Recombinant Human Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase(GAPDH)

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Code CSB-EP009232HU
Size US$1726Purchase it in Cusabio online store
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  • (Tris-Glycine gel) Discontinuous SDS-PAGE (reduced) with 5% enrichment gel and 15% separation gel.

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Product Details

Purity Greater than 90% as determined by SDS-PAGE.
Target Names GAPDH
Uniprot No. P04406
Research Area Neuroscience
Alternative Names 38 kDa BFA-dependent ADP-ribosylation substrate; aging associated gene 9 protein; Aging-associated gene 9 protein; BARS-38; cb609; EC; Epididymis secretory sperm binding protein Li 162eP; G3P_HUMAN; G3PD; G3PDH; GAPD; GAPDH; Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase; glyceraldehyde 3-PDH; Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; HEL-S-162eP; KNC-NDS6; MGC102544; MGC102546; MGC103190; MGC103191; MGC105239; MGC127711; MGC88685; OCAS; p38 component; OCT1 coactivator in S phase; 38-KD component; peptidyl cysteine S nitrosylase GAPDH; Peptidyl-cysteine S-nitrosylase GAPDH; wu:fb33a10
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Source E.coli
Expression Region 2-335aa
Note: The complete sequence including tag sequence, target protein sequence and linker sequence could be provided upon request.
Mol. Weight 51.9kDa
Protein Length Full Length of Mature Protein
Tag Info N-terminal 6xHis-SUMO-tagged
Form Liquid or Lyophilized powder
Note: We will preferentially ship the format that we have in stock, however, if you have any special requirement for the format, please remark your requirement when placing the order, we will prepare according to your demand.
Buffer If the delivery form is liquid, the default storage buffer is Tris/PBS-based buffer, 5%-50% glycerol.
Note: If you have any special requirement for the glycerol content, please remark when you place the order.
If the delivery form is lyophilized powder, the buffer before lyophilization is Tris/PBS-based buffer, 6% Trehalose, pH 8.0.
Reconstitution We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
and FAQs
Protein FAQs
Storage Condition Store at -20°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time Basically, we can dispatch the products out in 3-7 working days after receiving your orders. Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Notes Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA Please contact us to get it.

Target Data

Function Has both glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and nitrosylase activities, thereby playing a role in glycolysis and nuclear functions, respectively. Participates in nuclear events including transcription, RNA transport, DNA replication and apoptosis. Nuclear functions are probably due to the nitrosylase activity that mediates cysteine S-nitrosylation of nuclear target proteins such as SIRT1, HDAC2 and PRKDC. Modulates the organization and assembly of the cytoskeleton. Facilitates the CHP1-dependent microtubule and membrane associations through its ability to stimulate the binding of CHP1 to microtubules (By similarity). Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is a key enzyme in glycolysis that catalyzes the first step of the pathway by converting D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) into 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate. Component of the GAIT (gamma interferon-activated inhibitor of translation) complex which mediates interferon-gamma-induced transcript-selective translation inhibition in inflammation processes. Upon interferon-gamma treatment assembles into the GAIT complex which binds to stem loop-containing GAIT elements in the 3'-UTR of diverse inflammatory mRNAs (such as ceruplasmin) and suppresses their translation.
Gene References into Functions
  1. This suggests that RX624 might be useful as a drug against polyglutamine pathologies, and that is could be administered exogenously without affecting target cell physiology. This protective effect was validated by the similar effect of an anti-GAPDH specific antibody. PMID: 28450110
  2. GAPDH can interact with proteins participating in DNA repair, such as APE1, PARP1, HMGB1, and HMGB2. In this review, the functions of GAPDH associated with DNA repair are discussed in detail. PMID: 28601074
  3. Nitric oxide-induced GAPDH aggregation specifically induces mitochondrial dysfunction via permeability transition pore opening, leading to cell death. PMID: 28167533
  4. GAPDH may act as a chaperone in heme transfer to downstream areas PMID: 28315300
  5. NAD(+) inhibited both GAPDH aggregation and co-aggregation with GOSPEL, a hitherto undescribed effect of the coenzyme against the consequences of oxidative stress. PMID: 27282776
  6. Monoclonal Antibodies DSHB-hGAPDH-2G7 and DSHB-hGAPDH-4B7 Against Human Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase. PMID: 27556912
  7. the present study suggests that GAPDH plays an important role in cancer metastasis by affecting EMT through regulation of Sp1-mediated SNAIL expression. PMID: 27878251
  8. Knockdown of LAMP2A, a CMA-related protein, and TSG101, an mA-related protein, significantly but only partially decreased the punctate accumulation of GAPDH-HT in AD293 cells and primary cultured rat cortical neurons. PMID: 27377049
  9. In conclusion, the data show that two GAPDH binders could be therapeutically relevant in the treatment of injuries stemming from hard oxidative stress. PMID: 26748070
  10. transient silencing of GAPDH reduces intracellular ROS and facilitates increased autophagy, thereby reducing acute hypoxia and reoxygenation injury as well as the resulting apoptosis and necrosis. PMID: 26279122
  11. This review will summarize our current understanding of GAPDH-mediated regulation of RNA function PMID: 26564736
  12. analysis of PSCA level in the peripheral blood of PC patients who underwent radical prostatectomy shows it is related to a GADPH reference level (PSCA/GAPDH ratio) PMID: 26527100
  13. In 60 % of patients with type 2 diabetes, a reversible inhibition of GAPDH is observed. PMID: 25189828
  14. The results of this study led us to conclude that in cancer cells constantly exposed to conditions of oxidative stress, the protective power of Hsp70 should be abolished by specific inhibitors of Hsp70 expression. PMID: 26713364
  15. GAPDH and protoporphyrinogen oxidase were shown to have higher expression in faster growing cell lines and primary tumors. Pharmacologic inhibition of GAPDH or PPOX reduced the growth of colon cancer cells in vitro PMID: 25944804
  16. The levels of GAPDH protein were significantly up-regulated in lung squamous cell carcinoma tissues and elevated GAPDH expression is associated with the proliferation and invasion of lung and esophageal squamous cell carcinomas. PMID: 25944651
  17. Genetic variants in GAPDH confer susceptibility to sporadic Parkinson's disease in a Chinese Han population. PMID: 26258539
  18. Data revealed that GAPDH is a phosphorylation substrate for AMPK and its interaction with Sirt1 in the nucleus. The phosphorylation and the nuclear translocation of GAPDH mediate rapid Sirt1 activation and autophagy initiation under glucose deprivation. PMID: 26626483
  19. findings demonstrate that dissociation of the GAPDH/Siah1 pro-apoptotic complex can block high glucose-induced pericyte apoptosis, widely considered a hallmark feature of diabetic retinopathy PMID: 26438826
  20. Extracellular GAPDH, or its N-terminal domain, inhibited gastric cancer cell growth. GAPDH bound to E-cadherin and downregulated the mTOR-p70S6 kinase pathway. PMID: 25785838
  21. suggests that GAPDH aggregates accelerate Abeta amyloidogenesis, subsequently leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal cell death in the pathogenesis of AD PMID: 26359500
  22. The level of GAPDH-AP DNA adduct formation depends on oxidation of the protein SH-groups; disulfide bond reduction in GAPDH leads to the loss of its ability to form the adducts with AP DNA PMID: 26203648
  23. The activity of GAPDS was significantly positively correlated with sperm motility and negatively with the incidence of infertility. PMID: 26255202
  24. The N terminus of nuclear GAPDH binds with PARP-1, and this complex promotes PARP-1 overactivation both in vitro and in vivo. PMID: 25882840
  25. deregulated GAPDH expression promotes NF-kappaB-dependent induction of HIF-1alpha and has a key role in lymphoma vascularization and aggressiveness PMID: 25394713
  26. analysis of how flux through GAPDH is a limiting step in aerobic glycolysis PMID: 25009227
  27. astrocytic production of D-serine is modulated by glycolytic activity via interactions between GAPDH and SRR. PMID: 25870284
  28. Dimer and tetramer interface residues in adenine-uridine rich elements are important for GAPDH-RNA binding. PMID: 25451934
  29. Siah1 is a substrate of ASK1 for activation of the GAPDH-Siah1 oxidative stress signaling cascade. PMID: 25391652
  30. GAPDH expression is deregulated during melanoma progression. PMID: 25550585
  31. Oxidation of an exposed methionine instigates the aggregation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. PMID: 25086035
  32. MZF-1 binds to and positively regulates the GAPDH promoter, indicating a role for GAPDH in calcitriol-mediated signaling. PMID: 25065746
  33. The protein encoded by this gene contains a peptide that displays antimicrobial activity against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans. PMID: 22832495
  34. GAPDH gene over expression in resected tumor samples is an adverse prognostic factor in non small cell lung cancer. PMID: 23988223
  35. This review describes the structure and localization of GAPDH in cells as well as the latest discoveries on the multifunctional properties of the enzyme. PMID: 24018444
  36. TG2-dependent GAPDH deamidation was suggested to participate in actin cytoskeletal remodeling. PMID: 24375405
  37. acetylation of GAPDH (K254) is reversibly regulated by the acetyltransferase PCAF and the deacetylase HDAC5. PMID: 24362262
  38. GAPDH binds to active Akt, leading to Bcl-xL increase and escape from caspase-independent cell death. PMID: 23645209
  39. GAPDH is a moonlighting protein that functions as a glycolytic enzyme as well as a uracil DNA glycosylase. PMID: 20727968
  40. Results indicate that CIB1 is uniquely positioned to regulate PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK signaling and that simultaneous disruption of these pathways synergistically induces a nuclear GAPDH-dependent cell death. PMID: 22964641
  41. The data presented demonstrate that up-regulation of GAPDH positively associated genes is proportional to the malignant stage of various tumors and is associated with an unfavourable prognosis. PMID: 23620736
  42. In a yeast two-hybrid screen of a heart cDNA library with Mst1 as bait, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was identified as an Mst1-interacting protein. PMID: 23527007
  43. interaction between prolyl oligopeptidase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is required for cytosine arabinoside-induced glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase nuclear translocation and cell death PMID: 23348613
  44. NleB, a bacterial glycosyltransferase, targets GAPDH function to inhibit NF-kappaB activation. PMID: 23332158
  45. GAPDH binds to alkylated, single-stranded, double-stranded and telomeric sequences in a drug-dependent and DNA sequence/structure-dependent manner. PMID: 23409959
  46. GAPDH negatively regulates HIV-1 infection and provide insights into a novel function of GAPDH in the HIV-1 life cycle and a new host defense mechanism against HIV-1 infection. PMID: 23237566
  47. The strength, selectivity, reversibility, and redox sensitivity of heme binding to GAPDH are consistent with it performing heme sensing or heme chaperone-like functions in cells. PMID: 22957700
  48. The ability of C1q to sense both human and bacterial GAPDHs sheds new insights on the role of this important defense collagen molecule in modulating the immune response. PMID: 23086952
  49. SIRT1 functions to retain GAPDH in the cytosol, protecting the enzyme from nuclear translocation via interaction with these two proteins. PMID: 22789853
  50. The present mini review summarizes recent findings relating to the extraglycolytic functions of GAPDH and highlights the significant role this enzyme plays in regulating both cell survival and apoptotic death--{REVIEW} PMID: 21895736
  51. GAPDH is regulated to target the telomerase complex, resulting in an arrest of telomere maintenance and cancer cell proliferation. PMID: 22847419
  52. AIRE-induced apoptosis pathway is associated with GAPDH nuclear translocation and induction of NO-induced cellular stress in AIRE-expressing cells. PMID: 22613203
  53. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate prevents cells from apoptosis by lowering S-nitrosylation of GAPDH. PMID: 22534308
  54. GAPDH expression was significantly up-regulated in colorectal carcinoma tissues, and also increased in colon cancer cell lines and thus may be a potential target for colon cancer therapy. PMID: 22350014
  55. p53 may not be necessary for the S-nitrosoglutathione-induced translocation of GAPDH to the nucleus during apoptotic cell death in hepatoma cells PMID: 22189680
  56. Akt2 kinase suppresses glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)-mediated apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells via phosphorylating GAPDH at threonine 237 and decreasing its nuclear translocation PMID: 21979951
  57. these results show that GAPDH-depleted cells establish senescence phenotype, as revealed by proliferation arrest, changes in morphology, SA-beta-galactosidase staining, and more than 2-fold up-regulation of senescence-associated genes DEC1 and GLB1. PMID: 21749859
  58. in the absence of PABP, the glycolytic enzyme GAPDH translocated to the cell nucleus and activated the GAPDH mediated apoptotic pathway by enhancing acetylation and serine 46 phosphorylation of p53. PMID: 21539808
  59. In MCF-7 cells, the activation of HIF1 on the novel hypoxia response element contributes to the breast cancer-specific hypoxic induction of GAPDH gene expression and absolutely depends on the presence of Sp1 on the GC-box. PMID: 21338575
  60. p53 regulates biosynthesis through direct inactivation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase PMID: 21336310
  61. the glycolytic enzyme GAPDH regulates the gene expression of ccn2 mRNA in trans by acting as a sensor of oxidative stress and redox signals, leading to CCN2 overexpression under the condition of hypoxia and promotion of angiogenesis. PMID: 21236242
  62. GAPDH was identified as a binding protein on the plasma membrane of CEM-SS leukemia cells for Bt18 parasporal protein. PMID: 21073742
  63. The study demonstrated that GAPDH is reliable as reference gene for quantitative gene expression analysis in human diploid fibroblasts. PMID: 20707929
  64. Shear stress especially induced sustained increases in the expression of Annexin A2 and GAPDH in a comparative proteome analysis of effect of shear stress on HMSCs. PMID: 20407807
  65. Showed the presence of GAPDH in the plasma membrane of four different breast cancer cell lines. PMID: 20664973
  66. The nuclear translocation of GAPDH might be regulated by the PI3K signaling pathway acting mainly as a nuclear export signal and the AMPK signaling pathway acting as a nuclear import signal. PMID: 20177150
  67. increased intrathecal production of GAPDH-reactive Abs in patients with MS may result in widespread binding of Abs to GAPDH in axons and neurons, leading to inhibition of GAPDH glycolytic activity, neuroaxonal apoptosis, and cytotoxicity. PMID: 20610654
  68. melanoma antigen expressed in G361, a representative melanoma cell line/ reacted with autoantibodies in patient sera PMID: 20181627
  69. This protein has been found differentially expressed in the anterior cingulate cortex in women patients with schizophrenia. PMID: 20381070
  70. siah-1 Protein is necessary for high glucose-induced glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase nuclear accumulation and cell death in Muller PMID: 19940145
  71. We identified a nuclear high molecular weight (HMW) GAPDH species in Huntington's disease cells, suggesting a connection between nuclear GAPDH function and huntingtin localization in this CAG expansion neuronal disease. PMID: 12008025
  72. GAPDH is not an ideal internal standard for specific gene expression in testicular tissue specimens PMID: 12121569
  73. GAPDH may be involved in the cellular phenotype of age-related neurodegenerative disorders--REVIEW PMID: 12428732
  74. dissociation of the GAPDH protein from the HMW species restores its enzymatic activity. PMID: 12503091
  75. HIF-2alpha regulates glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene expression in vascular endothelial cells. PMID: 12697324
  76. Transcription factors bound to glutamine-responsive element in GAPDH promoter are C/EBPalpha and -delta. PMID: 12842822
  77. Glycoaldehyde inactivates GAPD. PMID: 12921788
  78. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase might be a novel target for vaccinia anti-apoptotic modulation. PMID: 14515148
  79. nuclear GAPDH has a role in the maintenance and/or protection of telomeres PMID: 14630908
  80. Thioredoxin regulates the expression of GAPDH. PMID: 14730345
  81. GAPDH mRNA expression was correlated with evidence of tumor progression in thymoma. PMID: 15001839
  82. data suggest that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) imparts a unique function necessary for membrane trafficking from vesicular tubular clusters (VTCs) that does not require GAPDH glycolytic activity PMID: 15485821
  83. significant association between late-onset Alzheimer's disease and a compound genotype of the three GAPD genes PMID: 15507493
  84. Subcellular interactions may mitigate oxidative stress-induced GAPDH modification in human aging. PMID: 15716040
  85. results demonstrate that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, a glycolytic and microtubule binding protein, co-localized to neurofibrillary tangles and immunoprecipitated with paired helical filament-tau PMID: 15746184
  86. Marked variability of GAPDH expression between tissue types which establish comparative levels of expression and can be used to add value to gene expression data in which GAPDH is used as the internal control. PMID: 15769908
  87. GAPDH modified by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal is degraded by a giant serine protease, releasing the 23-kDa fragment, not by proteasome or TPP I PMID: 15907785
  88. evidence that GAPDH is an epithelial binding receptor for Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbriae PMID: 15985219
  89. Conditions associated with elevated intracellular methylglyoxal could modify GAPDH activity in vivo. PMID: 16037232
  90. GAPDH is an integral part of the sarcolemmal K(ATP)-channel protein complex, where it couples glycolysis with the K(ATP)-channel activity. PMID: 16082386
  91. Data show that the insertion of ferriprotoporphyrin IX (FP) into the red cell membranes exerts two opposite effects on membrane bound G3PD. PMID: 16139273
  92. Amyloid-beta induces disulfide bonding and aggregation of GAPDH in Alzheimer's disease PMID: 16186172
  93. GAPDH might be involved in cell cycle regulation by modulating cyclin B-cdk1 activity. PMID: 16474839
  94. GAPDH is inaccurate to normalize mRNA levels in studies investigating the effect of bisphosphonates on gene expression; this gene could be considered a potential target to observe the effects of bisphosphonates on cancer cells PMID: 16515701
  95. OxLDL downregulated GAPDH via a H2O2-dependent decrease in protein stability. GAPDH protein damage resulted in marked depletion of cellular ATP levels. PMID: 16778134
  96. The GAPD gene and its pseudogene may play a role in the development of late-onset Alzheimer disease. However, the effect, if any, is likely to be limited. PMID: 16832079
  97. TPI and GAPDH may be candidate Ags for an autoimmune response to neurons and axons in multiple sclerosis. PMID: 17015754
  98. identified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as a new interacting partner of TPPP/p25 within the alpha-synuclein positive Lewy body PMID: 17027006
  99. GAPDH interacts with transferrin and the GAPDH-transferrin complex is subsequently internalized into the early endosomes. PMID: 17121833
  100. A decrease in the dehydrogenase activity of GAPDH was noted in Alzheimer disease. PMID: 17324518

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Subcellular Location Cytoplasm, cytosol, Nucleus, Cytoplasm, perinuclear region, Membrane, Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton
Protein Families Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase family
Database Links

HGNC: 4141

OMIM: 138400

KEGG: hsa:2597

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000229239

UniGene: Hs.544577

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