Recombinant Mouse Stimulator of interferon genes protein(Tmem173)

Code CSB-CF023754MO
Size Pls inquire
Source in vitro E.coli expression system
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Product Details

Target Names Tmem173Synonyms:Eris,Mita,,Mpys,,Sting
Uniprot No. Q3TBT3
Alternative Names Sting1; Eris; Mita; Mpys; Tmem173; Stimulator of interferon genes protein; mSTING; Endoplasmic reticulum interferon stimulator; ERIS; Mediator of IRF3 activation; MMITA; Transmembrane protein 173
Species Mus musculus (Mouse)
Expression Region 1-378
Target Protein Sequence MPYSNLHPAIPRPRGHRSKYVALIFLVASLMILWVAKDPPNHTLKYLALHLASHELGLLL KNLCCLAEELCHVQSRYQGSYWKAVRACLGCPIHCMAMILLSSYFYFLQNTADIYLSWMF GLLVLYKSLSMLLGLQSLTPAEVSAVCEEKKLNVAHGLAWSYYIGYLRLILPGLQARIRM FNQLHNNMLSGAGSRRLYILFPLDCGVPDNLSVVDPNIRFRDMLPQQNIDRAGIKNRVYS NSVYEILENGQPAGVCILEYATPLQTLFAMSQDAKAGFSREDRLEQAKLFCRTLEEILED VPESRNNCRLIVYQEPTDGNSFSLSQEVLRHIRQEEKEEVTMNAPMTSVAPPPSVLSQEP RLLISGMDQPLPLRTDLI
Note: The complete sequence including tag sequence, target protein sequence and linker sequence could be provided upon request.
Protein Length full length protein
Tag Info N-terminal 10xHis-tagged
Form Liquid or Lyophilized powder
Note: We will preferentially ship the format that we have in stock, however, if you have any special requirement for the format, please remark your requirement when placing the order, we will prepare according to your demand.
Buffer If the delivery form is liquid, the default storage buffer is Tris/PBS-based buffer, 5%-50% glycerol.
Note: If you have any special requirement for the glycerol content, please remark when you place the order.
If the delivery form is lyophilized powder, the buffer before lyophilization is Tris/PBS-based buffer, 6% Trehalose, pH 8.0.
Reconstitution We recommend that this vial be briefly centrifuged prior to opening to bring the contents to the bottom. Please reconstitute protein in deionized sterile water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL.We recommend to add 5-50% of glycerol (final concentration) and aliquot for long-term storage at -20°C/-80°C. Our default final concentration of glycerol is 50%. Customers could use it as reference.
Troubleshooting
and FAQs
Protein FAQs
Storage Condition Store at -20°C/-80°C upon receipt, aliquoting is necessary for mutiple use. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Shelf Life The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself.
Generally, the shelf life of liquid form is 6 months at -20°C/-80°C. The shelf life of lyophilized form is 12 months at -20°C/-80°C.
Lead Time Delivery time may differ from different purchasing way or location, please kindly consult your local distributors for specific delivery time.
Notes Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. Store working aliquots at 4°C for up to one week.
Datasheet & COA Please contact us to get it.

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Target Background

Function
Facilitator of innate immune signaling that acts as a sensor of cytosolic DNA from bacteria and viruses and promotes the production of type I interferon (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta). Innate immune response is triggered in response to non-CpG double-stranded DNA from viruses and bacteria delivered to the cytoplasm. Acts by binding cyclic dinucleotides: recognizes and binds cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP), a second messenger produced by bacteria, and cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP), a messenger produced by CGAS in response to DNA virus in the cytosol. Upon binding of c-di-GMP or cGAMP, STING1 oligomerizes, translocates from the endoplasmic reticulum and is phosphorylated by TBK1 on the pLxIS motif, leading to recruitment and subsequent activation of the transcription factor IRF3 to induce expression of type I interferon and exert a potent anti-viral state. In addition to promote the production of type I interferons, plays a direct role in autophagy. Following cGAMP-binding, STING1 buds from the endoplasmic reticulum into COPII vesicles, which then form the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC). The ERGIC serves as the membrane source for WIPI2 recruitment and LC3 lipidation, leading to formation of autophagosomes that target cytosolic DNA or DNA viruses for degradation by the lysosome. The autophagy- and interferon-inducing activities can be uncoupled and autophagy induction is independent of TBK1 phosphorylation. Autophagy is also triggered upon infection by bacteria: following c-di-GMP-binding, which is produced by live Gram-positive bacteria, promotes reticulophagy. Exhibits 2',3' phosphodiester linkage-specific ligand recognition: can bind both 2'-3' linked cGAMP (2'-3'-cGAMP) and 3'-3' linked cGAMP but is preferentially activated by 2'-3' linked cGAMP. The preference for 2'-3'-cGAMP, compared to other linkage isomers is probably due to the ligand itself, whichs adopts an organized free-ligand conformation that resembles the STING1-bound conformation and pays low energy costs in changing into the active conformation. May be involved in translocon function, the translocon possibly being able to influence the induction of type I interferons. May be involved in transduction of apoptotic signals via its association with the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II).
Gene References into Functions
  1. Ubxn3b(-/-), like Sting(-/-) mice, are highly susceptible to lethal herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection, which is correlated with deficient immune responses when compared to Ubxn3b(+/+) littermates. PMID: 29899553
  2. this study shows that STING-/- mice presented defective protective mechanisms of intestinal mucosa, including decreased number of goblet cells, diminished mucus production, and lower levels of secretory IgA PMID: 29346345
  3. In response to the presence of cytosolic DNA, STING translocates from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi, and activates TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), a cytosolic kinase that is essential for the activation of STING-dependent downstream signaling. TBK1 binds to STING at the Golgi, not at the ER. PMID: 29870684
  4. Usp13 deconjugates polyubiquitin chains from STING and prevents the recruitment of Tbk1 to the signalling complex, thereby negatively regulating cellular antiviral responses. PMID: 28534493
  5. STING-mediated innate immune responses and dendritic cell maturation do not require TICAM-1 in myeloid lineage immune cells. PMID: 29627569
  6. PUMA promotes the cytosolic release of mitochondrial DNA and activation of the DNA sensors DAI/Zbp1 and STING, leading to enhanced RIP3 and MLKL phosphorylation in a positive feedback loop. PMID: 29581256
  7. identified nitro-fatty acids as endogenously formed inhibitors of STING signaling and propose for these lipids to be considered in the treatment of STING-dependent inflammatory diseases. PMID: 30061387
  8. Data show that mice defective in cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) or STING protein (STING) are highly susceptible to acute herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) . PMID: 27830700
  9. The STING/type I interferon pathway enhances suppressive inflammation in tumors by recruiting myeloid cells in part via the CCR2 pathway. Germ-line knockouts of CCR2 or treatment with an anti-CCR2 antibody results in blockade of radiation-induced MDSC infiltration. PMID: 29170400
  10. the induction of STING signaling is contingent on a fine-tuning of intracellular calcium levels. PMID: 29673589
  11. STING was dispensable for restricting S. pneumoniae during acute pneumonia in mice. PMID: 29263110
  12. data demonstrate that numerous RNA viruses evade cGAS/STING-dependent signaling and affirm the importance of this pathway in shaping the host range of ZIKV. PMID: 29915078
  13. Immune activation of STING requires palmitoylation at the Golgi. PMID: 27324217
  14. STING has dual functions in host defense, regulating protein synthesis to prevent RNA virus infection and regulating IFN expression to restrict DNA viruses PMID: 29440426
  15. The findings provide biochemical and imaging evidence for STING degradation by the lysosome and pinpoint trafficking-mediated STING degradation as a previously unanticipated therapeutic target for enhancing STING signaling in cancer therapy. PMID: 29241549
  16. The cGAS-STING cascade contributes to antibacterial defense against L. pneumophila in mice and men, and provides important insight into how the common HAQ TMEM173/STING variant affects antimicrobial immune responses and susceptibility to infection. PMID: 29298342
  17. DsbA-L prevents obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance by suppressing the mtDNA release-activated cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway. PMID: 29087318
  18. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae DNA as a Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules triggered I-IFN response, which was STING/TBK1/IRF3 dependent. PMID: 29421524
  19. Intratumoral administration of the STING agonist cyclic di-GMP (CDG) or Flt3 Ligand (Flt3L) augmented the therapeutic effect of systemic triple checkpoint modulation and promoted the cure of 75% of mice with bilateral TRAMP-C2; however, when all agents were administered locally, only CDG mobilized abscopal immunity PMID: 28674082
  20. provide genetic evidence that cell-autonomous control of lentivirus infection in myeloid cells by SAMHD1 limits virus-induced production of interferons and the induction of co-stimulatory markers PMID: 27477283
  21. mouse primary T cells and T leukaemia are hyperresponsive to STING agonist, and this strong STING signalling is associated with apoptosis induction. PMID: 28874664
  22. STING-regulated pathways underlie the pathogenesis of many diseases including infectious diseases and cancers. It has also become evident from these studies that STING is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of cancer. PMID: 26980676
  23. STING activated an antiviral/type I interferon response with live but not killed S. aureus. PMID: 28704551
  24. Data show that stimulator of interferon genes (STING)-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI)-associated STING N153S mutation triggers IRF3-independent immune cell dysregulation and lung disease in mice. PMID: 28951494
  25. These results highlight the crucial role of MFN1 in maintaining the competency of the STING pathway. PMID: 28729291
  26. Findings identify stress-mediated endoplasmic reticulum-phagy as a cell-autonomous response mobilized by STING-dependent sensing of a specific vita-pathogen-associated molecular patterns and elucidate how innate receptors engage multilayered homeostatic mechanisms to promote immunity and survival after infection. PMID: 29056340
  27. to contain the spread of herpes simplex virus type 1 in vivo, STING-dependent signaling leads to the upregulation of tetherin, a viral restriction factor PMID: 26627457
  28. study identifies the AIM2 inflammasome and cGAS/IFI16-STING-type I IFN pathway as a novel mechanism for host innate immunity to the ALVAC vaccine vector. PMID: 28947539
  29. NEMO was critically involved in the cGAS-STING pathway. PMID: 28939760
  30. found that CCCP impairs the interaction between STING and TBK1 and concomitantly triggers mitochondria fission. PMID: 28859978
  31. Yersinia YopJ negatively regulates IRF3-mediated antibacterial response through disruption of STING-mediated cytosolic DNA signaling. PMID: 27742471
  32. study provides evidence of STING activation in T cells, in which STING agonists not only provoke type I IFN production and IFN-stimulated gene expression, mirroring the response of innate cells, but are also capable of activating cell stress and death pathways. PMID: 28615418
  33. demonstrate that in colon tumor model, therapeutic anti-CD47 preferentially relies on STING-mediated DNA sensing in dendritic cells PMID: 28801234
  34. STING is a central mediator of interferon regulated inflammasome activation in Chlamydia trachomatis infection. PMID: 28570638
  35. TRIF and STING interacted directly, through their carboxy-terminal domains, to promote STING dimerization, intermembrane translocation, and signaling. PMID: 27631700
  36. We conclude that the R71H-G230A-R293Q (HAQ) of TMEM173 is a null TMEM173 allele. PMID: 27927967
  37. results show that resistance to HSV-1 in the trigeminal ganglia during acute infection is conferred in part by STING and IFN-alpha/beta signaling in both bone marrow-derived and -resident cells, which coalesce to support a robust HSV-1-specific CD8(+) T cell response PMID: 27511736
  38. results suggest that LSm14A plays an important role in antiviral innate and adaptive immune responses by modulating MITA level in a cell type-specific manner PMID: 27183626
  39. STING and TRIF Contribute to Mouse Sepsis, Depending on Severity of the Disease Model PMID: 27755506
  40. Data suggest that activation of either RIG-I/MAVS or STING pathways during acute intestinal tissue injury in mice resulted in IFN-I signaling that maintained gut epithelial barrier integrity and reduced GVHD severity. PMID: 28424327
  41. this study shows that iRhom2 is essential for STING activity, as it regulates TRAPbeta-mediated translocation and EIF3S5-mediated deubiquitination of STING PMID: 27428826
  42. The mitochondrial damage-cGAS-STING-IRF3 pathway is critically involved in metabolic stress-induced endothelial inflammation. PMID: 28302626
  43. Data show that STING induces tumor cytotoxicity by NK cells through tumor and host immune cell network to contribute to innate surveillance and suppression of tumors in vivo. PMID: 27608599
  44. Results reveal a greater complexity in the role of STING signaling in cancer, underscoring how innate immune pathways in the TME modify tumorigenesis in distinct tumor settings. PMID: 26964621
  45. NLRX1 sequesters the DNA-sensing adaptor STING from interaction with TBK1, which is a requisite for IFN-1 induction in response to viral DNA. PMID: 27078069
  46. Sting protein role in the innate immune response and interferon-stimulated genes response pathway PMID: 26903602
  47. required for chitosan-mediated enhancement of antigen specific Th1 and immunoglobulin G2 responses following vaccination PMID: 26944200
  48. in vitro activation of the AIM2 inflammasome in murine macrophages and dendritic cells leads to reduced activation of the STING pathway, in part through promoting caspase-1-dependent cell death. PMID: 26927800
  49. A STING-dependent, cGAS-independent pathway important for full interferon production and antiviral control of enveloped RNA viruses. PMID: 26893169
  50. These data provide evidence that the N-terminal domain of STING affects DNA responses via control of trafficking PMID: 26685207

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Subcellular Location Endoplasmic reticulum membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Cytoplasm, perinuclear region. Endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Cytoplasmic vesicle, autophagosome membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Mitochondrion outer membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.
Protein Families TMEM173 family
Tissue Specificity Present in spleen and thymus tissue. Also present in dendritic cells (at protein level).
Database Links

KEGG: mmu:72512

STRING: 10090.ENSMUSP00000111393

UniGene: Mm.45995

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