in type 2 DM patients than in control subjects and was higher in diabetic patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy than in those without neuropathy. PMID: 27965983
  13. XOR activity is correlated with insulin resistance, BMI, and subclinical inflammation. PMID: 28403945
  14. Study showed that DKK3 promotes cell survival during oxidative stress by suppressing XDH expression, thereby abrogating excess reactive oxygen species accumulation and subsequent apoptosis. PMID: 28299863
  15. Results show XOR strictly modulated at the transcriptional and post-translational levels, and its expression and activity are highly variable in cancer and negatively associated with high malignity grade and a worse prognosis. [review] PMID: 26687331
  16. XDH and SUCLA2 genes associated with thiopurine-induced leukopenia can act in a complex interactive manner in patients with Crohn's disease. PMID: 26863601
  17. beneficial effects observed with XO inhibitors on cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease may also be due to the reduction of oxidative stress PMID: 26426087
  18. Thyroid stimulating hormone levels are increase in gout patients treated with inhibitors of xanthine oxidoreductase. PMID: 26342297
  19. The XDH gene polymorphisms rs1042039, rs1054889, and rs2073316 were shown to be associated with hypertension in a rural Chinese population. PMID: 26239312
  20. genetic association studies in population in Mexico: Data suggest that SNPs in XO (1936A>G, 2107A>G) are not associated with development of typical adverse reactions to methotrexate in pediatric patients with ALL (acute lymphoblastic leukemia). PMID: 26353179
  21. the essential role of autophagy-regulated early ROS in triggering late apoptotic signaling PMID: 26029922
  22. XOR regulated macrophage IL-1b secretion upon NLRP3 inflammasome activation via xanthine oxidase derived reactive oxygen species. PMID: 25800347
  23. In this review, we focus on studies of XOR inhibitors and their implications for understanding the chemical nature and reaction mechanism of the Moco active site of XOR PMID: 25501928
  24. xanthine oxidase-mediated ROS production is required for PTN-induced cell migration through the cell membrane functional complex of alphanubeta3 and RPTPbeta/zeta and activation of c-src, PI3K and ERK1/2 kinases PMID: 25582077
  25. Data suggest that, with aging, up-regulation of reactive oxygen species derived from XO down-regulates uric acid excretion via down-regulation of active homodimer breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP1, uric acid efflux transporter) in ileal mucosa. PMID: 26119820
  26. Xanthine oxidase is activated in THP-1 human myeloid cells in response to pro-inflammatory and growth factor stimulation. PMID: 25200751
  27. Xanthine oxidoreductase has roles in atherosclerosis pathogenesis [review] PMID: 25463089
  28. Xanthine dehydrogenase takes part in retinoic acid biosynthesis in the thyroid glandular epithelia. PMID: 24506204
  29. The polymorphisms rs1052133 on OGG1 and rs207454 on XDH show a trend of association with overall survival. PMID: 23443115
  30. Results confirm the role of XO enzyme in ischemic heart disease. PMID: 24092361
  31. These results supported the possibility that XO/XD and AO can contribute to nitric oxide generation. PMID: 25537183
  32. XO is present in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. PMID: 24967004
  33. In infection with E. coli both XO and MPO urine levels were increased. PMID: 24591758
  34. these data support a novel function of the XO-NFAT5 axis in macrophage activation and TLR-induced arthritis PMID: 25044064
  35. XOR activity is significantly associated with NAFLD PMID: 25185415
  36. This study reveals a noncanonical molecular pathway in which, after the inhibition of cathepsin S, autophagy induces early reactive oxygen species production for oxidative DNA damage and cell death through xanthine oxidase. PMID: 23892358
  37. An upregulated XOD may be implicated in hrmodialysis-induced oxidative injury. PMID: 23819009
  38. xanthine oxidoreductase may have a function in the formation or persistence of chronic wounds PMID: 24357442
  39. Inhibition of XO increased survival of human embryo brain-derived cells in culture. . There was a a reversed correlation between the activities of XO and DPD over 12 days under normal conditions as well as in the presence of XO and DPD inhibitors. PMID: 23597150
  40. Case Report: hereditary xanthinuria with xanthine dehydrogenase deficiency due to novel sequence variations presenting as rheumatoid arthritis. PMID: 20077140
  41. Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase is a moonlighting protein that has two distinct catalytic activities as a dehydrogenase and an oxidase. PMID: 17301077
  42. SNPs at the 5'-nucleotidase and xanthine oxidase genes influence the risk of noncirrhotic portal hypertension in HIV patients treated with didanosine. PMID: 23315321
  43. Data suggest that XOD is up-regulated in lens of patients with (1) diabetes type 2 with cataracts and (2) senile cataracts; blood HbA1C levels (or poor glycemic control) are positively correlated with lens XOD activity as well as serum XOD activity. PMID: 23142692
  44. Site-directed mutagenesis followed by expression analysis in Escherichia coli revealed that not only the frame shift mutation 141insG impairs XDH activity, but also the missense mutation C2729T. PMID: 22981351
  45. Xanthine oxidase released during enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli infection may serve as a virulence-inducing signal to the pathogen and not solely as a protective host defense. PMID: 23340314
  46. Xanthinuria Type I is caused by mutations in the xanthine dehydrogenase gene (XDH). We report on a patient suffering from xanthinuria. Genomic DNA was screened for point mutations and imbalances in the XDH gene by sequencing and microarray typing. PMID: 23249873
  47. XDH genetic polymorphisms may influence azathioprine treatment outcome in patients with kidney transplants. PMID: 22495427
  48. There was no significant difference in XO activity between Swedes and Koreans PMID: 22105431
  49. high tumoral XDH expression is an independent predictor of a poor prognosis in patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung. PMID: 22678977
  50. The results indicated that anti-HXOR antibodies in synovial fluids have a protective role as high concentrations against XOR were detected in inflammatory arthritis. PMID: 21644044

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Involvement in disease
Xanthinuria 1 (XAN1)
Subcellular Location
Cytoplasm. Peroxisome. Secreted.
Protein Families
Xanthine dehydrogenase family
Tissue Specificity
Detected in milk (at protein level).
Database Links

HGNC: 12805

OMIM: 278300

KEGG: hsa:7498

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000368727

UniGene: Hs.250

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