|Oxidase with broad substrate specificity, oxidizing aromatic azaheterocycles, such as N1-methylnicotinamide, N-methylphthalazinium and phthalazine, as well as aldehydes, such as benzaldehyde, retinal, pyridoxal, and vanillin. Plays a role in the metabolism of xenobiotics and drugs containing aromatic azaheterocyclic substituents. Participates in the bioactivation of prodrugs such as famciclovir, catalyzing the oxidation step from 6-deoxypenciclovir to penciclovir, which is a potent antiviral agent. Also plays a role in the reductive metabolism of the xenobiotic imidacloprid (IMI) via its nitroreduction to nitrosoguanidine (IMI-NNO) and aminoguanidine (IMI-NNH(2)). Is probably involved in the regulation of reactive oxygen species homeostasis. May be a prominent source of superoxide generation via the one-electron reduction of molecular oxygen. Also may catalyze nitric oxide (NO) production via the reduction of nitrite to NO with NADH or aldehyde as electron donor. May play a role in adipogenesis. Cannot use xanthine and hypoxanthine as substrate.
|Gene References into Functions
- Although mAOX2 and mAOX3 are very similar to each other, we propose the following pairs of overlapping substrate specificities: mAOX2/mAOX4 and mAOX3/mAXO1. PMID: 25287365
- findings suggest that AOX1 acts as a contributor to the process of myogenesis by influencing the level of H2O2 PMID: 24996175
- These data indicate that AOX1 is essential for adipogenesis and may link energy and drug metabolism. PMID: 18671973
- only Glu1265 is essential for catalytic activity by initiating the base-catalyzed mechanism of substrate oxidation PMID: 19401776
||Xanthine dehydrogenase family
||Highest expression in esophagus. Moderately low expression in lung, liver, heart, Harderian gland, olfactory mucosa, skin and testis. In brain, expression is very high in choroid plexus, high in hind brain and low in hippocampus and cerebellum. In spinal