Human High mobility group protein B1,HMGB-1 ELISA Kit

Code CSB-E08223h
Size 96T,5×96T,10×96T
See More Details 24T ELISA kits trial application
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Product Details

Target Name high-mobility group box 1
Alternative Names Amphoterin ELISA Kit; Chromosomal protein; nonhistone; HMG1 ELISA Kit; DKFZp686A04236 ELISA Kit; High mobility group 1 ELISA Kit; High mobility group box 1 ELISA Kit; High mobility group protein 1 ELISA Kit; High mobility group protein B1 ELISA Kit; high-mobility group (nonhistone chromosomal) protein 1 ELISA Kit; HMG-1 ELISA Kit; HMG1 ELISA Kit; HMG3 ELISA Kit; HMGB 1 ELISA Kit; HMGB1 ELISA Kit; HMGB1_HUMAN ELISA Kit; NONHISTONE CHROMOSOMAL PROTEIN HMG1 ELISA Kit; SBP 1 ELISA Kit; Sulfoglucuronyl carbohydrate binding protein ELISA Kit
Abbreviation HMGB1
Uniprot No. P09429
Species Homo sapiens (Human)
Sample Types serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates
Detection Range 78 pg/mL-5000 pg/mL
Sensitivity 19.5 pg/mL
Assay Time 1-5h
Sample Volume 50-100ul
Detection Wavelength 450 nm
Research Area Epigenetics and Nuclear Signaling
Assay Principle quantitative
Measurement Sandwich
Intra-assay Precision (Precision within an assay): CV%<8%        
Three samples of known concentration were tested twenty times on one plate to assess.    
Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays): CV%<10%        
Three samples of known concentration were tested in twenty assays to assess.      
To assess the linearity of the assay, samples were spiked with high concentrations of human HMGB-1 in various matrices and diluted with the Sample Diluent to produce samples with values within the dynamic range of the assay.  
  Sample Serum(n=4)    
1:1 Average % 90    
Range % 84-99    
1:2 Average % 88    
Range % 82-94    
1:4 Average % 95    
Range % 89-102    
1:8 Average % 94    
Range % 88-100    
The recovery of human HMGB-1 spiked to levels throughout the range of the assay in various matrices was evaluated. Samples were diluted prior to assay as directed in the Sample Preparation section.  
Sample Type Average % Recovery Range    
Serum (n=5) 98 90-102    
EDTA plasma (n=4) 91 85-100    
Typical Data
These standard curves are provided for demonstration only. A standard curve should be generated for each set of samples assayed.  
pg/ml OD1 OD2 Average Corrected    
5000 1.912 1.831 1.872 1.780    
2500 1.454 1.369 1.412 1.320    
1250 0.839 0.789 0.814 0.722    
625 0.456 0.487 0.472 0.380    
312 0.283 0.297 0.290 0.198    
156 0.199 0.202 0.201 0.109    
78 0.103 0.108 0.106 0.014    
0 0.089 0.094 0.092      
and FAQs
Storage Store at 2-8°C. Please refer to protocol.
Lead Time 3-5 working days


Target Data

Function Multifunctional redox sensitive protein with various roles in different cellular compartments. In the nucleus is one of the major chromatin-associated non-histone proteins and acts as a DNA chaperone involved in replication, transcription, chromatin remodeling, V(D)J recombination, DNA repair and genome stability. Proposed to be an universal biosensor for nucleic acids. Promotes host inflammatory response to sterile and infectious signals and is involved in the coordination and integration of innate and adaptive immune responses. In the cytoplasm functions as sensor and/or chaperone for immunogenic nucleic acids implicating the activation of TLR9-mediated immune responses, and mediates autophagy. Acts as danger associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule that amplifies immune responses during tissue injury
Gene References into Functions
  1. Based on these findings, ischemia/reperfusion-induced MCPIP1 expression regulates the migration and apoptosis of human vascular endothelial cells via HMGB1 and CaSR, respectively. PMID: 29379093
  2. Studied association of plasma levels of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in critically ill patients. PMID: 29862569
  3. The high-mobility group box (HMGB) proteins, particularly HMGB1, are self-derived innate immune activators that have multiple functions in the regulation of immunity and inflammation. Recent discoveries have illustrated the close link between HMGB1 and heart allograft rejection. PMID: 29198620
  4. miR-193a plays a suppressive role in osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived stroma cell via targeting HMGB1. PMID: 29787753
  5. Platelet HMGB1 mediated neutrophil-extracellular traps release is a primary regulator of deep vein thrombosis in mice. PMID: 29391442
  6. Study findings suggested that TCTP promotes colorectal cancer metastasis through regulating the behaviors of HMGB1 and the downstream activation of the NF-kappaB signaling pathway. PMID: 30066846
  7. in the present study we explore the characteristic binding mode and energetics of Act D binding to 21 nt mimed CpG sequence in the positive regulatory region of hmgb1 gene to identify areas of pressing experimental need.. PMID: 28033959
  8. Study demonstrated that serum HMGB1 was upregulated and the expression levels of miR-381 were downregulated in patients with polymyositis (PM). Furthermore, high HMGB1 expression was associated with poor survival rate in patients with PM. A luciferase activity assay was used to confirm the binding of miR-381 and HMGB1 3' untranslated region. PMID: 29956737
  9. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and OV-6 antigen (OV-6) positive staining are promising prognostic parameters for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), suggesting that HMGB1 and OV-6 may cooperate with each other and predict poor prognosis of HCC. PMID: 29441453
  10. results demonstrate that non-oxidizable HMGB1 induce a sustained cardiac fibroblasts migration despite the redox state of the environment and by altering CXCL12/CXCR4 axis. This affects proper cardiac remodeling after an infarction. PMID: 28716707
  11. High HMGB1 expression is associated with reduced chemosensitivity in the pleural effusion of non-small cell lung cancer. PMID: 28885675
  12. This work indicates that NELL-1, HMGB1, and CCN2 might enhance bone defect healing via the recruitment of endogenous cells and induction of vascularization and act via different processes than BMP2. PMID: 28463604
  13. comparison of inhibitory potential of the already known inhibitors of Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma against HMGB1-binding pocket using simulations and docking. PMID: 27900730
  14. identified 2 novel miR-193a-3p targets, the high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) and the hypoxia upregulated-1 (HYOU1) gene products. HMGB1 silencing in cord blood ECFC-derived cells confirmed its role in regulating vascular function. PMID: 28276476
  15. Results show that HMGB1 is highly expressed in prostate cancer (PC) tissues. Highly expressed HMGB1 activates RAGE/NF-kappaB signaling pathways, which facilitates the metastasis of prostate cancer. PMID: 29845254
  16. HMGB1 was identified as a down-stream target of miR-204. The miR-204/HMGB1 axis mediated ZEB2-AS1's effect on pancreatic cancer. PMID: 29753015
  17. Study demonstrated that HMGB1 and TLR4 could contribute to the inflammatory lichen planus process in skin. PMID: 29728859
  18. Our research shows that HMGB1 participates in autophagy and DNA damage repair and that downregulation of HMGB1 enhances the sensitivity of multiple myeloma (MM)cells to Dex, suggesting that HMGB1 may serve as a target for MM treatment. PMID: 30157958
  19. HMGB1 plays a critical role in mitochondrial autophagy in cardiomyocytes. miR-410 targets its 3'UTR and regulates its transcription. PMID: 28914970
  20. HMGB1 is a good diagnostic biomarker for differentiating refractory M. pneumoniae pneumonia and non-refractory M. pneumoniae pneumonia. PMID: 30157804
  21. HMGB1 promoted lung cancer invasion and metastasis by upregulating the expression and activity of MMP-2 in an NF-kappaB-dependent manner. PMID: 29850505
  22. meta-analysis exploring the association of four HMGB1 polymorphisms with cancer. PMID: 29730397
  23. levels of serum HMGB1 were positively associated with 10-year CHD risk PMID: 29704473
  24. high mobility group box 1-receptor for advanced glycation end-products (HMGB1-RAGE) signaling pathway may be involved in the pathogenesis of preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM) PMID: 29673663
  25. MiR-106 interacted with the 3'-UTR of HMGB1 and inhibited HMGB1 expression. PMID: 30055307
  26. It is a 30 kDa protein that is a lethal mediator in sepsis and is a recognized therapeutic target. PMID: 30135341
  27. HMGB1 knockdown and miR-505 overexpression promoted ADM-induced DNA damage in HCC cells. PMID: 29803174
  28. These findings indicated that HMGB1 likely regulates autophagy in LO2 cells exposed to anoxia-reoxygenation injury PMID: 29880383
  29. extracellular functions of HMGB1 in cellular and immune homeostasis at the airway mucosal surface PMID: 28976774
  30. Our results indicate that genetic variations in the HMGB1 gene may serve as an important predictor of breast cancer progression and metastasis. PMID: 29725248
  31. soluble CD52 exerts a concerted immunosuppressive effect by first sequestering HMGB1 to nullify its proinflammatory Box B, followed by binding to the inhibitory Siglec-10 receptor, triggering recruitment of SHP1 to the intracellular immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif of Siglec-10 and its interaction with the TCR. PMID: 29997173
  32. In lung cancer patients, circulating HMGB1-containing nucleosome is higher in those under chemotherapy, predicting poorly cancer cell differentiation state, enhanced cancer invasion and advanced TNM stages. PMID: 29679570
  33. a number of microRNAs (miRNAs) are identified as a class of regulators for broad control of HMGB1-mediated biological actions in eukaryotic cells. PMID: 29651425
  34. The study indicated polymorphisms in HMGB1 may be a novel biomarker for female lung adenocarcinoma risk. PMID: 29617336
  35. Glycyrrhizin reduced the activity of JAK/STAT signaling pathway, which is the upstream regulator of HMGB1. PMID: 29568761
  36. HMGB1 may be a useful prognostic biomarker in malignant pleural mesothelioma when detected by immunohistochemistry, but cannot be considered a diagnostic biomarker in histological samples of mesothelioma PMID: 29356044
  37. the present study indicates that PBX 3'UTR may induce inflammatory responses and sepsis via acting as a competing endogenous RNA for HMGB1. PMID: 29484406
  38. overexpression of HMGB1 potentially promoted epileptogenesis. CLinduced activation of glial cells may act via upregulation of HMGB1 and TLR4/RAGE receptors, and the downstream transcription factor NFkappaB. PMID: 29393419
  39. Results show that HMGB1 is highly expressed in osteosarcoma tissues. Its expression is negatively regulated by miR-505 inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion in osteosarcoma cells. PMID: 29251324
  40. This review demonstrated the increased expression of HMGB-1 in thrombosis-related diseases, including coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and venous thrombosis. PMID: 29940562
  41. this study shows elevated serum level of HMGB1 in patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome PMID: 29410969
  42. Chronic periodontitis nonsmokers had elevated levels of HMGB1 in gingival crevicular fluid. The levels of HMGB1 were correlated with severity of periodontitis. Chronic periodontitis smokers exhibited lower levels of HMGB1 than chronic periodontitis nonsmokers. PMID: 28209360
  43. Serum HMGB1 levels in patients with inflamed appendix were significantly higher than in patients with normal appendix, and this could be a useful biomarker in improving the diagnostic accuracy of appendicitis. PMID: 27922766
  44. HMGB1 silencing promoted the susceptibility of retinoblastoma cells to chemotherapeutic drugs through downregulating NF-kappaB. PMID: 29328447
  45. HMGB1 possesses beneficial actions, such as endothelial activation, enhancement of neurite outgrowth, and neuronal survival in ischemic stroke. [review] PMID: 29054968
  46. HMGB1 mediates fibroblast activity via RAGE-MAPK and NF-kappaB signaling in keloid scar formation. PMID: 29283384
  47. Serum HMGB1 may be a potential marker to monitor the surgical course in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer. PMID: 27834305
  48. the promotive effects of HuR overexpression on the inflammatory response were attenuated when HUVECs were cotreated with HMGB1 short hairpin RNA. Therefore, the present results indicated that the ectopic expression of HuR may induce inflammatory responses and thus sepsis by activating the HMGB1 signaling pathway. PMID: 29115544
  49. This is the first report to examine the risk factors associated with HMGB1 SNPs in the development of Rheumatoid arthritis disease in the Chinese Han population. PMID: 29200952
  50. HMGB1/IL-1beta complexes released after burn injuries can modulate immune responses PMID: 29601597
  51. The HMGB1 may also be involved in mediating early stress responses in Spiral ganglion neurons(SGNs). They found that HMGB1 and p-c-Jun (an activated form of an early stress-activated transcription factor) accumulated in the nuclei of the SGNs. PMID: 28247029
  52. hypoxia affects tumour growth and metastasis in melanoma and depict HMGB1 as a potential therapeutic target. PMID: 27426915
  53. Our study suggests that HMGB1 CSF levels are increased in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis PMID: 29023630
  54. Our data suggest that HMGB1 regionally secreted by macrophages mediates pancreatic pain by targeting RAGE and CXCL12/CXCR4 axis in the early stage of acute pancreatitis PMID: 28755135
  55. A potential link among HMGB1 and vascular adhesion protein-1, oxidative stress, and heme oxygenase-1 in the pathogenesis of inflammation and angiogenesis associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. PMID: 29259392
  56. CT or CC+CT heterozygotes of the HMGB1 rs1045411 polymorphism reduced the risks for lung cancer, while the G/T/C haplotypes of three HMGB1 SNPs (rs1360485, rs1045411 and rs2249825) also reduced the risk for lung cancer by almost half (0.486-fold) in the Chinese Han population. PMID: 29104475
  57. There was no direct correlation between CSF and serum levels of HMGB1. Serum HMGB1 cannot be used as a surrogate measure for CSF levels. CSF HMGB1 was elevated in neurological infection/inflammation and Rasmussen's encephalitis PMID: 27899037
  58. the increased expression of HMGB1 in the placenta may be associated with the pathogenesis of placenta previa by regulating the expression of the proangiogenic factor VEGF. PMID: 28990078
  59. High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) expression level correlated inversely with tumor differentiation In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). PMID: 29848691
  60. PCAT-1 repressed inhibitory effect of miR-129-5p and reverse high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) expression, a target gene of miR-129-5p. PMID: 28931210
  61. chemically-mimicked hypoxia induced nucleocytoplasmic relocation and release of HMGB1 peptides, which in turn up-regulated the production of angiofibrogenic factors in RPE cells, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of hypoxia-associated diabetic retinopathies. Conversely, blockades of intraocular HMGB1 bioavailability or signal activation may prevent angiofibrogenesis in development of diabetic retinopathy. PMID: 28970183
  62. our study shows a novel mechanism whereby LPS and HMGB1 synergistically regulate the angiogenic behavior of endothelial cells PMID: 28818340
  63. HMGB1 expression was higher in menstrual blood compared to serum or peritoneal fluid and may promote endometriosis. PMID: 29017437
  64. Based on the rigorous investigation of our meta-analysis, it was concluded that serum HMGB1 and IL-6 levels might be used as effective indicators for pancreatic lesions as well as the degree of inflammatory response, owing ultimately to the observations and data analyses, suggesting that serum HMGB1 and IL-6 levels share a close correlation with the severity of pancreatitis. PMID: 28618057
  65. the efficient transactivation of p53-responsive gene promoters by HMGB1 depends on complex events, rather than solely on the promotion of p53 binding to its DNA cognate sites. PMID: 29421308
  66. The expression of miR-320a was significantly decreased in 24 of 32 (75%) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and associated with the invasion and metastasis of HCC. The results showed that miR-320a was involved in the invasion and metastasis by targeting HMGB1 and had an anti-metastasis effect in HCC. PMID: 28317284
  67. HMGB1 promoted the autophagic degradation of alpha-synuclein via the Atg 5-dependent autophagy-initiation pathway, implying the protective role of endogenous HMGB1 in the neuroblastoma cells against the alpha-synuclein accumulation PMID: 29551576
  68. Multiple functions of HMGB proteins reveal the complex roles of these proteins as innate and endogenous regulators of inflammation in joints and their cooperative roles in cartilage hypertrophy as well as in the maintenance of joint tissue homeostasis. PMID: 28916968
  69. In summary, we identified two risk-associated polymorphisms (rs1045411 and rs2070600), and more importantly a joint impact of seven polymorphisms from the HMGB1/RAGE axis in susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID: 28187002
  70. Study revealed that HMGB1 acts as a mediator of neurite degeneration through the identification of the pathological signaling pathway in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The signaling pathway is initiated with the extracellular release of HMGB1, followed by activation of the TLR4-MAP kinases, phosphorylation of MARCKS at Ser46, and neurite degeneration via instability of the actin network. PMID: 27557632
  71. In type 2 diabetes patients HMGB-1 and OPG serum levels are higher in patients affected by peripheral arterial disease and independently associated with its occurrence and clinical severity PMID: 28789654
  72. The levels of plasma HMGB1 were significantly elevated in communityacquired pneumonia patients compared with the controls, and antibiotic treatment was effective in reducing HMGB1 levels. Plasma HMGB1 correlated with the pneumonia severity index score (r=0.566, P<0.001). PMID: 28677786
  73. this study shows that intracellular high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) remarkably suppresses oncogenic K-Ras-driven pancreatic tumorigenesis by inhibiting chromosome instability-mediated pro-inflammatory nucleosome release. PMID: 28374746
  74. HMGB1 signaling pathways may be more easily activated in elderly coronary artery disease patients with concomitant inflammatory rheumatic disease and trigger a detrimental inflammatory process causing severe cardiovascular problems. PMID: 28427050
  75. In-depth IPA analysis revealed that CENPU was associated with the HMGB1 signaling pathway. qPCR and western blot analysis demonstrated that in the HMGB1 signaling pathway, CENPU knockdown downregulated expression levels of ILB, CXCL8, RAC1 and IL1A PMID: 28677729
  76. HMGB1 may be a necessary intermediate in the ceramide-dependent metabolic consequences of cigarette smoke exposure. PMID: 28531105
  77. HMGB1 amplified neutrophil activation and the activation and injury of glomerular endothelial cells in the presence of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody . PMID: 28181422
  78. HMGB1 is over-expressed in chronic middle-ear pathologies and may play a role in the progression of the inflammatory process from recurrent acute otitis media to chronic suppurative otitis media. PMID: 28555513
  79. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) has been proposed as biomarker potentially able to elucidate the causative relationship between the immune system and gut mucosal inflammation and onset and progression of gastrointestinal diseases. PMID: 28870474
  80. Data revealed an increased risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) among patients with the HMGB1 polymorphism rs1045411 C/C compared with those with the C/T or C/T+T/T genotype and confirms the association of rs1045411 in the HMGB1 3'-UTR region with OSCC risk most likely because a putative miRNA-505 binding site. PMID: 28423715
  81. These findings demonstrate that released HMGB1 is central to DS, and that targeting HMGB1 may be of therapeutic value in the treatment of DS. PMID: 28404891
  82. secretion from keratinocytes induced by 310nm UVB PMID: 27094746
  83. HMGB1 overexpression is associated with poorer prognosis in patients with various types of cancer, suggesting that it is a prognostic factor and potential biomarker for survival in cancer [review and meta-analysis] PMID: 27391431
  84. High-Mobility Group Box 1 Upregulates MUC5AC and MUC5B Expression in Primary Airway Epithelial Cells. PMID: 29286856
  85. Hmgb1 can inhibit Klotho gene expression and malignant phenotype in melanoma cells through activation of NF-kappaB signaling. PMID: 27779100
  86. Further exploration of molecular mechanisms underlying the function of HMGB1 in lung diseases will provide novel preventive and therapeutic strategies for lung diseases. PMID: 28039939
  87. Data show that HMGB1 is a direct target of miR-142 in cervical cancer and it is implicated in miR-142-induced cell proliferation, invasiveness and apoptosis of cervical cancer cells. PMID: 27829233
  88. In addition to the findings that HMGB1 is a sensitive biomarker of allergic asthma in children, data demonstrated a significant correlation between the decrease of HMGB1 levels and a successful treatment response. PMID: 28441990
  89. miR-193a displayed its role in lung cancer via modulating the HMGB1 expression. This study demonstrated that UCA1 exerts oncogenes activity in lung cancer, acting mechanistically by upregulating HMGB1 expression through 'sponging' miR-193a. PMID: 29355524
  90. Combined analysis of LC3B puncta and HMGB1 expression allowed for improved stratification of patients with respect to the characteristics of their immune infiltrate as well as overall and metastasis-free survival PMID: 26979828
  91. Intracolonic application of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-HMGB1 A box is effective in alleviating murine colitis and has therapeutic potential in human inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). PMID: 27572454
  92. HMGB1 is increased in nasal lavage samples of chronic rhinosinusitis patients; secreted HMGB1 participates in IL-8 upregulation mediating inflammatory response PMID: 27624778
  93. High HMGB1 expression is associated with colorectal cancer. PMID: 26840258
  94. HMGB1 induced the activation of p38 and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in TLR4/ primary AVICs, and inhibited p38 and NFkappaB in wildtype AVICs treated with TLR4specific antibodies. PMID: 28260034
  95. HMGB1 is capable to promote oncogenesis or suppress tumor growth, thus affecting treatment efficacy. [review] PMID: 27262996
  96. In persons with chronic spinal cord injury, HMGB1 was significantly elevated, compared with uninjured persons. PMID: 27673428
  97. chaperone-mediated autophagy pathway activation appears to decrease hepatocellular carcinoma susceptibility to apoptosis on irradiation through degradation of HMGB1 protein which reduced p53 expression PMID: 28428710
  98. Taken together, these results suggested that the changes, including ox-LDL/LDL ratio, CD68(+)/RANK(+) cells number, and the levels of RANKL and HMGB1 in AS patients, favored osteoclastogenesis. PMID: 29146189
  99. Increased levels of HMGB1 were significantly correlated with the severity and the time of onset of preeclampsia. PMID: 27285673
  100. These findings suggest that HMGB1 expressed on the surface of circulating platelets in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease may not serve as a prognostic biomarker for this disease state. PMID: 29041001

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Subcellular Location Nucleus, Chromosome, Cytoplasm, Secreted, Cell membrane, Peripheral membrane protein, Extracellular side, Endosome, Endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment
Protein Families HMGB family
Tissue Specificity Ubiquituous. Expressed in platelets (PubMed:11154118).
Database Links

HGNC: 4983

OMIM: 163905

KEGG: hsa:3146

STRING: 9606.ENSP00000343040

UniGene: Hs.434102

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