Apex1 Antibody

Code CSB-PA001900XA01MO
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Product Details

Full Product Name Rabbit anti-Mus musculus (Mouse) Apex1 Polyclonal antibody
Uniprot No. P28352
Target Names Apex1
Alternative Names Apex1 antibody; Ape antibody; Apex antibody; Ref1DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase antibody; EC 3.1.-.- antibody; EC antibody; APEX nuclease antibody; APEN antibody; Apurinic-apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 antibody; AP endonuclease 1 antibody; REF-1 antibody; Redox factor-1) [Cleaved into: DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase antibody; mitochondrial] antibody
Raised in Rabbit
Species Reactivity Mus musculus (Mouse)
Immunogen Recombinant Mus musculus (Mouse) Apex1 protein
Immunogen Species Mus musculus (Mouse)
Conjugate Non-conjugated
Clonality Polyclonal
Isotype IgG
Purification Method Protein A/G
Concentration It differs from different batches. Please contact us to confirm it.
Buffer Preservative: 0.03% Proclin 300
Constituents: 50% Glycerol, 0.01M PBS, pH 7.4
Form Liquid
Tested Applications ELISA, WB (ensure identification of antigen)
Protocols ELISA Protocol
Troubleshooting and FAQs Antibody FAQs
Storage Upon receipt, store at -20°C or -80°C. Avoid repeated freeze.
Value-added Deliverables ① 200ug * antigen (positive control);
② 1ml * Pre-immune serum (negative control);
Quality Guarantee ① Antibody purity can be guaranteed above 90% by SDS-PAGE detection;
② ELISA titer can be guaranteed 1: 64,000;
③ WB validation with antigen can be guaranteed positive;
Lead Time Made-to-order (14-16 weeks)

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Target Background

(From Uniprot)
Multifunctional protein that plays a central role in the cellular response to oxidative stress. The two major activities of APEX1 are DNA repair and redox regulation of transcriptional factors. Functions as a apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endodeoxyribonuclease in the DNA base excision repair (BER) pathway of DNA lesions induced by oxidative and alkylating agents. Initiates repair of AP sites in DNA by catalyzing hydrolytic incision of the phosphodiester backbone immediately adjacent to the damage, generating a single-strand break with 5'-deoxyribose phosphate and 3'-hydroxyl ends. Does also incise at AP sites in the DNA strand of DNA/RNA hybrids, single-stranded DNA regions of R-loop structures, and single-stranded RNA molecules. Has a 3'-5' exoribonuclease activity on mismatched deoxyribonucleotides at the 3' termini of nicked or gapped DNA molecules during short-patch BER. Possesses a DNA 3' phosphodiesterase activity capable of removing lesions (such as phosphoglycolate) blocking the 3' side of DNA strand breaks. May also play a role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression by participating in DNA demethylation. Acts as a loading factor for POLB onto non-incised AP sites in DNA and stimulates the 5'-terminal deoxyribose 5'-phosphate (dRp) excision activity of POLB. Plays a role in the protection from granzymes-mediated cellular repair leading to cell death. Also involved in the DNA cleavage step of class switch recombination (CSR). On the other hand, APEX1 also exerts reversible nuclear redox activity to regulate DNA binding affinity and transcriptional activity of transcriptional factors by controlling the redox status of their DNA-binding domain, such as the FOS/JUN AP-1 complex after exposure to IR. Involved in calcium-dependent down-regulation of parathyroid hormone (PTH) expression by binding to negative calcium response elements (nCaREs). Together with HNRNPL or the dimer XRCC5/XRCC6, associates with nCaRE, acting as an activator of transcriptional repression. Stimulates the YBX1-mediated MDR1 promoter activity, when acetylated at Lys-6 and Lys-7, leading to drug resistance. Acts also as an endoribonuclease involved in the control of single-stranded RNA metabolism. Plays a role in regulating MYC mRNA turnover by preferentially cleaving in between UA and CA dinucleotides of the MYC coding region determinant (CRD). In association with NMD1, plays a role in the rRNA quality control process during cell cycle progression. Associates, together with YBX1, on the MDR1 promoter. Together with NPM1, associates with rRNA. Binds DNA and RNA.
Gene References into Functions
  1. We suggest that serum APE1/Ref-1 can be used to assess for myocardial injury in viral myocarditis without endomyocardial biopsy PMID: 29292734
  2. AOM, a colorectal cancer carcinogen, generates damage to the mitochondrial genome, and the BER enzyme APE1 is required to maintain its integrity. PMID: 28360037
  3. findings provide evidence that endogenous APE1 protects against ischemic infarction in both gray and white matter and facilitates the functional recovery of the central nervous system after mild stroke injury PMID: 27274063
  4. Suppression of Ape1/Ref-1 redox function leads to an increased cell surface retention of IL-12 and enhances Th1 responses. PMID: 27637330
  5. Is closely associated with upregulation of the Ref1/Nrf2 signalling pathway. PMID: 26682532
  6. Results show the stimulatory effect of PARP-1 on APE1-dependent base excision repair (BER). PARP-1 and APE1 appear to have a functional interaction in BER since PARP-1 can stimulate the strand incision activity of APE1. PMID: 26020771
  7. increases in APEX1 level confer protection against the murine paternal age effect, thus highlighting the role of APEX1 in preserving reproductive health with increasing age and in protection against genotoxin-induced mutagenesis in somatic cells PMID: 26201249
  8. Endothelial cell tumor proliferation was found to be dependent on Apex-1 expression. PMID: 26108661
  9. Expression of OGG1 and APEX1 was decreased at 3h after last exposure to Aroclor 1254 and only the expression level of APEX1 was recovered at 24-h after, so inhibition of DNA repair can be a potential mode of action of Aroclor 1254 gonadal toxicity. PMID: 25113976
  10. Data indicate that the endonuclease activity of APE1 is required for class switch recombination (CSR). PMID: 25404348
  11. These results suggest that mitochondrial APE1/Ref-1 is contributed to the protective role to protein kinase C-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in endothelial cells. PMID: 24861944
  12. Spinal motor neurones down-regulate APE1 upon oxidative stress. This property renders motor neurones susceptible to continuous challenge of oxidative stress in pathological conditions. PMID: 23808792
  13. The reductive activation of endothelial SIRT1 by APE1/Ref-1 mediates the effect of APE1/Ref-1 on eNOS acetylation, promoting endothelium-derived NO and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. PMID: 23755229
  14. Together, these data show that the expression of APE1 is crucial for efficient transcription of ribosomal genes. PMID: 24648491
  15. Ape1, an enzyme required for processing apurinic/apyrimidinic (known as abasic) sites, is also involved in the generation of small DNA fragments during DNA repair. PMID: 25210033
  16. Voluntary running wheel exercise significantly increases levels of BDNF, activates CREB, and upregulates APE1 in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice. PMID: 24114393
  17. data provide new insight into error-prone repair of AID-induced lesions, which we propose is facilitated by down-regulation of APE1 and up-regulation of APE2 expression in germinal center B cells. PMID: 24927551
  18. Transient OGG1, APE1, PARP1 and Polbeta expression in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model. PMID: 24121118
  19. APE1 enhances in vivo vascular repair effects of endothelial progenitor cells in part through the maintenance of adhesion properties of EPCs during oxidative stress. PMID: 23934858
  20. Data indicate an association of ovarian stimulation with a downregulation of mRNAs encoding the base excision repair proteins APEX1 and POLB as well as the 5-methyl-CpG-binding domain protein MBD3 in individual morula embryos. PMID: 23154201
  21. Energy failure-induced Ape1 depletion triggers neuronal death in ischemic brain injuries. PMID: 22841870
  22. the mouse-renin gene is regulated by apurinic/apyrimidinic-endonuclease 1 (APE1/Ref-1) via recruitment of histone deacetylase 1 corepressor complex PMID: 22441348
  23. these findings are the first demonstration that Ape1/Ref-1 is an indispensable molecule for the IL-21-mediated signal transduction through ERK1/2 activation. PMID: 22450323
  24. Mutant frequency and nuclear DNA damage increased earlier in spermatogenic cells from Apex1(+/-) mice (by 6 months of age). By old age, mutant frequencies were similar for wild-type and APEN-deficient mice. PMID: 21919107
  25. APE1 suppresses oxLDL-induced p66shc activation in endothelial cells by inhibiting PKCbetaII-mediated serine phosphorylation of p66shc, and mitigates vasoconstriction induced by activation of PKC. PMID: 21467074
  26. Data show that Mad2 haploinsufficiency is protective in the presence of a cycle-specific DNA synthesis agent in vivo, and Ape1/Ref-1 inhibitor in vitro. PMID: 21216274
  27. These findings suggest that cell death is initiated by reducing APE/Ref-1 protein and inhibiting its repair function. PMID: 20637286
  28. Cytoplasmic Ape1 could enhance lung tumor malignancy through NF-kappaB activation. PMID: 20498636
  29. The stoichiometry of base excision repair enzymes is one critical factor underlying the tissue selectivity of somatic CAG expansion. PMID: 19997493
  30. study indicates that IL-6 induces a novel STAT3-APE1 complex, whose interaction is required for stable chromatin association in the IL-6-induced hepatic acute phase response PMID: 20032196
  31. Data show that the rabbit anti-human APE1 polyclonal antibody with high titer and specificity can be used not only to elucidate the roles of APE1 protein in cellular procedures, but also to detect the expression of the APE1 protein in mice and rats. PMID: 19351502
  32. indicates that Apex1 can generate complex double strand breaks from clustered lesions consisting of base damage and abasic sites. PMID: 19800300
  33. promoter regions and tissue distribution of APEX PMID: 12200116
  34. Il-2 induction of ref-1 protein may be involved in the regulation of telomerase activity. PMID: 12647295
  35. Ref-1 has a role in redox regulation of AP-1 DNA binding PMID: 12773568
  36. Brain expression of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE/Ref-1) multifunctional DNA repair enzyme gene in the mouse with special reference to the suprachiasmatic nucleus. PMID: 12871766
  37. changes in base excision repair activity correlated tightly with changes in DNA polymerase beta and Apurinic/apyrimidinic site DNA binding levels PMID: 14973123
  38. diminution of AP endonuclease has a significant effect on spontaneous mutagenesis in somatic and germ line cells PMID: 15340075
  39. A novel physiological role for APE1/ref-1 in regulating vascular tone by governance of eNOS activity and bioavailable NO. PMID: 15472121
  40. Results indicate that the DNA repair and gene regulation functions of APE1 are essential and provide evidence that mammalian cells require APE for survival, presumably to protect against spontaneous oxidative DNA damage. PMID: 15824325
  41. In sum, loss of a single allele of Ref-1 is sufficient to reduce intimal lesion formation and to alter circulating cytokine and growth factor expression. PMID: 16936011
  42. Ape1 is critical in normal embryonic hematopoietic development PMID: 17053053
  43. The ATF4-mediated up-regulation of Ape1 and other genes plays a key role against arsenite-mediated toxicity and mutagenesis. PMID: 17938202
  44. Both APE1 and APE2 function in antibody switch recomibination, resulting in double stranded breaks necesary for this recombination. PMID: 18025127
  45. In hepatocytes, ablation of p66(shc) is cytoprotective against hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced oxidative stress, with MnSOD, Ref-1, and Bcl-xL up-regulated, and FLICE down-regulated. PMID: 18191273
  46. Apex1 makes fine-tuning of CD40-induced B cell proliferation. PMID: 18617267
  47. Inhibition of the redox function of APE1 blocks murine endothelial cell growth and angiogenesis, and blocks the growth of human tumor cell lines. These effects are independent of the APE1 DNA-repair function. PMID: 18627350
  48. By 1 month of age, genomic instability increases in livers of Mat1a knockout mice, possibly due to reduced APEX1 levels PMID: 18983843
  49. increased APE/Ref-1 enhanced DNA repair and inhibited the induction of ischemic oxidative DNA damage and cerebral infarction after ischemia/reperfusion PMID: 19374886

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Subcellular Location Nucleus. Nucleus, nucleolus. Nucleus speckle. Endoplasmic reticulum. Cytoplasm.; [DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) endonuclease, mitochondrial]: Mitochondrion.
Protein Families DNA repair enzymes AP/ExoA family
Tissue Specificity Expressed in both resting and stimulated B cells stimulated to switch (at protein level).
Database Links

KEGG: mmu:11792

STRING: 10090.ENSMUSP00000042602

UniGene: Mm.203

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