Recombinant Human Thymosin beta-4 protein(TMSB4X) (Active)

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Code CSB-AP000381HU
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Product Details

Purity >97% as determined by SDS-PAGE and HPLC.
Endotoxin Less than 1.0 EU/μg as determined by LAL method.
Activity Fully biologically active when compared to standard. The biological activity determined by its ability to produce a protective effect against hydrogen peroxide in primary lung fibroblasts is in a concentration range of 0.5 - 10 μg/ml.
Target Names TMSB4X
Uniprot No. P62328
Research Area Signal Transduction
Alternative Names Fx; Hematopoietic system regulatory peptide; Prothymosin beta 4; PTMB 4; PTMB4; Seraspenide; T beta 4; T beta-4; TB4X; THYB 4; Thyb4; Thymosin beta 4; Thymosin beta 4 X chromosome; Thymosin beta 4 X linked; TMSB 4; TMSB4; Tmsb4x; TYB4_HUMAN
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Source E.coli
Expression Region 2-44aa
Complete Sequence SDKPDMAEIE KFDKSKLKKT ETQEKNPLPS KETIEQEKQA GES
Mol. Weight 4.9 kDa
Protein Length Full Length of Mature Protein
Tag Info Tag-Free
Form Lyophilized powder
Buffer Lyophilized from a 0.2 µm filtered 20 mM PB, pH 7.4, 150mM NaCl
Reconstitution We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
Troubleshooting
and FAQs
Protein FAQs
Storage Condition Store at -20°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time Basically, we can dispatch the products out in 5-10 working days after receiving your orders. Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Notes Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA Please contact us to get it.

Target Data

Function Plays an important role in the organization of the cytoskeleton (By similarity). Binds to and sequesters actin monomers (G actin) and therefore inhibits actin polymerization.
Gene References into Functions
  1. Serum Tbeta4 level can be used as a biomarker for the diagnosis of NASH and was negatively correlated with the oxidation state of the liver PMID: 29271227
  2. we suggest that overexpression of Tbeta4 might play a role in the progression of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors PMID: 28756979
  3. Tbeta4 exerts a protective effect on murine colitis, indicating that recombinant adeno-associated virus carrying thymosin beta4 could potentially be developed into a promising agent for the therapy of inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID: 28127198
  4. Results showed that the TMSB4 pseudogene, lncRNA-MSR, was upregulated in the damaged cartilage and was activated in chondrocytes in response to mechanical stress. Furthermore, lncRNA-MSR regulated the expression of TMSB4 by competing with miRNA-152 in chondrocytes. PMID: 27469625
  5. Tbeta4 gene silencing in A549 and H1299 cells inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro and decreased tumor growth in vivo. Mechanistic investigations revealed a significant decrease in Notch1 activation in Tbeta4 gene-silenced cells. PMID: 27521796
  6. Developed an innovative biotechnological method for thymosin beta4 production that employs the peptide acetylation in vivo. PMID: 27015974
  7. Serum thymosin beta4 concentrations were correlated with the occurrence and severity of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. PMID: 27086675
  8. Overexpression of Tbeta4 enhanced cell proliferation and colony formation in oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID: 26276576
  9. Tbeta-4 was validated in clinical samples using a tissue microarray to predict overall survival in colon cancer patients PMID: 26556858
  10. this study demonstrated, for the first time, that Tbeta4 was down-regulated in ROS-stimulated PDLCs as well as Tbeta4 activation exhibited anti-inflammatory effects and anti-osteoclastogenesis in vitro. PMID: 26789270
  11. this study demonstrates, for the first time, that Tbeta4 is expressed in developing periodontal tissue and that its expression is associated with osteoblastic/cementoblastic differentiation. PMID: 26361868
  12. This article reviews the potential role of thymosin beta 4 in liver fibrosis by describing the effects of exogenous and endogenous thymosin beta 4 , and discusses the possible signaling pathway regulated by TB4X. [review] PMID: 26006229
  13. The results of the present study suggested that Tb4 may promote HB metastasis via the induction of EMT, and that Tb4 may therefore be a target for the development of novel treatments for patients with Hepatoblastoma . PMID: 25695679
  14. these results suggest that NO could regulate the expression of Tbeta4 by direct or indirect effect of HIF-1alpha on Tbeta4 promoter. PMID: 25271630
  15. the exchange of bound actin between Tbeta4 and profilin involves both steric and allosteric components. PMID: 25313062
  16. Thymosin beta4 induces invasion and migration of human colorectal cancer cells through the ILK/AKT/beta-catenin signaling pathway. PMID: 25218472
  17. Regarding HCC, Tbeta4 reactivity was detected in 7/23 cases (30%) and Tbeta10 reactivity in 22/23 (97%) cases analyzed, adding HCC to human cancers that express these beta-thymosins. PMID: 24704991
  18. Thymosin beta-4 levels in the serum and synovial fluid of knee osteoarthritis patients are significantly correlated with disease severity. PMID: 23816466
  19. Thymosin beta 4 silencing in glioblastoma cells inhibits cell migration and invasion. PMID: 24355709
  20. cell trafficking of thymosin beta-4 PMID: 23967050
  21. Tbeta4 expression was upregulated significantly in primary and recurrent colorectal cancers PMID: 24098025
  22. Tbeta4 expression was also co-localized with CD133 expression in primary ovarian carcinomas. PMID: 23055022
  23. Detection its amino acid conservation suggest an important role of Tb4 in the homeostasis of the mammalian oral cavity. PMID: 23262355
  24. Thymosin beta4 could be associated with morphogenesis and tumor invasion in ameloblastoma and may play a role in the behavior of ameloblastoma. PMID: 23235961
  25. Tbeta4 plays a key role in odontoblastic differentiation of human dental pulp cells. PMID: 23613983
  26. Tbeta4 is an important myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF) regulator that controls the G-actin-MRTF-A interaction.Tbeta4 competed with MRTF-A for G-actin binding, thus interfering with G-actin-MRTF-A complex formation. PMID: 23811404
  27. REVIEW: role of Tbeta4 in thrombosis and platelet aggregation PMID: 22944663
  28. Thymosin beta4 expression reveals intriguing similarities between fetal and cancer cells. PMID: 23045970
  29. investigated whether GSK-3 activity is regulated by thymosin beta-4 (Tbeta4) and associated with Tbeta4-mediated migration in gastric cancer cells; expression of GSK-3alpha, beta-catenin and E-cadherin could be negatively regulated by Tbeta4 induced ERK phosphorylation; suggests that Tbeta4 could be a novel regulator to control Wnt signal pathway PMID: 22328534
  30. The Our data confirm the concept that externally added Tbeta4 must be internalized to induce intracellular mechanisms supporting endothelial cell migration. PMID: 22652458
  31. Thymosin beta4 Tbeta4 may play an important role in bone degradation and inflammation in RA but not OA. PMID: 22004227
  32. kininogen-1 and thymosin-beta(4) are potential new biomarkers for human chronic hepatitis C. PMID: 21496200
  33. Tbeta4 is regulated by IL-18 and is involved in IL-18-enhanced IFN-gamma secretion in NK cells. PMID: 21742406
  34. Elevated expression of thymosin beta4 is associated with early-stage cervical cancers. PMID: 21213129
  35. Thymosin beta4 may play a role in diabetic retinal neovascularization. PMID: 21332672
  36. findings suggest that Tbeta4 by sequestering actin prevents binding of AKT, thus inhibiting its phosphorylation PMID: 21514425
  37. The expression of thymosin beta4 is highly related with tumorigenesis of certain tumors including the osteosarcoma and colorectal cancers. PMID: 20975530
  38. Describe beta-thymosins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and their possible involvement in the pathogenesis of scleroderma lung disease. PMID: 21314931
  39. we have identified an extracellular signaling pathway where Tbeta4 increases cell surface ATP levels via ATP synthase and have shown further that ATP-responsive P2X4 receptor is required for Tbeta4-induced cell migration PMID: 21106936
  40. overexpression of Tbeta4 is strongly associated with HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha expression and is also clinicopathologically involved with lymph node metastatic potential of breast cancer PMID: 21109953
  41. The TB4 could be a hypoxia responsive regulator to control tumor cell migration in angiogenesis and tumor metastasis. PMID: 20821256
  42. colorectal cancer stem cells from different patients have higher Tbeta4 levels than normal epithelial cells PMID: 20566622
  43. Data in colon cancer tissue microarray showed that thymosin beta4 and HIF-1alpha co-localized in these biopsies. PMID: 20691219
  44. Data show a strong expression of Tbeta(4) in gut and endocrine pancreas during development. PMID: 20161756
  45. study demonstrated a clear relationship between reductions in serum thymosin beta4 level and severity of hepatitis B virus-related liver failure PMID: 20128033
  46. Data show that thymosin beta4 was differentially expressed in HGF-treated HUVECs compared with control. PMID: 12163032
  47. araC regulates the transcriptional level of thymosin beta4 and actin PMID: 12962156
  48. in response to T beta 4 stimulation, AP-1 activity increases to enhance PAI-1 transcription through its unique AP-1-like element at -59 to -52 in the PAI-1 promoter. PMID: 14592829
  49. upregulation of Tbeta-4, by promoting the disruption of cell-cell adhesion and consequential activation of the beta-catenin signaling, could be event in the acquisition of growth advantages as well as invasive phenotypes in human colorectal carcinomas PMID: 15235586
  50. activated factor XIII incorporates thymosin beta(4) into the isolated gamma-module and alphaC-domain (fibrinogen A alpha); in fibrin the latter serves as the major incorporation site PMID: 15311936
  51. thymosin beta4 localizes to the cell nucleus PMID: 15466884
  52. Expression of thymosin beta 4 is closely related with keloid. PMID: 15698487
  53. Thymosin beta4 (hTbeta4)gene was isolated and characterized. PMID: 16010977
  54. PAI-1 can be bound to Tbeta4-activated endothelial cells, thus influencing their adhesive properties as well as their ability to generate plasmin PMID: 16272158
  55. thymosin beta-4 increases colon carcinoma apoptosis resistance triggered by FasL and apoptosis inhibitors by downregulating Fas and upregulating Survivin expression PMID: 16364925
  56. thymosin beta4 is a determinant of AdoMetDC-induced transformed phenotype and invasiveness; up-regulation of thymosin beta4 found in ras-transformed fibroblasts and metastatic human melanoma cells PMID: 16423999
  57. TB4 overexpression induces paclitaxel-resistance, and therefore, TB4 could be a novel target to regulate paclitaxel-resistance. PMID: 16515784
  58. In most tumors examined, cancer cells showed low or intermediate reactivity for thymosin beta4, whereas leukocytes and macrophages showed intense reactivity. PMID: 16949646
  59. A search for genes upregulated by thymosin beta4 identified zyxin in SiHA cells in the presence of exogenously added thymosin beta4 and when thymosin beta4 is overexpressed using adenoviral vectors. PMID: 16956606
  60. Upregulation of thymosin-beta4 mRNA and protein in conjunctival stroma and its localization in eosinophils and myofibroblasts in vernal keratoconjunctivitis(VKC) lesions. Possible role for thymosin-beta4 in tissue inflammation and remodeling in VKC. PMID: 17200658
  61. Thymosin beta(4)(Ala) and thymosin beta(10) were found, but thymosin beta(10) is present in about 2.5-fold higher amounts inplatelets. PMID: 17495243
  62. After abdominal surgery there is a concentration of up to 20 mg thymosin beta(4) per liter decreasing to about 1 mg/L with time. PMID: 17495244
  63. The G-actin sequestering activities of all thymosin beta(4) variants correspond to their complex stabilities with G-actin PMID: 17495251
  64. The localization of Oregon Green cadaverine-labeled thymosin beta(4), its fragments, and variants is investigated in a cytoplasm-depleted tumor cell line. PMID: 17567947
  65. If thymosin beta4 decreases healing time, this would represent a significant advance in the treatment of pressure ulcers. PMID: 17600283
  66. In both saliva and tears, concentrations of TMSB4 varied with age, which may make it an endogenous agent contributing to the rapid healing of corneal and oral wounds. PMID: 17600285
  67. Our results show that hMLH1 interacts with Tbeta4 and regulates its expression and nuclear transport. PMID: 17967441
  68. These data suggest that Ku80 functions as a novel receptor for Tbeta4 and mediates its intracellular activity. PMID: 17984099
  69. Targeting thymosin beta 4 and related molecules may be a novel therapeutic strategy for pancreatic cancer. PMID: 18094619
  70. Thymosin beta4 is a downstream molecule of stabilin-2 that plays a role in stabilin-2-mediated cell corpse clearance. PMID: 18519035
  71. outlines for the first time that salivary glands during foetal life express and secrete peptides such as beta-thymosins probably involved in the development of the oral cavity and its annexes PMID: 19337364

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Subcellular Location Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton
Protein Families Thymosin beta family
Tissue Specificity Expressed in several hemopoietic cell lines and lymphoid malignant cells. Decreased levels in myeloma cells.
Database Links

HGNC: 11881

OMIM: 300159

KEGG: hsa:7114

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000370007

UniGene: Hs.437277

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