Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), a basic helix-loop-helix-PAS domain transcription factor, plays an integral role in the body's response to low oxygen concentrations, or hypoxia.
It consists of two subunits: an oxygen-regulated α-subunit and a constitutively expressed β-subunit. It is expressed in all metazoan organisms.
Under normoxia, HIF-1 alpha undergoes hydroxylation at specific prolyl residues which leads to an immediate ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation of the subunit. In contrast, under hypoxic conditions, HIF-1 regulates the transcription of hundreds of genes in a cell type-specific manner.
The HIF-1α subunit is regulated by O2-dependent hydroxylation of proline residue 402, 564, or both, by prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 2 (PHD2), which promotes binding of the von Hippel-Lindau protein (VHL), leading to ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation; and O2-dependent hydroxylation of asparagine residue 803 by factor inhibiting HIF-1 (FIH-1), which blocks the binding of the 300-kilodalton coactivator protein (p300) and CREB binding protein (CBP). Eventually, HIF-1 acts as a master regulator of numerous hypoxia-inducible genes under hypoxic conditions. The target genes of HIF-1 encode proteins that increase O2 delivery and mediate adaptive responses to O2 deprivation. Despite its name, HIF-1 is induced not only in response to reduced oxygen availability but also by other stimulants, such as nitric oxide, or various growth factors.
In a hypoxic environment, HIF-1α accumulates in cells and binds to HIF-1β to form HIF-1, and HIF-1 binds to HRE to participate in multiple signaling pathways, leading to the response of cells to hypoxia.
Currently, HIF signaling pathways mainly include: PI-3K-Akt /HIF-1α pathway, SENP1 /HIF-1α pathway, HIF-1α/BNIP3 /Bcline-1 signaling pathway, MAPK /HIF-1α signaling pathway. In addition, proteins such as pVHL heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), can also mediate hypoxic signaling with HIF-1 alpha.
|AKT1||AKT1 Antibody||AKT1 Protein||AKT1 cDNA||AKT1 ELISA Kit|
|AKT2||AKT2 Antibody||AKT2 Protein||AKT2 cDNA||AKT2 ELISA Kit|
|AKT3||AKT3 Antibody||AKT3 Protein||AKT3 cDNA||AKT3 ELISA Kit|
|ALDOA||ALDOA Antibody||ALDOA Protein||ALDOA cDNA||ALDOA ELISA Kit|
|ANGPT1||ANGPT1 Antibody||ANGPT1 Protein||ANGPT1 cDNA||ANGPT1 ELISA Kit|
|ANGPT2||ANGPT2 Antibody||ANGPT2 Protein||ANGPT2 cDNA||ANGPT2 ELISA Kit|
|ANGPT4||ANGPT4 Antibody||ANGPT4 Protein||ANGPT4 cDNA||ANGPT4 ELISA Kit|
|ARNT||ARNT Antibody||ARNT Protein||ARNT cDNA||ARNT ELISA Kit|
|BCL2||BCL2 Antibody||BCL2 Protein||BCL2 cDNA||BCL2 ELISA Kit|
|CAMK2A||CAMK2A Antibody||CAMK2A Protein||CAMK2A cDNA||CAMK2A ELISA Kit|
|CAMK2B||CAMK2B Antibody||CAMK2B Protein||CAMK2B cDNA||CAMK2B ELISA Kit|
|CAMK2D||CAMK2D Antibody||CAMK2D Protein||CAMK2D cDNA||CAMK2D ELISA Kit|
|CAMK2G||CAMK2G Antibody||CAMK2G Protein||CAMK2G cDNA||CAMK2G ELISA Kit|
|CDKN1A||CDKN1A Antibody||CDKN1A Protein||CDKN1A cDNA||CDKN1A ELISA Kit|
|CDKN1B||CDKN1B Antibody||CDKN1B Protein||CDKN1B cDNA||CDKN1B ELISA Kit|
|CREBBP||CREBBP Antibody||CREBBP Protein||CREBBP cDNA||CREBBP ELISA Kit|
|CUL2||CUL2 Antibody||CUL2 Protein||CUL2 cDNA||CUL2 ELISA Kit|
|CYBB||CYBB Antibody||CYBB Protein||CYBB cDNA||CYBB ELISA Kit|
|EDN1||EDN1 Antibody||EDN1 Protein||EDN1 cDNA||EDN1 ELISA Kit|
|EGF||EGF Antibody||EGF Protein||EGF cDNA||EGF ELISA Kit|